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elderly journal

Shawneequa L Callier, Rachel Abudu, Maxwell J Mehlman, Mendel E Singer, Duncan Neuhauser, Charlisse Caga-Anan, Georgia L Wiesner
PURPOSE: This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). METHODS: The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies...
November 2016: Bioethics
M Nagai, K Dote, M Kato, S Sasaki, N Oda, E Kagawa, Y Nakano, A Yamane, Y Kubo, T Higashihara, S Miyauchi, W Harada, H Masuda
In a cross-sectional study, visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability was shown to be associated with artery remodelling. Here, we investigated the impact of visit-to-visit BP variability and average BP on the carotid artery remodelling progression in high-risk elderly according to different classes of antihypertension medication use/non-use. BP measurements and carotid ultrasound were performed in the common carotid artery in 164 subjects (mean age 79.7 years at baseline, 74.7% females) with one or more cardiovascular risk factors...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
H Fukasawa, M Kaneko, H Niwa, T Matsuyama, H Yasuda, H Kumagai, R Furuya
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Higher body mass index appears protective in hemodialysis patients, although it remains to be determined which component of muscle or fat mass is primarily associated with this survival advantage. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty-one hemodialysis patients in our institution were prospectively followed from July 2011 to August 2015. Muscle and fat mass were evaluated by measuring the cross-sectional areas of the thigh and abdomen using computed tomography...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kimiko Tomioka, Norio Kurumatani, Hiroshi Hosoi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139065.].
2016: PloS One
Emma Suggett, John Marriott
BACKGROUND: A number of methods exist for the risk assessment of hospital inpatients to determine the likelihood of patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs), including manual review of a patient's medication (medication reviews) and more complex electronic assessment using decision support alerts in electronic prescribing systems. A systematic review was conducted to determine the evidence base for potential risks associated with adult hospital inpatients that could not only lead to medication-related issues but might also be directly associated with pharmacist intervention...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Shan-Shan Shen, Jiao-Jiao Chu, Lei Cheng, Xing-Kun Zeng, Ting He, Li-Yu Xu, Jiang-Ru Li, Xu-Jiao Chen
INTRODUCTION: With a rapidly ageing population, sarcopenic obesity, defined as decreased muscle mass and function combined with increased body fat, is a complex health problem. Although sarcopenic obesity contributes to a decline in physical function and exacerbates frailty in older adults, evidence from clinical trials about the effect of exercise and nutrition on this complex syndrome in Chinese older adults is lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We devised a study protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Cath Jackson, Lisa Dyson, Helen Bedford, Francine M Cheater, Louise Condon, Annie Crocker, Carol Emslie, Lana Ireland, Philippa Kemsley, Susan Kerr, Helen J Lewis, Julie Mytton, Karen Overend, Sarah Redsell, Zoe Richardson, Christine Shepherd, Lesley Smith
BACKGROUND: Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS: (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Annemarie de Vos, Jane-Murray Cramm, Jeroen D H van Wijngaarden, Ton J E M Bakker, Johan P Mackenbach, Anna P Nieboer
BACKGROUND: The Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP) provides a novel approach targeting hospital-related functional decline among elderly patients. Despite the high expectations, the PReCaP was not effective in preventing functional decline (ADL and iADL) among older patients. Although elderly PReCaP patients demonstrated slightly better cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination; 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.6]), lower depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15; -0...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Barbara Rita Porchia, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini, Gugliemo Bonaccorsi, Sara Boccalini
Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
C M R Gonçalves de Carvalho, S M L Ribeiro
We conducted a mini-review of the literature, focusing on aging-related systemic inflammation and its association with vitamin D (VitD). As main findings, data indicate that inflammation in aging seems to have multiple origins, including immunosenescence, and from intestinal and adipose tissue, where VitD may modulate these three factors, through mechanisms not totally known. From the selected studies, three randomized clinical trials of VitD supplementation showed improvements in inflammatory status, whereas two studies did not...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ghazi Chammout, Olle Muren, Henrik Bodén, Mats Salemyr, Olof Sköldenberg
BACKGROUND: Total hip replacement (THR) is the preferred method for the active and lucid elderly patient with a displaced femoral neck fracture (FNF). But controversy still exists regarding using cemented or uncemented stem in these patients. The aim of this study is to compare a cemented and uncemented femoral stem in patients 65-79 years treated surgically with THR for displaced FNF. METHODS/DESIGN: In a single-centre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, we will include 140 patients aged 65-79 years with an acute displaced FNF and randomize them in a 1:1 ratio to a cemented tapered or a uncemented tapered hydroxyapatite - coated femoral stem...
September 20, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Katherine Witte Saylor
On October 30, 2015, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a workshop "Multiple Approaches to Understanding and Preventing Elder Abuse" in Bethesda, Maryland. The workshop brought together experts from across disciplines to discuss research challenges, opportunities, and lessons learned from other fields. Participants included experts in elder abuse, child abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV), emergency medicine, and neuroscience. In this special issue of the Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, participants address topics explored before, during, and after the day-long workshop...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
John Bian
As a standard way for prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), colonoscopy has been used for CRC screening in the United States for more than one decade. An article entitled "Assessing Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence of Medicare Fee-For-Service Beneficiaries Age 76 to 95 Years" recently published at the Journal of Oncology Practice reports the trends in overuse of CRC screening services among average-risk elderly populations at the age of 76-95 years. Several reasons for overusing colonoscopy have been postulated, and some strategies for reducing overuse of CRC screening services have also been proposed...
2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer
Carolina Donat-Vargas, Agneta Åkesson, Marika Berglund, Anders Glynn, Alicja Wolk, Maria Kippler
BACKGROUND: Observational studies on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and hormone-related cancer risk are either inconsistent or lacking. We aimed to assess associations of dietary PCB exposure with breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer risk in middle-aged and elderly women. METHODS: We included 36 777 cancer-free women at baseline in 1997 from the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire...
September 15, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Teresa F Amaral, Alejandro Santos, Rita S Guerra, Ana S Sousa, Luísa Álvares, Rui Valdiviesso, Cláudia Afonso, Patrícia Padrão, Cátia Martins, Graça Ferro, Pedro Moreira, Nuno Borges
BACKGROUND: The population of Portugal is aging. The lack of data on older adults' nutritional status and the lack of nutrition knowledge amongst health professionals, caregivers, and older adults themselves, remains a challenge. OBJECTIVE: The Nutrition UP 65 study aims to reduce nutritional inequalities in the older Portuguese adult population and improve knowledge regarding older Portuguese adults' nutritional status, specifically relating to undernutrition, obesity, sarcopenia, frailty, hydration, sodium, and vitamin D statuses...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Alessandra Larocca, Antonio Palumbo
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
A P Rossi, V Zanandrea, E Zoico, M Zanardo, C Caliari, S Confente, S Gabriele, G Mazzali, F Fantin, M Zamboni
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine changes in physical performance and handgrip strength during hospitalization as well as to evaluate their interrelationship with inflammatory and nutritional status. DESIGN: Data were available on 302 elderly patients with a mean age of 80.83±7.14 years. Handgrip strength, gait speed and chair-stand test were assessed at admission and before discharge. In all subjects, serum CRP values and Mini Nutritional Assessment scores were also evaluated...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
J A Zauszniewski, N Lekhak, C J Burant, M Variath, D L Morris
Nearly 10 million women in the U.S. are caregivers for an elder with dementia, which often produces overwhelming stress and adversely affects their health. Resourcefulness training (RT) may promote the caregiver's optimal health and continue in their caregiving role. This pilot trial of 138 women dementia caregivers examined the effectiveness of RT on perceived stress, depressive cognitions, and negative emotions over time. Caregivers were first randomized to RT or no RT and then further randomized into random versus choice conditions followed by assignment to the journal or recorder methods, thus creating eight groups...
2016: Journal of Family Medicine
Kneginja Richter, Jens Acker, Sophia Adam, Guenter Niklewski
BACKGROUND: Excessive fatigue and insomnia are common among shift workers and can lead to negative effects such as reduced work performance, processing errors, accidents at work, absenteeism, reduced quality of life, and symptoms of depression. Moreover, work in rotating shifts can be a risk factor for different somatic and psychiatric diseases and may contribute to poor health, especially in elder adults and women. This review aims to show non-pharmacological preventive measures against fatigue and insomnia in shift workers...
2016: EPMA Journal
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas
Smoking has serious health effects. Cigarettes, including tobacco, marijuana, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are very effective ways to inhale harmful amounts of fine and ultrafine particulate matter. Does size matter? Yes, indeed! The smaller the particle you inhale, the higher the ability to produce reactive oxygen species and to readily access the brain. In this issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Durazzo provides evidence of an association between active cigarette tobacco smoking in cognitively-normal elders and increased cerebral oxidative stress, while in actively smoking Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the association was also seen with smaller left and total hippocampal volumes...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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