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Medication safety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169088/systematically-investigating-the-impact-of-medication-on-the-gut-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Lisa Maier, Athanasios Typas
In the recent years, there is accumulating evidence for a strong impact of medication on the gut microbiota composition. This evidence comes from metagenomics-based associations and extends beyond classical antibacterials to a handful of human-targeted drugs. To answer whether such effects are direct and explore their consequences in human health, we need to develop experimental platforms that will allow for systematic profiling of drug-microbiota interactions. Here, we discuss approaches, considerations, experimental setups and strategies that can be used to tackle this need, but can be also readily transmitted to related questions in the microbiome field...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169082/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-propofol-as-a-replacement-for-amobarbital-in-intracarotid-wada-testing-of-presurgical-patients-with-epilepsy
#2
Kaci McCleary, Joseph Barrash, Mark Granner, Kenneth Manzel, Audrey Greider, Robert Jones
OBJECTIVE: The intracarotid sodium amytal procedure (the "Wada test") has for many years been the gold standard for language and memory lateralization and remains an important part of presurgical analysis for patients with medically intractable seizures. Due to shortages in the key sedative (amobarbital), neuropsychologists have turned to alternatives such as propofol. Our aim was to investigate the safety and efficacy of propofol relative to amobarbital in the Wada test. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the 97 Wada procedures performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics from 2007 through mid-2015...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168570/specific-immunotherapy-in-lar-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-with-phleum-pratense-subcutaneous-allergen-immunotherapy
#3
Carmen Rondón, Natalia Blanca-López, Paloma Campo, Cristobalina Mayorga, Raquel Jurado-Escobar, Maria J Torres, Gabriela Canto, Miguel Blanca
BACKGROUND: Allergen immunotherapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for local allergic rhinitis (LAR) to house dust mites. Studies with pollen allergen immunotherapy are limited to observational studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Phleum pratense subcutaneous immunotherapy (Phl-SCIT) in LAR. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 56 patients with moderate-severe LAR to grass pollen received Phl-SCIT with a depigmented-polymerized pollen vaccine or placebo for the first year, and Phl-SCIT the second one...
November 23, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168557/probiotics-for-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-in-non-pregnant-women
#4
REVIEW
Huan Yu Xie, Dan Feng, Dong Mei Wei, Ling Mei, Hui Chen, Xun Wang, Fang Fang
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is estimated to be the second most common form of infection after bacterial vaginosis. The ability of probiotics in maintaining and recovering the normal vaginal microbiota, and their potential ability to resist Candidas give rise to the concept of using probiotics for the treatment of VVC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women...
November 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168543/lipid-lowering-therapy-with-pcsk9-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-cardiovascular-high-risk-patients-effectiveness-therapy-adherence-and-safety-in-a-real-world-cohort
#5
Michael Saborowski, Michael Dölle, Michael P Manns, Holger Leitolf, Steffen Zender
BACKGROUND: PCSK9-inhibitors have shown great potential in efficient lipid lowering to achieve low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals. The aim of the study was too describe the clinical use of PCSK9-inhibitors and to investigate therapy adherence and safety outside of clinical trials. METHODS: 38 patients were treated with PSCK9-inhibitors. Patients were eligible for this therapy based on their individual cardiovascular risk and when all other available lipid-lowering regimen had failed...
November 23, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168225/gaba-modulating-phytomedicines-for-anxiety-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Karen Savage, Joseph Firth, Con Stough, Jerome Sarris
Anxiety disorders are chronic and functionally disabling conditions with high psychological stress, characterised by cognitive symptoms of excessive worry and focus difficulties and physiological symptoms such as muscle tension and insomnia. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system and is a key target of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of anxiety. Although current pharmaceutical treatments are often efficacious, they may cause undesirable side effects including cognitive decrements and withdrawal symptoms...
November 23, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168211/factors-associated-with-medication-administration-errors-and-why-nurses-fail-to-report-them
#7
Baraa M Hammoudi, Samantha Ismaile, Omar Abu Yahya
BACKGROUND: Patient safety is a significant challenge facing healthcare systems. The administration of medication is pivotal to patient safety, and errors in drug administration are associated with mortality and morbidity. In this study, we assessed the factors contributing to the occurrence and reporting of medication errors from the nurse's perspective. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we distributed a validated questionnaire to 367 nurses at a large public hospital and obtained a response rate of 73...
November 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167864/hybrid-cartilage-modifying-otoplasty-technique-and-outcomes
#8
Jeffrey Markey, Jess Mace, Yvette Anderson, Tom D Wang
Importance: Otoplasty is performed to correct prominauris, one of the most common head and neck congenital deformities. Advances in combination hybrid approaches enable surgeons to achieve greater precision and accuracy. Objective: To describe a hybrid cartilage-modifying approach and evaluate the procedure's effectiveness and safety. Design, Setting, and Participants: Medical record review including patients undergoing otoplasty by the present technique from January 2006 to December 2016 as performed by the senior author at a tertiary academic referral center...
November 22, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166902/a-national-stakeholder-consensus-study-of-challenges-and-priorities-for-clinical-learning-environments-in-postgraduate-medical-education
#9
Caroline Kilty, Anel Wiese, Colm Bergin, Patrick Flood, Na Fu, Mary Horgan, Agnes Higgins, Bridget Maher, Grainne O'Kane, Lucia Prihodova, Dubhfeasa Slattery, Slavi Stoyanov, Deirdre Bennett
BACKGROUND: High quality clinical learning environments (CLE) are critical to postgraduate medical education (PGME). The understaffed and overcrowded environments in which many residents work present a significant challenge to learning. The purpose of this study was to develop a national expert group consensus amongst stakeholders in PGME to; (i) identify important barriers and facilitators of learning in CLEs and (ii) indicate priority areas for improvement. Our objective was to provide information to focus efforts to provide high quality CLEs...
November 22, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166899/medical-thoracoscopy-for-exudative-pleural-effusion-an-eight-year-experience-from-a-country-with-a-young-population
#10
Merlin Thomas, Wanis H Ibrahim, Tasleem Raza, Kamran Mushtaq, Adeel Arshad, Mushtaq Ahmed, Salma Taha, Saber Al Sarafandi, Hanfa Karim, Hisham A Abdul-Sattar
BACKGROUND: With the exception of areas with high prevalence of tuberculosis, medical thoracoscopy is becoming the diagnostic modality of choice for exudative pleural effusions. The aims of this study were to determine the diagnostic yield and safety of medical thoracoscopy for exudative pleural effusions and ascertain the etiology of such effusions in Qatar. METHODS: This is a retrospective-descriptive study of 407 patients who underwent diagnostic medical thoracoscopy for exudative pleural effusions from January, 2008 till December, 2015 at the only tertiary referral center performing this procedure in Qatar...
November 22, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166828/nurses-systems-thinking-competency-medical-error-reporting-and-the-occurrence-of-adverse-events-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Jee-In Hwang, Hyeoun-Ae Park
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals' systems thinking is emphasized for patient safety. AIMS: To report nurses' systems thinking competency, and its relationship with medical error reporting and the occurrence of adverse events. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey using a previously validated Systems Thinking Scale (STS), was conducted. METHODS: Nurses from two teaching hospitals were invited to participate in the survey...
November 22, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166762/a-portable-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-system-for-the-pancreas-with-3d-electronic-steering-a-preclinical-study-in-a-swine-model
#12
Won Chang, Jae Young Lee, Jae Hwan Lee, Jae Seok Bae, Yeon Jin Cho, Kook Jin Kang, Keonho Son, Yul Ri Chung, Kyoung Bun Lee, Joon Koo Han
Purpose: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a portable, ultrasonography-guided, high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system to treat the pancreas. Methods: Eight swine were included. Using a portable HIFU device (ALPIUS 900, Alpinion Medical Systems), ablations were performed on the pancreas in vivo. Different acoustic intensities were applied (1.7 kW/cm2 or 1.5 kW/cm2 , n=2 [group A for a pilot study]; 1.5 kW/ cm2 , n=3 [group B]; and 1...
October 13, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166720/-long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-abluminal-groove-filled-biodegradable-polymer-sirolimus-eluting-stent-for-the-treatment-of-coronary-de-novo-lesions
#13
C J Li, B Xu, C D Guan, R L Gao
Objective: To compare the long term safety and efficacy of the novel abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent(Firehawk stent) and permanent polymer coating everolimus eluting stent(Xience V stent) for the treatment of coronary de novo lesions. Methods: This prospective, multi-center, non-inferiority, randomized control trial(TARGETⅠ trial) was performed between August 2010 and April 2011, a total of 460 patients with primary, de novo, single vessel and single coronary lesion from 16 medical centers were enrolled...
November 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166440/maternal-complications-and-cesarean-section-without-indication-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Keila Cristina Mascarello, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Mariângela Freitas Silveira
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risks of severe acute maternal complications associated with cesarean section without medical indication. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out with meta-analysis. The literature search was performed systematically, in multiple stages, in the PubMed, Lilacs, and Web of Science databases using the following descriptors: (postpartum period) and (cesarean section or natural childbirth) and ((morbidity or mortality) or (postpartum hemorrhage) or (puerperal infection) or (surgical infection) or (puerperal disorders))...
2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166298/evaluation-of-a-broad-spectrum-partially-automated-adverse-event-surveillance-system-a-potential-tool-for-patient-safety-improvement-in-hospitals-with-limited-resources
#15
Melody Saikali, Alain Tanios, Antoine Saab
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity and resource efficiency of a partially automated adverse event (AE) surveillance system for routine patient safety efforts in hospitals with limited resources. METHODS: Twenty-eight automated triggers from the hospital information system's clinical and administrative databases identified cases that were then filtered by exclusion criteria per trigger and then reviewed by an interdisciplinary team. The system, developed and implemented using in-house resources, was applied for 45 days of surveillance, for all hospital inpatient admissions (N = 1107)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166296/emergency-intubations-in-a-high-volume-pediatric-emergency-department
#16
Jen Heng Pek, Gene Yong-Kwang Ong
INTRODUCTION: Resuscitation of critically ill children can be chaotic, and emergency airway management is often fraught with difficulties. This study aimed to characterize the Singaporean landscape of tracheal intubation in a pediatric emergency unit, placing emphasis on safety outcomes, procedural process of care, and provider training. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases presented to the KK Women's and Children's Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013 with intubation carried out within the pediatric emergency unit was done...
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165939/-importance-of-handoffs-for-patient-safety
#17
Fanny Berlincourt, Dominik Rebell, David Gachoud, Matteo Monti
Handoffs are defined as the transfer of mission specific information and care authority from one healthcare professional to another. Handoffs may create gaps that are especially vulnerable to errors and may have an impact on patient safety. Conceptualising handoffs that are safe gains in importance in medicine with the growing clinical complexity, the reduction of working hours, and a great amount of care fragmentation. Different strategies on the handoff procedure have been identified to improve patient safety...
November 22, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165101/therapeutic-potentials-and-cytochrome-p450-mediated-interactions-involving-herbal-products-indicated-for-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Cyprian Ogbonna Onyeji, Sharon I Igbinoba, Gbola Olayiwola
There has been an increase in the use of herbal products to complement conventional drugs in the treatment of various diseases especially in developing countries. This may be attributable to the relatively cost-effectiveness and ease of accessibility of these products as well as the perception of their safety profiles. However, there are numerous literature reports on herbs altering the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of other co-administered drugs thereby modulating the therapeutic outcomes. The prevalence of diabetes is on a steady increase worldwide and it is now identified as one of the main threats to human health...
November 20, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164528/equivalent-analgesic-effectiveness-between-perineural-and-intravenous-dexamethasone-as-adjuvants-for-peripheral-nerve-blockade-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Nasir Hussain, Tom Van den Langenbergh, Corey Sermer, Manuel L Fontes, Amit Atrey, Naum Shaparin, Tamara R Sawyer, Amaresh Vydyanathan
PURPOSE: Dexamethasone is commonly used as an adjuvant to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blockade; however, uncertainty persists regarding its optimal route of administration and safety. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare the incremental benefits of intravenous (IV) vs perineural (PN) dexamethasone when used as adjuvants for peripheral nerve blockade to improve analgesia. SOURCES: A search strategy was developed to identify eligible articles from the Cochrane and National Library of Medicine databases from inception until June 2017...
November 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164323/safety-of-intranasal-corticosteroid-sprays-during-pregnancy-an-updated-review
#20
REVIEW
Ahmed H Alhussien, Riyadh A Alhedaithy, Saad A Alsaleh
INTRODUCTION: Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are commonly encountered in pregnant women. Intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) sprays are generally safe and effective in the treatment of these conditions in the general population. However, the use of some of these INCS sprays during pregnancy is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature about the safety of intranasal corticosteroid sprays during pregnancy. METHODOLOGY: Using different search engines, each type of INCS was reviewed separately (triamcinolone, beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone propionate, fluticasone furoate, mometasone, and ciclesonide)...
November 21, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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