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Tuberculosis treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330673/vacuum-assisted-closure-therapy-of-paradoxical-reaction-in-tuberculous-lymphadenopathy-caused-by-mycobacterium-africanum
#1
H F Geerdes-Fenge, P Pongratz, J Liese, E C Reisinger
A 26-year-old HIV-negative male from Ghana was treated for cervical, intrathoracic and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculous hepatitis. Penetration of the thoracic trachea by a mediastinal lymph node had caused bronchomucosal TB. Sputum culture grew M. africanum, sensitive to all first-line antituberculous drugs. Four weeks after the beginning of directly observed treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, the right cervical lymph node increased in size, liquefied and caused a spontaneous fistula...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330173/seasonal-variations-in-tuberculosis-diagnosis-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-southern-africa-analysis-of-cohort-studies-at-antiretroviral-treatment-programmes
#2
Marie Ballif, Kathrin Zürcher, Stewart E Reid, Andrew Boulle, Matthew P Fox, Hans W Prozesky, Cleophas Chimbetete, Marcel Zwahlen, Matthias Egger, Lukas Fenner
OBJECTIVES: Seasonal variations in tuberculosis diagnoses have been attributed to seasonal climatic changes and indoor crowding during colder winter months. We investigated trends in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis at antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa. SETTING: Five ART programmes participating in the International Epidemiology Database to Evaluate AIDS in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data of 331 634 HIV-positive adults (>15 years), who initiated ART between January 2004 and December 2014...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329967/-prevalence-of-hiv-tuberculosis-co-infection-and-hiv-impact-on-patients-with-tuberculosis-in-the-lubumbashi-health-zone-from-2014%C3%A2-to-2015
#3
E N Wa Ilunga, R K Muya, A A Kaponda, C M A Kaput, S M Kalonji, V B Chiribagula, B N Nshikala, A N N'sasi, J-B L Simbi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are a dangerous couple in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of the co-infection tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS and its impact on issues of tuberculosis patients treated in Lubumbashi Heath Zone (LHZ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective and transversal study was conducted through the analysis of tuberculosis patients' data admitted in the tuberculosis Health Centers for Diagnosis and treatment (HCDT) in the LHZ from January 2014 to December 2015...
January 9, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328498/an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-five-flavonoids-from-stellerachamaejasme-l-in-rat-plasma-and-its-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#4
Yun-Qing Li, Cheng-Jian Li, Lei Lv, Qing-Qing Cao, Xian Qian, Si Wei Li, Hui Wang, Liang Zhao
Stellerachamaejasme L. has been used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of scabies, tinea, stubborn skin ulcers, chronic tracheitis, cancer and tuberculosis. A sensitive and selective ultra-high liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of five flavonoids (stelleranol, chamaechromone, neochamaejasmin A, chamaejasmine and isochamaejasmin) of Stellerachamaejasme L. in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (2...
January 12, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327734/clinical-study-of-extrapulmonary-head-and-neck-tuberculosis-in-an-urban-setting
#5
S Monga, J N Malik, S Jan, S Bahadur, S Jetley, H Kaur
Tuberculosis (TB) of the head and neck region is quite common in endemic countries, but is still misdiagnosed due to its varied presentation and different sites of involvement. The aims of the present study were to present the diversities of presentation of head and neck tuberculosis with the diagnostic predicaments faced during evaluation and to assess treatment response to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). We analysed 48 patients with head and neck tuberculosis who presented to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology in our tertiary care urban hospital over a period of two years from 2013 to 2015 and recorded their data, which included presenting complaints, local and systemic examination findings, investigation results and treatment outcomes...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326332/the-impact-of-digital-health-technologies-on-tuberculosis-treatment-a-systematic-review
#6
Brian Kermu Ngwatu, Ntwali Placide Nsengiyumva, Olivia Oxlade, Benjamin Mappin-Kasirer, Nhat Linh Nguyen, Ernesto Jaramillo, Dennis Falzon, Kevin Schwartzman
Digital technologies are increasingly harnessed to support treatment of persons with tuberculosis (TB). Since in-person directly observed treatment (DOT) can be resource intensive and challenging to implement, these technologies may have the potential to improve adherence and clinical outcomes. We reviewed the effect of these technologies on TB treatment adherence and patient outcomes.We searched several bibliographical databases for studies reporting the effect of digital interventions, including short message service (SMS), video-observed therapy (VOT) and medication monitors (MMs), to support treatment for active TB...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326327/national-roll-out-of-latent-tuberculosis-testing-and-treatment-for-new-migrants-in-england-a-retrospective-evaluation-in-a-high-incidence-area
#7
Miranda G Loutet, Matthew Burman, Nivenka Jayasekera, Duncan Trathen, Susan Dart, Heinke Kunst, Dominik Zenner
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening is an important intervention for tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low-incidence countries and is, therefore, a key component of England's TB control strategy. This study describes outcomes from a LTBI screening programme in a high-incidence area to inform national LTBI screening in England and other low-incidence countries.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of LTBI screening among eligible migrants (from high-incidence countries and entered the UK within the last 5 years), who were identified at primary-care clinics in Newham, London between August 2014 and August 2015...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326000/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-spain-results-obtained-by-the-national-epidemiological-surveillance-network-in-2015
#8
Rosa Cano-Portero, Rocío Amillategui-Dos Santos, Raquel Boix-Martínez, Amparo Larrauri-Cámara
The epidemiological surveillance data for tuberculosis in Spain in 2015 is analysed in this report. This information was gathered through cases reported to the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica [National Epidemiological Surveillance Network]. In addition, the update of the treatment of the cases reported in 2014 is included. The incidence rate of tuberculosis in 2015 was 10.59 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, 10% less than in 2014. This decrease was mainly due to the sustained decreased trend of pulmonary tuberculosis rates, from other locations and in adults, while for cases of tuberculous meningitis and in children the decrease is less marked, with a tendency to stabilization...
January 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325589/catastrophic-total-costs-in-tuberculosis-affected-households-and-their-determinants-since-indonesia-s-implementation-of-universal-health-coverage
#9
Ahmad Fuady, Tanja A J Houweling, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: As well as imposing an economic burden on affected households, the high costs related to tuberculosis (TB) can create access and adherence barriers. This highlights the particular urgency of achieving one of the End TB Strategy's targets: that no TB-affected households have to face catastrophic costs by 2020. In Indonesia, as elsewhere, there is also an emerging need to provide social protection by implementing universal health coverage (UHC). We therefore assessed the incidence of catastrophic total costs due to TB, and their determinants since the implementation of UHC...
January 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325084/metformin-use-reverses-the-increased-mortality-associated-with-diabetes-mellitus-during-tuberculosis-treatment
#10
Nicholas R Degner, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jonathan E Golub, Petros C Karakousis
Background: The global type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) epidemic threatens progress made in reducing tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality worldwide. Previous clinical studies have not fully evaluated potential confounding variables in addressing the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. The antidiabetic agent metformin regulates autophagy and may play a role as a host-directed therapeutic adjuvant to antitubercular treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comprising patients aged ≥13 years undergoing treatment for culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323108/clinical-study-of-tuberculosis-in-the-head-and-neck-region-11-years-experience-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
Pai Pang, Weiyi Duan, Shuchun Liu, Shuang Bai, Yanan Ma, Ruiwu Li, Fayu Liu, Changfu Sun
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and major health concern. Head and neck tuberculosis (HNTB) is relatively rare, but can arise in many regions, including the lymph nodes, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 60 patients diagnosed with HNTB in our department between March 2005 and January 2016. A review and summary of previous HNTB articles published in PubMed since 1885 was also performed. The subjects consisted of 17 males and 43 females, and the average age of patients was 45 ± 14...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322681/gut-microbiome-contributes-to-impairment-of-immunity-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-by-alteration-of-butyrate-and-propionate-producers
#12
Abhijit Maji, Richa Misra, Darshan B Dhakan, Vipin Gupta, Nitish K Mahato, Rituja Saxena, Parul Mittal, Nitin Thukral, Eshan Sharma, Anoop Singh, Richa Virmani, Mohita Gaur, Harshvardhan Singh, Yasha Hasija, Gunjan Arora, Anurag Agrawal, Anil Chaudhry, Jitendra P Khurana, Vineet K Sharma, Rup Lal, Yogendra Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily associated with decline in immune health status. As gut microbiome (GM) is implicated in the regulation of host immunity and metabolism, here we investigate GM alteration in TB patients by 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The study group constituted of patients with pulmonary TB and their healthy household contacts as controls (HCs). Significant alteration of microbial taxonomic and functional capacity was observed in patients with active TB as compared to the HCs...
January 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322464/transcriptional-profiling-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-patient-sputa
#13
Leticia Muraro Wildner, Katherine A Gould, Simon J Waddell
The emergence of drug resistance threatens to destroy tuberculosis control programs worldwide, with resistance to all first-line drugs and most second-line drugs detected. Drug tolerance (or phenotypic drug resistance) is also likely to be clinically relevant over the 6-month long standard treatment for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Transcriptional profiling the response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antimicrobial drugs offers a novel interpretation of drug efficacy and mycobacterial drug-susceptibility that likely varies in dynamic microenvironments, such as the lung...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322158/archaeological-evidence-for-pott-s-disease-on-historical-populations-tomb-05-at-the-roman-circus-maqbara-as-an-example-of-social-solidarity-toledo-spain
#14
Arturo Ruiz-Taboada, Isabel Molero Rodrigo
World societies can often be characterized by their attitude towards elderly and illness. It is well known that most cultures were concerned about those who were not able to produce and take care of themselves. This brings to the development of social processes that involve such individuals within the community, resulting in groups who stick together, and at last, ensuring the survival of the group. The contextualization of many of those social processes might be studied through Physical Anthropology and Paleopathology...
January 10, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322014/protective-effects-of-salep-against-isoniazid-liver-toxicity-in-wistar-rats
#15
Hossein Kargar Jahromi, Morteza Pourahmad, Hassan Ali Abedi, Mohadeseh Karimi, Zahra Kargar Jahromi
Introduction: Isoniazid is a drug for treatment of tuberculosis. One of the main side effects of this drug is hepatotoxicity, which is a major cause of treatment interruption in tuberculosis. This study is about the preventive effect of Salep on this side effect of isoniazid. Materials and methods: This study is an experimental study in which the preventive effect of salep on isoniazid hepatotoxicity is evaluated. In this study 56 rats were randomly placed in 7 eight members groups including: control group, sham, isoniazid and four isoniazid/salep groups...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321721/antigen-85b-peptidomic-analysis-allows-species-specific-mycobacterial-identification
#16
Wei Zhang, Qingbo Shu, Zhen Zhao, Jia Fan, Christopher J Lyon, Adrian M Zelazny, Ye Hu
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-mediated infections are a growing cause of worldwide morbidity, but lack of rapid diagnostics for specific NTM species can delay the initiation of appropriate treatment regimens. We thus examined whether mass spectrometry analysis of an abundantly secreted mycobacterial antigen could identify specific NTM species. Methods: We analyzed predicted tryptic peptides of the major mycobacterial antigen Ag85B for their capacity to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis and three NTM species responsible for the majority of pulmonary infections caused by slow-growing mycobacterial species...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319836/tbc-kan-p%C3%A3-visas-med-pcr-%C3%A2-men-bara-i-direktpositiva-luftv%C3%A3-gsprov
#17
Bodil Jönsson, Elisabet Lönnermark, Malin Ridell
TB can be detected with PCR - but only in smear-positive respiratory samples Unnecessary and inappropriate clinical requests represent a great waste of time and money and may also result in false diagnoses. PCR-techniques, such as Cobas TaqMan MTB, are used for rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB).  These assays are only validated for respiratory specimens, but they are commonly requested also for non-respiratory specimens.  These assays perform well in smear-positive respiratory samples, while the sensitivities are quite unsatisfactory for both respiratory and non-respiratory smear-negatives samples...
January 9, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319042/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-principles-of-management
#18
Rajendra Prasad, Nikhil Gupta, Amitabh Banka
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is human-made problem and emerging due to poor management of TB and is a threat to control of TB. Early suspicion and diagnosis are important. Culture and drug susceptibility testing are gold standards, but newer molecular methods help in rapid diagnosis. Once diagnosed, prompt treatment should be started, preferably under direct observation. Treatment can be standardized or individualized. Conventional regimen takes up to 24 months but recently shorter regimen of up to 12 months was introduced in specific subset of MDR-TB/RR-TB patients...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319026/sequelae-of-pulmonary-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-at-the-completion-of-treatment
#19
Rupak Singla, Manashree Mallick, Parul Mrigpuri, Neeta Singla, Amitesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) mainly focuses on bacteriological cure. However, only limited studies have evaluated the sequelae left after the completion of treatment among MDR-TB patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the persistent symptoms, radiological sequelae, pulmonary function impairment and quality of life at the completion of treatment among MDR-TB patients. METHODS: Forty six MDR-TB patients were enrolled, who completed two years of treatment under programmatic management of Drug Resistant tuberculosis at a tertiary referral institute in Delhi, India...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318438/presumed-tuberculous-uveitis-in-a-university-based-tertiary-referral-center-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Awad Al-Qarni, Marwan A Abouammoh, Abdullah N Almousa, Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar
PURPOSE: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of treatment in patients with presumed tuberculous uveitis (PTU). METHODS: All patients diagnosed with PTU between January 1996 and March 2013 were reviewed. The diagnosis was made when clinical findings were consistent with possible intraocular tuberculosis, strongly positive purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test result, and response to anti-tuberculous therapy with no other cause of uveitis as suggested by history, symptoms, or ancillary testing...
January 9, 2018: International Ophthalmology
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