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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149606/chronic-stress-alters-striosome-circuit-dynamics-leading-to-aberrant-decision-making
#1
Alexander Friedman, Daigo Homma, Bernard Bloem, Leif G Gibb, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Dan Hu, Sebastien Delcasso, Timothy F Truong, Joyce Yang, Adam S Hood, Katrina A Mikofalvy, Dirk W Beck, Norah Nguyen, Erik D Nelson, Sebastian E Toro Arana, Ruth H Vorder Bruegge, Ki A Goosens, Ann M Graybiel
Effective evaluation of costs and benefits is a core survival capacity that in humans is considered as optimal, "rational" decision-making. This capacity is vulnerable in neuropsychiatric disorders and in the aftermath of chronic stress, in which aberrant choices and high-risk behaviors occur. We report that chronic stress exposure in rodents produces abnormal evaluation of costs and benefits resembling non-optimal decision-making in which choices of high-cost/high-reward options are sharply increased...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149541/diagnostic-accuracy-of-serum-mir-122-and-mir-199a-in-women-with-endometriosis
#2
Ahmed M Maged, Wesam S Deeb, Azza El Amir, Sherif S Zaki, Heba El Sawah, Maged Al Mohamady, Ahmed A Metwally, Maha A Katta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of serum microRNA-122 (miR-122) and miR-199a as reliable noninvasive biomarkers in the diagnosis of endometriosis. METHODS: During 2015-2016, at a teaching hospital in Egypt, a prospective cohort study was conducted on 45 women with pelvic endometriosis and 35 women who underwent laparoscopy for pelvic pain but were not diagnosed with endometriosis. Blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) samples were collected; interleukin-6 (IL-6) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and miR-122 and miR-199a expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148732/photocontrolled-release-of-doxorubicin-conjugated-through-a-thioacetal-photocage-in-folate-targeted-nanodelivery-systems
#3
Pamela T Wong, Shengzhuang Tang, Jayme Cannon, Dexin Chen, Rachel Sun, Jennifer Lee, James Phan, Ke Tao, Kang Sun, Biqiong Chen, James R Baker, Seok Ki Choi
Despite their proven ability for precise and targeted release, nanoplatform systems for photocontrolled delivery often face formidable synthetic challenges, in part, due to the paucity of advanced linker strategies. Here we report on a novel linker strategy using a thioacetal ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde (TNB) cage, demonstrating its application for delivery of doxorubicin (Dox) in two nanoscale systems. This photocleavable linker, TNB(OH), which presents two identical arms, each terminated with a hydroxyl functionality, was prepared in a single step from 6-nitroverataldehyde...
November 17, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146880/optogenetic-inhibition-of-striatal-gabaergic-neuronal-activity-improves-outcomes-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#4
Lu Jiang, Wanlu Li, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Yaying Song, Yuanyuan Ma, Meijie Qu, Yifan Lu, Xiaosong He, Jieyu Zheng, Zongjie Fu, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Striatal GABAergic neuron is known as a key regulator in adult neurogenesis. However, the specific role of striatal GABAergic neuronal activity in the promotion of neurological recovery after ischemic stroke remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetic approach to investigate these effects and mechanism. METHODS: Laser stimulation was delivered via an implanted optical fiber to inhibit or activate the striatal GABAergic neurons in Gad2-Arch-GFP or Gad2-ChR2-tdTomato mice (n=80) 1 week after 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146466/causal-mapping-of-emotion-networks-in-the-human-brain-framework-and-initial-findings
#5
Julien Dubois, Hiroyuki Oya, J Michael Tyszka, Matthew Howard, Frederick Eberhardt, Ralph Adolphs
Emotions involve many cortical and subcortical regions, prominently including the amygdala. It remains unknown how these multiple network components interact, and it remains unknown how they cause the behavioral, autonomic, and experiential effects of emotions. Here we describe a framework for combining a novel technique, concurrent electrical stimulation with fMRI (es-fMRI), together with a novel analysis, inferring causal structure from fMRI data (causal discovery). We outline a research program for investigating human emotion with these new tools, and provide initial findings from two large resting-state datasets as well as case studies in neurosurgical patients with electrical stimulation of the amygdala...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146439/risk-stratification-after-paracetamol-overdose-using-mechanistic-biomarkers-results-from-two-prospective-cohort-studies
#6
James W Dear, Joanna I Clarke, Ben Francis, Lowri Allen, Jonathan Wraight, Jasmine Shen, Paul I Dargan, David Wood, Jamie Cooper, Simon H L Thomas, Andrea L Jorgensen, Munir Pirmohamed, B Kevin Park, Daniel J Antoine
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol overdose is common but patient stratification is suboptimal. We investigated the usefulness of new biomarkers that have either enhanced liver specificity (microRNA-122 [miR-122]) or provide mechanistic insights (keratin-18 [K18], high mobility group box-1 [HMGB1], and glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH]). The use of these biomarkers could help stratify patients for their risk of liver injury at hospital presentation. METHODS: Using data from two prospective cohort studies, we assessed the potential for biomarkers to stratify patients who overdose with paracetamol...
November 13, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146158/plasma-microrna-155-5p-is-increased-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-nocturnal-hypertension
#7
Dominika Klimczak, Marek Kuch, Tomasz Pilecki, Dorota Żochowska, Agnieszka Wirkowska, Leszek Pączek
MicroRNAs play multiple roles in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). Nevertheless, to date, no study has assessed the association between microRNA plasma expression and BP control in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Given this background, we evaluated the plasma expression of miR-155-5p, a translational inhibitor of angiotensin receptor type I, in CKD patients, to determine the association between miR-155-5p level and BP control. In this single-center cross-sectional study, we analyzed the miR-155-5p concentration by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using the U6 snRNA as a reference gene and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in CKD patients (stage ≥2) in relation to a control group of healthy age-matched and gender-matched individuals, with normal BP proven by the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring...
October 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145255/functional-polymorphism-rs3783553-in-the-3-untranslated-region-of-il-1a-increased-the-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-a-case-control-study
#8
Peng Wang, Qian He, Chen Liu, Shi Zhen He, Shou Yan Zhu, Ying Wen Li, Wei Su, Shu Tian Xiang, Bo Zhao
Accumulating evidence indicates interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a critical mediator of inflammatory responses in ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether rs3783553 in the 3'-untranslated region of IL-1A was associated with the risk of IS. In this hospital-based case-control study, we genotyped the rs3783553 using polymerase chain reaction in 316 patients with IS and 332 age, sex, and ethnicity-matched controls. Plasma level of IL-1α was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative luciferase activities were measured by the Dual Luciferase assay system...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144992/intracerebroventricular-injection-of-mir-146a-relieves-seizures-in-an-immature-rat-model-of-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#9
Xiaole Wang, Fei Yin, Linhong Li, Huimin Kong, Baiyang You, Weixi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Jing Peng
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common, life-threatening neurological emergency that confers a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SE. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been reported to be an important posttranscriptional inflammation-associated microRNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-146a in SE and the mechanism by which it operates. METHODS: To study the effect of miR-146a in SE, we chose intracerebroventricular injection for rat at 21-28days old, and made a lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE rat model...
November 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143794/berberine-activates-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-but-suppresses-cyp1a1-induction-through-mir-21-3p-stimulation-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Sheng-Nan Lo, Chun-Wei Wang, Yueh-Shieh Chen, Chiung-Chiao Huang, Tian-Shung Wu, Lih-Ann Li, I-Jung Lee, Yune-Fang Ueng
Berberine and the methylenedioxy ring-opening derivatives palmatine and jatrorrhizine are active ingredients in immunomodulatory plants, such as goldenseal. This study aimed to illustrate the effects of protoberberines on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 in the estrogen receptor (ER)α(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Among protoberberines at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≤10 μM), berberine had the most potent and statistically significant effects on AhR activation and CYP1A1/1A2/1B1 mRNA induction...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143228/effect-of-exosome-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-breast-cancer-patients
#11
REVIEW
M Wang, S Ji, G Shao, J Zhang, K Zhao, Z Wang, A Wu
PURPOSE: Exosomes are gradually detected as an indicator for diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer in clinic and a systematic review was conducted. METHODS: A search for clinical studies published before July 1, 2017 was performed. Methods of exosome purification and identification from all studies were extracted. For diagnosis evaluation, the comparison of exosome biomarkers expression between breast cancer patients and healthy women was obtained; for prognosis prediction, the correlation between exosome biomarkers expression and chemotherapy resistance, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer was also extracted...
November 15, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142602/combined-aspirin-and-apatinib-treatment-suppresses-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation
#12
Wei Zhang, Yongsheng Tan, Heping Ma
Gastric cancer (GC), one of the types of tumor most prone to malignancy, is characterized by high lethality. Numerous molecular mediators of GC have been identified, including transcription factors, signaling molecules and non-coding RNAs. Recently, inhibition of angiogenesis has emerged as a potential strategy for GC therapy. In the present study, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and miR-21 in GC patients and individuals without cancer, and the correlation between VEGF and miR-21, and PPARα and miR-21 expression were analyzed...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142298/shaping-bacterial-population-behavior-through-computer-interfaced-control-of-individual-cells
#13
Remy Chait, Jakob Ruess, Tobias Bergmiller, Gašper Tkačik, Călin C Guet
Bacteria in groups vary individually, and interact with other bacteria and the environment to produce population-level patterns of gene expression. Investigating such behavior in detail requires measuring and controlling populations at the single-cell level alongside precisely specified interactions and environmental characteristics. Here we present an automated, programmable platform that combines image-based gene expression and growth measurements with on-line optogenetic expression control for hundreds of individual Escherichia coli cells over days, in a dynamically adjustable environment...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141212/a-central-amygdala-substantia-innominata-neural-circuitry-encodes-aversive-reinforcement-signals
#14
Yuting Cui, Guanghui Lv, Sen Jin, Jie Peng, Jing Yuan, Xiaobin He, Hui Gong, Fuqiang Xu, Tonghui Xu, Haohong Li
Aversive stimuli can impact motivation and support associative learning as reinforcers. However, the neural circuitry underlying the processing of aversive reinforcers has not been elucidated. Here, we report that a subpopulation of central amygdala (CeA) GABAergic neurons expressing protein kinase C-delta (PKC-δ+) displays robust responses to aversive stimuli during negative reinforcement learning. Importantly, projections from PKC-δ+ neurons of the CeA to the substantia innominata (SI) could bi-directionally modulate negative reinforcement learning...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141182/optogenetic-activation-of-5-ht-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-suppresses-seizure-induced-respiratory-arrest-and-produces-anticonvulsant-effect-in-the-dba-1-mouse-sudep-model
#15
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Chang Zeng, Christa Van Dort, Carl L Faingold, Norman E Taylor, Ken Solt, Hua-Jun Feng
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication. Seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) occurs in many witnessed SUDEP patients and animal models as an initiating event leading to death. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying S-IRA will advance the development of preventive strategies against SUDEP. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important modulator for many vital functions, including respiration and arousal, and a deficiency of 5-HT signaling is strongly implicated in S-IRA in animal models, including the DBA/1 mouse...
November 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140901/-state-of-the-art-techniques-in-treating-peripheral-nerve-injury
#16
Carrie A Kubiak, Theodore A Kung, David L Brown, Paul S Cederna, Stephen W P Kemp
BACKGROUND -: Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biologic approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. METHODS -: Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state of the art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140562/urodynamic-measurements-reflect-physiological-bladder-function-in-rats
#17
Marc P Schneider, Andrea M Sartori, Juliane Tampé, Selina Moors, Anne K Engmann, Benjamin V Ineichen, Anna-Sophie Hofer, Martin E Schwab, Thomas M Kessler
AIMS: Our objective was to investigate and compare bladder function in rats assessed by metabolic cage and by urodynamic measurements in fully awake animals. METHODS: Bladder function of female Lewis rats was investigated in naïve animals by metabolic cage at baseline, 14-16 days after bladder catheter and external urethral sphincter electromyography electrode implantation in fully awake animals by urodynamics, and again by metabolic cage. RESULTS: Investigating the same animals (n = 8), voided volume, average flow, and duration of voiding were similar (P > 0...
November 15, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138556/photoactivatable-rnai-for-cancer-gene-therapy-triggered-by-near-infrared-irradiated-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#18
Xueling Ren, Jing Lin, Xuefang Wang, Xiao Liu, Erjuan Meng, Rui Zhang, Yanxiao Sang, Zhenzhong Zhang
The efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi)-based cancer gene therapy is limited by its unexpected side effects, thus necessitating a strategy to precisely trigger conditional gene knockdown. In this study, we engineered a novel photoactivatable RNAi system, named as polyetherimide-modified single-wall carbon nanotube (PEI-SWNT)/pHSP-shT, that enables optogenetic control of targeted gene suppression in tumor cells. PEI-SWNT/pHSP-shT comprises a stimulus-responsive nanocarrier (PEI-SWNT), and an Hsp70B'-promoter-driven RNAi vector (pHSP-shT)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138357/tadalafil-a-long-acting-phosphodiesterase-inhibitor-promotes-bone-marrow-stem-cell-survival-and-their-homing-into-ischemic-myocardium-for-cardiac-repair
#19
Ibrahim Elmadbouh, Muhammad Ashraf
The aim was to evaluate the tadalafil-mediated effects at molecular level on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and their homing into the infarcted hearts to promote cardiac repair and improve function. MSCs were pretreated in vitro with inhibitors of PKG, MAPK, FasL, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (L-NAME), CXCR4 (AMD3100), or miR-21 inhibitors (+/-luciferase construction +/-Fas) prior to tadalafil treatment for 2 h. These MSCs were then subjected to H2O2 stress to assess their injury...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137244/microrna-423-5p-facilitates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-apoptosis-in-renal-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cells-by-targeting-gstm1-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#20
Xiao-Peng Yuan, Long-Shan Liu, Chuan-Bao Chen, Jian Zhou, Yi-Tao Zheng, Xiao-Ping Wang, Ming Han, Chang-Xi Wang
It has been reported that microRNAs (miRs) can regulate renal response to acute injury and members of them are believed to be important in maintenance of renal function and development of renal injury. We investigated the actions of microRNA-423-5p (miR-423-5p) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 after acute kidney injury. MiR-423-5p was up-regulated and GSTM1 was down-regulated in human kidney (HK-2) cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and in rat kidneys subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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