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Mu Chen, Dechun Yin, Shuai Guo, Dong-Zhu Xu, Zhuo Wang, Zhenhui Chen, Michael Rubart-von der Lohe, Shien-Fong Lin, Thomas H Everett, James N Weiss, Peng-Sheng Chen
KEY POINTS: It is unknown if sex difference exists in cardiac apamin sensitive small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ (SK) current (IKAS ). There is no sex difference in IKAS at basal condition. However, there is larger IKAS in female rabbit ventricles than in males during isoproterenol infusion. IKAS activation by isoproterenol leads to action potential triangulation in females, indicating its abundant activation at early phases of repolarization. IKAS activation in females induces negative Ca2+ -voltage coupling and promotes electromechanical discordant phase 2 repolarization alternans...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Sophie Dorothee van der Linden, Margriet Maria Sitskoorn, Geert-Jan Maria Rutten, Karin Gehring
BACKGROUND: Many patients with primary brain tumors suffer from cognitive deficits, which negatively impact their quality of life. However, cognitive rehabilitation programs for these patients are scarce. We developed an iPad-based cognitive rehabilitation program for brain tumor patients, which was based on our effective face-to-face cognitive rehabilitation program. After successful completion of a feasibility study, a randomized controlled trial has been started. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of the iPad-based program on cognitive performance and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with primary brain tumors in an early stage of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Neurosurgery
Ricardo D Bennun, Eduardo Stefano, Luis E Moggi
: Van der Woude syndrome is the most generic form of syndromic orofacial cleft, present in approximately 2% of all cleft patients. The lower lip pits with or without cleft lip and/or palate is typical of this syndrome. Popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS), also known as popliteal web syndrome or fasciogenito-popliteal syndrome, was first described by Trelat in 1869, the incidence is approximately 1 in 300,000 live births. The term PPS was coined by Gorlin et al in 1968 based on the most unusual anomaly, the popliteal pterygium...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Arjan Geersing, Nathalie Ségaud, Monique G P van der Wijst, Marianne G Rots, Gerard Roelfes
Metal coordination complexes can display interesting biological activity, as illustrated by the bleomycins (BLMs), a family of natural antibiotics that when coordinated to a redox-active metal ion, show antitumor activity. Yet, which metal ion is required for the activity in cells is still subject to debate. In this study, we described how different metal ions affect the intracellular behavior and activity of the synthetic BLM-mimic N, N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)- N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine (N4Py). Our study shows that a mixture of iron(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes can be generated when N4Py is added to cell cultures but that the metal ion can also be exchanged by other metal ions present in cells...
June 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Ruben van der Galiën, Rob Ter Heine, Rick Greupink, Stein J Schalkwijk, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Angela Colbers, David M Burger
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and optimal maternal treatment are the most important goals of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with HIV. These goals may be at risk due to possible reduced exposure during pregnancy caused by physiological changes. Limited information is available on the impact of these physiological changes. This is especially true for HIV-integrase inhibitors, a relatively new class of drugs, recommended first-line agents and hence used by a large proportion of HIV-infected patients...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Claus von der Burchard, Felix Treumer, Christoph Ehlken, Stefan Koinzer, Konstantine Purtskhvanidze, Jan Tode, Johann Roider
PURPOSE: Current algorithms for automated computer interpretation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of patients suffering from neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) mostly rely on fluid detection. However, fluid detection itself and correct interpretation of the fluid currently limits diagnostic accuracy. We therefore performed a detailed analysis of the requirements that would have to be met for fluid detection approaches. We further investigated if monitoring retinal volume would be a viable alternative to detect disease activity...
June 18, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
D G Sangiovanni, G K Gueorguiev, A Kakanakova-Georgieva
Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of group III nitrides on graphene heterostructures offers new opportunities for the development of flexible optoelectronic devices and for the stabilization of conceptually-new two-dimensional materials. However, the MOCVD of group III nitrides is regulated by an intricate interplay of gas-phase and surface reactions that are beyond the resolution of experimental techniques. We use density-functional ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) with van der Waals corrections to identify atomistic pathways and associated electronic mechanisms driving precursor/surface reactions during metal organic vapor phase epitaxy at elevated temperatures of aluminum nitride on graphene, considered here as model case study...
June 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Joost van Kordelaar, Jantsje H Pasma, Massimo Cenciarini, Alfred C Schouten, Herman van der Kooij, Christoph Maurer
The vestibular system is involved in gaze stabilization and standing balance control. However, it is unclear whether vestibular dysfunction affects both processes to a similar extent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how the reliance on vestibular information during standing balance control is related to gaze stabilization deficits in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Eleven patients with vestibular dysfunction and twelve healthy subjects were included. Gaze stabilization deficits were established by spontaneous nystagmus examination, caloric test, rotational chair test, and head impulse test...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Nina Berggaard, Mohsen Seifi, Johannes J L van der Want, Jerome D Swinny
GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons provide powerful inhibitory modulation of grid cells in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC LII). However, the molecular machinery through which PV+ cells regulate grid cell activity is poorly defined. PV+ interneurons impart inhibitory modulation primarily via GABA-A receptors (GABAA Rs). GABAA Rs are pentameric ion channels assembled from a repertoire of 19 subunits. Multiple subunit combinations result in a variety of receptor subtypes mediating functionally diverse postsynaptic inhibitory currents...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
F P Chmiel, N Waterfield Price, R D Johnson, A D Lamirand, J Schad, G van der Laan, D T Harris, J Irwin, M S Rzchowski, C-B Eom, P G Radaelli
Vortices, occurring whenever a flow field 'whirls' around a one-dimensional core, are among the simplest topological structures, ubiquitous to many branches of physics. In the crystalline state, vortex formation is rare, since it is generally hampered by long-range interactions: in ferroic materials (ferromagnetic and ferroelectric), vortices are observed only when the effects of the dipole-dipole interaction are modified by confinement at the nanoscale1-3 , or when the parameter associated with the vorticity does not couple directly with strain 4 ...
June 18, 2018: Nature Materials
Xiaoming Wang, Mona Zebarjadi, Keivan Esfarjani
Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) have shown multiple functionalities with great potential in electronics and photovoltaics. Here, we show their potential for solid-state thermionic energy conversion and demonstrate a designing strategy towards high-performance devices. We propose two promising thermionic devices, namely, the p-type Pt-G-WSe2 -G-Pt and n-type Sc-WSe2 -MoSe2 -WSe2 -Sc. We characterize the thermionic energy conversion performance of the latter using first-principles GW calculations combined with real space Green's function (GF) formalism...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wen Y Wu, Joyce H G Lebbink, Roland Kanaar, Niels Geijsen, John van der Oost
Over the last decade, research on distinct types of CRISPR systems has revealed many structural and functional variations. Recently, several novel types of single-polypeptide CRISPR-associated systems have been discovered including Cas12a/Cpf1 and Cas13a/C2c2. Despite distant similarities to Cas9, these additional systems have unique structural and functional features, providing new opportunities for genome editing applications. Here, relevant fundamental features of natural and engineered CRISPR-Cas variants are compared...
July 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Wei Yao, Eryin Wang, Changhua Bao, Yiou Zhang, Kenan Zhang, Kejie Bao, Chun Kai Chan, Chaoyu Chen, Jose Avila, Maria C Asensio, Junyi Zhu, Shuyun Zhou
The interlayer coupling can be used to engineer the electronic structure of van der Waals heterostructures (superlattices) to obtain properties that are not possible in a single material. So far research in heterostructures has been focused on commensurate superlattices with a long-ranged Moiré period. Incommensurate heterostructures with rotational symmetry but not translational symmetry (in analogy to quasicrystals) are not only rare in nature, but also the interlayer interaction has often been assumed to be negligible due to the lack of phase coherence...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mareike Töpperwien, Franziska van der Meer, Christine Stadelmann, Tim Salditt
To quantitatively evaluate brain tissue and its corresponding function, knowledge of the 3D cellular distribution is essential. The gold standard to obtain this information is histology, a destructive and labor-intensive technique where the specimen is sliced and examined under a light microscope, providing 3D information at nonisotropic resolution. To overcome the limitations of conventional histology, we use phase-contrast X-ray tomography with optimized optics, reconstruction, and image analysis, both at a dedicated synchrotron radiation endstation, which we have equipped with X-ray waveguide optics for coherence and wavefront filtering, and at a compact laboratory source...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joan Dallinga, Mark Janssen, Jet van der Werf, Ruben Walravens, Steven Vos, Marije Deutekom
BACKGROUND: A large number of people participate in individual or unorganized sports on a recreational level. Furthermore, many participants drop out because of injury or lowered motivation. Potentially, physical activity-related apps could motivate people during sport participation and help them to follow and maintain a healthy active lifestyle. It remains unclear what the quality of running, cycling, and walking apps is and how it can be assessed. Quality of these apps was defined as having a positive influence on participation in recreational sports...
June 18, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Nienke Hoekstra, Emmanuelle Fleury, Tomas Rodrigo Merino Lara, Peter van der Baan, Andy Bahnerth, Gerson Struik, Mischa Hoogeman, Jean-Philippe Pignol
INTRODUCTION: For early stage breast cancer patients, non-breast cancer mortality including secondary cancers and cardiac events can overshadow the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy. This study evaluates the excess risk of secondary cancer for various breast radiotherapy techniques including accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). METHODS: Secondary cancers Lifetime Attributable Risks (LAR) were calculated using a modified BEIR-VII formalism to account for the specific survival of breast cancer patients...
June 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Jacqueline van der Lee, Ton J E M Bakker, Rose-Marie Dröes
ABSTRACTBackground:Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI) of dementia are important determinants of caregiver burden, while caregiver coping styles and competences can relieve burden. Caregivers differ in coping with the demands made on them and in experienced burden. What changes in caregivers explain recovery from burden, and which caregiver characteristics predict recovery from burden over time, and does treatment make a difference? METHODS: This study into recovery from burden was a secondary analysis of data collected in a formerly conducted randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the integrated reactivation and rehabilitation (IRR) programme in a psychiatric-skilled nursing home, compared to usual care (UC; i...
June 19, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Amber R Emmens, Edwin H F van Asseldonk, Herman van der Kooij
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity exoskeletons are mainly used to provide stepping support, while balancing is left to the user. Designing balance controllers is one of the biggest challenges in the development of exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to design and evaluate a balance controller for a powered ankle-foot orthosis and assess its effect on the standing balance of healthy subjects. METHODS: We designed and implemented a balance controller based on the subject's body sway...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Kate Sitnikova, Rinske Pret-Oskam, Sandra M A Dijkstra-Kersten, Stephanie S Leone, Harm W J van Marwijk, Henriëtte E van der Horst, Johannes C van der Wouden
BACKGROUND: In 2013 the Dutch guideline for management of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) was published. The aim of this study is to assess medical care for patients with persistent MUS as recorded in their electronic medical records, to investigate if this is in line with the national guideline for persistent MUS and whether there are changes in care over time. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of adult primary care patients with MUS. Routinely recorded health care data were extracted from electronic medical records of patients participating in an ongoing randomised controlled trial in 30 general practices in the Netherlands...
June 18, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Gert-Jan van der Heijden, Zhiyue J Wang, Zili D Chu, Morey Haymond, Pieter J J Sauer, Agneta L Sunehag
Hispanic adolescent girls with normal BMI frequently have high body fat %. Without knowledge of body fat content and distribution, their risk for metabolic complications is unknown. We measured metabolic risk indicators and abdominal fat distribution in post-pubertal Hispanic adolescent girls with Normal BMI (N-BMI: BMI < 85th percentile) and compared these indicators between girls with Normal BMI and High Fat content (N-BMI-HF: body fat &ge; 27%; n = 15) and Normal BMI and Normal Fat content (N-BMI-NF: body fat < 27%; n = 8)...
June 15, 2018: Children
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