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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934422/low-frequency-of-acquired-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-rifampicin-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-setting-of-high-hiv-1-infection-and-tuberculosis-coprevalence
#1
Neesha Rockwood, Frederick Sirgel, Elizabeth Streicher, Robin Warren, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson
Background: We estimated the incidence of acquired isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis in a setting of high human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and tuberculosis coprevalence. Methods: GeneXpert MTB/RIF-confirmed patients with rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis were recruited at antituberculosis treatment initiation in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Liquid culture and adherence assessment were performed at 2 and 5-6 months...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934228/knowledge-about-tuberculosis-transmission-and-prevention-and-perceptions-of-health-service-utilization-among-index-cases-and-contacts-in-brazil-understanding-losses-in-the-latent-tuberculosis-cascade-of-care
#2
Flavia Matos Salame, Márcia Danielle Ferreira, Marcia Teresa Belo, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Ricardo Arraes Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Militão de Albuquerque, Philip C Hill, Dick Menzies, Anete Trajman
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis contacts are candidates for active and latent tuberculosis infection screening and eventual treatment. However, many losses occur in the different steps of the contacts' cascade of care. Reasons for this are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the different steps where losses in the contact cascade occur and to explore knowledge and attitudes regarding tuberculosis transmission/prevention and perceptions about tuberculosis services in order to understand the reasons for losses from the tuberculosis service users' perspective...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933298/old-drugs-and-new-targets-as-an-outlook-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis
#3
Jan Zitko, Martin Doležal
Despite of the globally positive trends in epidemiology of tuberculosis, the ever increasing rates of drug-resistant strains are urging to introduce new antituberculars into clinical practice. Development of a new chemical entity from hit to marketed drug is an extremely time and resources consuming process with uncertain outcome. In this review we show that proper research of old drugs can be a very efficient way to new antituberculars. Firstly, we review the recent research on mechanism of action and molecular targets of first-line and second-line antituberculars and suggest how this knowledge can be used to design simple derivatives with improved properties...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933243/drug-targets-in-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-can-the-conquest-against-tuberculosis-become-a-reality
#4
Vivek Kumar Gupta, M Madhan Kumar, Dharmendra Singh, Deepa Bisht, Shweta Sharma
Targeting M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in latent form of infection is a major obstacle and big challenge in tuberculosis (TB) eradication by current chemotherapy. A better understanding of the physiology of Mtb and of the metabolic state of the bacillus during the dormancy, is a primary need in finding drug targets against non replicating persistent (NRP) form of the Mtb. Identification of potential drug targets against dormant state of Mtb is critically important to achieve the goal of complete eradication for shortening of anti-TB therapy...
September 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932979/tuberculous-meningitis-in-children-and-adults-new-insights-for-an-ancient-foe
#5
REVIEW
Alyssa Mezochow, Kiran Thakur, Christopher Vinnard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is the most devastating manifestation of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents a medical emergency. Approximately one half of tuberculous meningitis patients die or suffer severe neurologic disability. The goal of this review will be to review the pathogenic, clinical, and radiologic features of tuberculous meningitis and to highlight recent advancements in translational and clinical science. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacologic therapy includes combination anti-tuberculosis drug regimens and adjunctive corticosteroids...
September 20, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932591/a-case-of-tuberculosis-reactivation-suspected-of-cancer-progression-during-oral-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-in-a-patient-diagnosed-as-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Hwa Young Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Chang Dong Yeo
We report a first case of a patient experiencing reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) during treatment of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 44-year-old male patient visited the hospital with cough. He had been treated with erlotinib (oral TKI) for 8 months after being diagnosed as NSCLC with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in our clinic. At initial chest imaging, the patient had fibroatelectatic calcified granuloma in the right upper lobe (RUL) apex as well as 1...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932351/abdominal-tuberculosis-is-there-a-role-for-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Elroy Patrick Weledji, Benjamin Thumamo Pokam
It is important that surgeons are familiar with the various manifestations of tuberculosis (TB). Although TB has been declining in incidence in the developed world, it remains an important problem in endemic areas of the developing world. The aim of the review was to elucidate the natural history and characteristics of abdominal TB and ascertain the indications for surgery. TB can affect the intestine as well as the peritoneum and the most important aspect of abdominal TB is to bear in mind the diagnosis and obtain histological evidence...
August 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931237/histone-methyltransferase-set8-epigenetically-reprograms-host-immune-responses-to-assist-mycobacterial-survival
#8
Vikas Singh, Praveen Prakhar, R S Rajmani, Kasturi Mahadik, Salik Miskat Borbora, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
NQO1 and TRXR1 are important host reductases implicated in the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. Although the transcriptional machinery governing these processes have been extensively investigated, the associated epigenetic regulatory events remain unclear. Here, we report that SET8, a histone H4 lysine 20 monomethylase (H4K20me1), is highly induced during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection that orchestrates immune evasion strategies through the induction of NQO1 and TRXR1 in vivo. SET8, along with FoxO3a, mediates an active NQO1-PGC1-α complex, which promotes the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype, and assists TRXR1-regulated arrest of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931117/migrant-tuberculosis-patient-needs-and-health-system-response-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#9
Naomi Tschirhart, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
This article aims to identify how the health system in Tak province, Thailand has responded to migrants' barriers to tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Our qualitatively driven multi-methods project utilized focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and a survey of community health volunteers to collect data in 2014 from multiple perspectives. Migrants identified legal status and transportation difficulties as the primary barriers to seeking TB treatment. Lack of financial resources and difficulties locating appropriate and affordable health services in other Thai provinces or across the border in Myanmar further contributed to migrants' challenges...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930979/analysis-of-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-as-a-tool-for-studying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-treatment-in-non-human-primates
#10
Alexander G White, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Jaime A Tomko, L James Frye, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the number one infectious agent in the world today. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, new clinically relevant methods are needed that evaluate the disease process and screen for potential antibiotic and vaccine treatments. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a valuable tool for studying a number of afflictions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammation/infection. Outlined here are a number of strategies that have been employed to evaluate PET/CT images in cynomolgus macaques that are infected intrabronchially with low doses of M...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930287/exposure-to-human-alveolar-lining-fluid-enhances-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-efficacy-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-cd8-t-cell-dependent-manner
#11
J I Moliva, A P Hossfeld, C H Canan, V Dwivedi, M D Wewers, G Beamer, J Turner, J B Torrelles
Current tuberculosis (TB) treatments include chemotherapy and preventative vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In humans, however, BCG vaccination fails to fully protect against pulmonary TB. Few studies have considered the impact of the human lung mucosa (alveolar lining fluid (ALF)), which modifies the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall, revealing alternate antigenic epitopes on the bacterium surface that alter its pathogenicity. We hypothesized that ALF-induced modification of BCG would induce better protection against aerosol infection with M...
September 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928997/neurosyphilis-with-concomitant-cryptococcal-and-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-patient-with-aids-report-of-a-unique-case
#12
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza, Rita N Nwanyanwu
Meningitis in individuals living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is most frequently infectious in origin and usually due to opportunistic infections. The most common pathogens are Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treponema pallidum causes neurosyphilis and can complicate HIV infections at any time after the initial infection. Simultaneous infections of the central nervous system caused by these pathogens are very uncommon even in the setting of severe immunosuppression...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928454/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-pnca-polymorphisms-that-confer-resistance-to-pyrazinamide
#13
Adam N Yadon, Kashmeel Maharaj, John H Adamson, Yi-Pin Lai, James C Sacchettini, Thomas R Ioerger, Eric J Rubin, Alexander S Pym
Tuberculosis chemotherapy is dependent on the use of the antibiotic pyrazinamide, which is being threatened by emerging drug resistance. Resistance is mediated through mutations in the bacterial gene pncA. Methods for testing pyrazinamide susceptibility are difficult and rarely performed, and this means that the full spectrum of pncA alleles that confer clinical resistance to pyrazinamide is unknown. Here, we performed in vitro saturating mutagenesis of pncA to generate a comprehensive library of PncA polymorphisms resultant from a single-nucleotide polymorphism...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928319/effect-of-a-brief-smoking-cessation-intervention-on-adult-tobacco-smokers-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-from-north-india
#14
Sonu Goel, Jeyashree Kathiresan, Preeti Singh, Rana J Singh
BACKGROUND: An association between smoking and poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes has been globally established. Various smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) have been proven worldwide to curb smoking behavior. There is a need for evidence to assess if SCI increases the chance of successful treatment outcome among TB patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a brief SCI; The Ask, Brief, Cessation support (ABC) package, on treatment outcomes and smoking cessation in smear-positive adult pulmonary TB patients...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928173/cohort-profile-of-a-study-on-outcomes-related-to-tuberculosis-and-antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-uganda-design-methods-and-patient-characteristics-of-the-south-study
#15
Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Barbara Castelnuovo, Amrei von Braun, Joseph Musaazi, Daniel Muller, Allan Buzibye, Ursula Gutteck, Lars Henning, Bruno Ledergerber, Natascia Corti, Mohammed Lamorde, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Several factors influence the efficacy of TB treatment by leading to suboptimal drug concentrations and subsequently affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this cohort is to determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and TB treatment outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with new pulmonary TB at the integrated TB-HIV outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled into the study and started on first-line anti-TB treatment...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928098/influence-of-identification-of-contacts-in-adherence-of-index-tuberculosis-cases-to-treatment-in-a-high-incidence-country
#16
Simoni Pimenta de Oliveira, Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho, Sandra Marisa Pelloso, Katiany Rizzieri Caleffi-Ferracioli, Vera Lúcia Dias Siqueira, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Health professionals must interview tuberculosis (TB) index cases to identify and examine their contacts because human interaction favours disease transmission. Revealing their contacts implies the disclosure of their health condition to close friends and family. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the identification of contacts of TB index cases in the outcome of TB treatment. METHODS: This observational, cross-sectional, epidemiological study was conducted using data provided by SINAN-Net on subjects diagnosed with TB between 2008 and 2012 in Paraná, Brazil...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927386/patients-perception-regarding-the-influence-of-individual-and-social-vulnerabilities-on-the-adherence-to-tuberculosis-treatment-a-qualitative-study
#17
Rosiane Davina da Silva, Fernanda Darliane Tavares de Luna, Aguinaldo José de Araújo, Edwirde Luiz Silva Camêlo, Maria Rita Bertolozzi, Paula Hino, Sheylla Nadjane Batista Lacerda, Sayonara Maria Lia Fook, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains an important disease which mainly affects the majority of vulnerable individuals in society, who are subjected to poor living conditions and difficulties to access the services of public health. Under these circumstances, the present study aims to understand patients' perception in relation to the influence of individual and social vulnerabilities on the adherence to tuberculosis treatment. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in one large municipality at the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil...
September 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#18
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922644/temperature-dependent-polymorphism-of-pyrazinamide-an-in-situ-raman-and-dft-study
#19
Poornima Sharma, Rajib Nandi, Debraj Gangopadhyay, Anurag Singh, Ranjan K Singh
The α and γ polymorphs of drug pyrazinamide have been detected with the help of temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic technique. Pyrazinamide is a very useful drug used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and plays a significant role in destroying the dormant tubercle bacilli which are not destroyed by other common TB drugs. Temperature dependent Raman spectra suggest polymorphic phase change from α→γ form of pyrazinamide between 145 and 146°C. In situ Raman spectra of pyrazinamide between 145 and 146°C show the conversion of α→γ form by the shift in CO stretching vibration accompanied by several other changes...
September 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920417/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-contaminated-feed-on-the-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-kidneys-of-piglets
#20
Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, Woong Lee, Jin Young Jeong, Yookyung Lee, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Min Seok Kim, Dong-Woon Kim, Dongjo Yu, Ara Cho, Young Kyoon Oh, Sung Dae Lee
Objective: Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods: Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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