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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785728/ultrafast-capillary-electrophoresis-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-ammonium-and-diphenhydramine-in-pharmaceutical-samples
#1
Brenda M C Costa, Mariana C Marra, Thiago C Oliveira, Rodrigo A A Munoz, Alex D Batista, Claudimir L do Lago, Eduardo M Richter
Ammonium and diphenhydramine are active ingredients commonly found in the same pharmaceutical preparations. We report for the first time a sub-minute method for the simultaneous determination of ammonium and diphenhydramine. The method is based on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. Both analytes can be quantified in a single run (∼80 injections h-1 ) using 30 mmol L-1 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 15 mmol L-1 lithium hydroxide (pH = 6.0) as a background electrolyte...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784942/continuous-addition-of-progenitors-forms-the-cardiac-ventricle-in-zebrafish
#2
Anastasia Felker, Karin D Prummel, Anne M Merks, Michaela Mickoleit, Eline C Brombacher, Jan Huisken, Daniela Panáková, Christian Mosimann
The vertebrate heart develops from several progenitor lineages. After early-differentiating first heart field (FHF) progenitors form the linear heart tube, late-differentiating second heart field (SHF) progenitors extend the atrium and ventricle, and form inflow and outflow tracts (IFT/OFT). However, the position and migration of late-differentiating progenitors during heart formation remains unclear. Here, we track zebrafish heart development using transgenics based on the cardiopharyngeal gene tbx1. Live imaging uncovers a tbx1 reporter-expressing cell sheath that continuously disseminates from the lateral plate mesoderm towards the forming heart tube...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784822/%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-mechanotransduction-dates-back-to-the-common-ancestor-of-cnidaria-and-bilateria
#3
Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Andrew J Aman, Kareem Elsayad, Ulrich Technau
Although the genetic regulation of cellular differentiation processes is well established, recent studies have revealed the role of mechanotransduction on a variety of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression. However, it remains unclear how universal and widespread mechanotransduction is in embryonic development of animals. Here, we investigate mechanosensitive gene expression during gastrulation of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis , a cnidarian model organism. We show that the blastoporal marker gene brachyury is down-regulated by blocking myosin II-dependent gastrulation movements...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784588/brain-stimulation-patterns-emulating-endogenous-thalamocortical-input-to-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-reduce-nociception-in-mice
#4
Yeowool Huh, Dahee Jung, Taeyoon Seo, Sukkyu Sun, Su Hyun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sooyoung Chung, Chong-Hyun Kim, Youngwoo Kwon, Marom Bikson, Yong-An Chung, Jeansok J Kim, Jeiwon Cho
BACKGROUND: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. We then tested if transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) patterned on endogenous nociceptive TC bursting modulate nociceptive behaviors...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783840/discovery-of-melanocortin-ligands-via-a-double-simultaneous-substitution-strategy-based-on-the-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh-2-template
#5
Aleksandar Todorovic, Cody J Lensing, Jerry Ryan Holder, Joseph W Scott, Nicholas B Sorensen, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
The melanocortin system regulates an array of diverse physiological functions including pigmentation, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, cardiovascular regulation, sexual function, and steroidogenesis. Endogenous melanocortin agonist ligands all possess the minimal messaging tetrapeptide sequence His-Phe-Arg-Trp. Based on this endogenous sequence, the Ac-His1-DPhe2-Arg3-Trp4-NH2 tetrapeptide has previously been shown to be a useful scaffold when utilizing traditional positional scanning approaches to modify activity at the various melanocortin receptors (MC1-5R)...
May 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782847/optogenetic-induction-of-colonic-motility-in-mice
#6
Timothy J Hibberd, Jing Feng, Jialie Luo, Pu Yang, Vijay K Samineni, Robert W Gereau, Nigel Kelley, Hongzhen Hu, Nick J Spencer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strategies are needed to increase gastrointestinal transit without systemic pharmacologic agents. We investigated whether optogenetics, focal application of light to control enteric nervous system excitability, could be used to evoke propagating contractions and increase colonic transit in mice. METHODS: We generated transgenic mice with Cre-mediated expression of light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (CHR2) in calretinin neurons (CAL-ChR2 Cre+ mice); Cre- littermates served as controls...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782519/increased-circulating-microrna-122-is-a-biomarker-for-discrimination-and-risk-stratification-in-patients-defined-by-sepsis-3-criteria
#7
Tim Rahmel, Simon T Schäfer, Ulrich H Frey, Michael Adamzik, Jürgen Peters
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is now operationally defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by an infection, identified by an acute change in SOFA-Score of at least two points, including clinical chemistry such as creatinine or bilirubin concentrations. However, little knowledge exists about organ-specific microRNAs as potentially new biomarkers. Accordingly, we tested the hypotheses that micro-RNA-122, the foremost liver-related micro-RNA (miR), 1) discriminates between sepsis and infection, 2) is an early predictor for mortality, and 3) improves the prognostic value of the SOFA-score...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782006/neurovascular-network-explorer-2-0-a-simple-tool-for-exploring-and-sharing-a-database-of-optogenetically-evoked-vasomotion-in-mouse-cortex-in-vivo
#8
Hana Uhlirova, Peifang Tian, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Martin Thunemann, Vishnu B Sridhar, Radim Chmelik, Hauke Bartsch, Anders M Dale, Anna Devor, Payam A Saisan
The importance of sharing experimental data in neuroscience grows with the amount and complexity of data acquired and various techniques used to obtain and process these data. However, the majority of experimental data, especially from individual studies of regular-sized laboratories never reach wider research community. A graphical user interface (GUI) engine called Neurovascular Network Explorer 2.0 (NNE 2.0) has been created as a tool for simple and low-cost sharing and exploring of vascular imaging data...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#9
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780583/exploring-local-solvation-environments-of-a-heme-protein-using-the-spectroscopic-reporter-4-cyano-l-phenylalanine
#10
Caroline Kearney, Lukasz T Olenginski, Trexler D Hirn, Gwendolyn D Fowler, Daniyal Tariq, Scott H Brewer, Christine M Phillips-Piro
The vibrational reporter unnatural amino acid (UAA) 4-cyano-l-phenylalanine (pCNF) was genetically incorporated individually at three sites (5, 36, and 78) in the heme protein Caldanaerobacter subterraneus H-NOX to probe local hydration environments. The UAA pCNF was incorporated site-specifically using an engineered, orthogonal tRNA synthetase in E. coli . The ability of all of the pCNF-containing H-NOX proteins to form the ferrous CO, NO, or O2 ligated and unligated states was confirmed with UV-Vis spectroscopy...
April 9, 2018: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780556/integration-of-isothermal-amplification-with-quantum-dot-based-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-for-simultaneous-detection-of-multiple-micrornas
#11
Juan Hu, Ming-Hao Liu, Chun-Yang Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate important physiological processes, and their dysregulation is associated with various human diseases. Simultaneous sensitive detection of multiple miRNAs may facilitate early clinical diagnosis. In this research, we demonstrate for the first time the integration of hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) with quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the simultaneous detection of multiple microRNAs with a single-color QD as the donor and two fluorescent dyes as the acceptors...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780482/an-exploration-of-nucleic-acid-liquid-biopsy-using-a-glucose-meter
#12
Yu Gu, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhi-Feng Huang, Shan-Wen Hu, Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
The development of non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer, characterization of mutation and monitoring treatment response could greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by cancer. Nevertheless, the extremely low amount of cell free nucleic acids makes liquid biopsy a very challenging task. Herein, taking advantage of the pocket size, reliable quantitative results and simple operation of the pocket-sized personal glucose meter (PGM), we report an approach of circulating microRNA-21 (miR-21) detection with high precision and low cost...
April 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780331/a-novel-murine-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-model-and-the-pathogenic-role-of-microrna-21
#13
Shengyang He, Liqiu Li, Shenghua Sun, Zhengpeng Zeng, Junjuan Lu, Lihua Xie
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multi-pathogenesis chronic lung disease. The mechanisms underlying COPD have not been adequately illustrated. Many reseachers argue that microRNAs (miRs) could play a crucial role in COPD. The classic animal model of COPD is both time consuming and costly. This study proposes a novel mice COPD model and explores the role of miR-21 in COPD. A total of 50 wide-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were separated into five euqlly-sized groups-(1) control group (CG), (2) the novel combined method group (NCM, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 28 days combined with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) intraperitoneal injection), (3) the short-term CS exposure group (SCSE, CS exposure for 28 days), (4) the CSE intraperitoneal injection group (CSEII, 28 days CSE intraperitoneal injection), and (5) the long-term CS exposure group (LCSE, CS exposure)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780307/parvalbumin-and-gaba-microcircuits-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#14
Claudio A Villalobos, Qiong Wu, Psyche H Lee, Paul J May, Michele A Basso
The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a sensorimotor midbrain structure responsible for orienting behaviors. Although many SC features are known, details of its intrinsic microcircuits are lacking. We used transgenic mice expressing reporter genes in parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) and gamma aminobutyric acid-positive (GABA+ ) neurons to test the hypothesis that PV+ neurons co-localize GABA and form inhibitory circuits within the SC. We found more PV+ neurons in the superficial compared to the intermediate SC, although a larger percentage of PV+ neurons co-expressed GABA in the latter...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780165/a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-nucleus-acumens-corticotropin-releasing-factor-circuitry-for-neuropathic-pain-increased-susceptibility-to-opioid-reward
#15
Yuanzhong Kai, Yanhua Li, Tingting Sun, Weiwei Yin, Yu Mao, Jie Li, Wen Xie, Shi Chen, Likui Wang, Juan Li, Zhi Zhang, Wenjuan Tao
Recent studies have shown that persistent pain facilitates the response to morphine reward. However, the circuit mechanism underlying this process remains ambiguous. In this study, using chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice, we found that persistent neuropathic pain reduced the minimum number of morphine conditioning sessions required to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. This dose of morphine had no effect on the pain threshold. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is involved in both pain and emotion processing, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expressing neuronal activity was increased in CCI mice...
May 21, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779976/the-discovery-and-preclinical-evaluation-of-bms-707035-a-potent-hiv-1-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor
#16
B Narasimhulu Naidu, Michael A Walker, Margaret E Sorenson, Yasutsugu Ueda, John D Matiskella, Timothy P Connolly, Ira B Dicker, Zeyu Lin, Sagarika Bollini, Brian J Terry, Helen Higley, Ming Zheng, Dawn D Parker, Dedong Wu, Stephen Adams, Mark R Krystal, Nicholas A Meanwell
BMS-707035 is an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) discovered by systematic optimization of N-methylpyrimidinone carboxamides guided by structure-activity relationships (SARs) and the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 10. It was rationalized that the unexpectedly advantageous profiles of N-methylpyrimidinone carboxamides with a saturated C2-substitutent may be due, in part, to the geometric relationship between the C2-substituent and the pyrimidinone core. The single crystal X-ray structure of 10 provided support for this reasoning and guided the design of a spirocyclic series 12 which led to discovery of the morpholino-fused pyrimidinone series 13...
May 14, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779896/all-optical-electrophysiology-for-high-throughput-functional-characterization-of-a-human-ipsc-derived-motor-neuron-model-of-als
#17
Evangelos Kiskinis, Joel M Kralj, Peng Zou, Eli N Weinstein, Hongkang Zhang, Konstantinos Tsioras, Ole Wiskow, J Alberto Ortega, Kevin Eggan, Adam E Cohen
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons are an attractive substrate for modeling disease, yet the heterogeneity of these cultures presents a challenge for functional characterization by manual patch-clamp electrophysiology. Here, we describe an optimized all-optical electrophysiology, "Optopatch," pipeline for high-throughput functional characterization of human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures. We demonstrate the method in a human iPSC-derived motor neuron (iPSC-MN) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779163/discovering-simple-phenylboronic-acid-and-benzoxaborole-derivatives-for-experimental-oncology-phase-cycle-specific-inducers-of-apoptosis-in-a2780-ovarian-cancer-cells
#18
Mateusz Psurski, Agnieszka Łupicka-Słowik, Agnieszka Adamczyk-Woźniak, Joanna Wietrzyk, Andrzej Sporzyński
Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of simple phenylboronic acid and benzoxaborole derivatives as well as to provide preliminary insight into their mode of action in cancer cells in vitro. Methods The antiproliferative activity was assessed in five diverse cancer cell lines via the SRB method (sulforhodamine B) or MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method after 72 h of treatment. Further studies of the mechanism of action consisted of the influence of the compounds on cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction, which was assessed by flow cytometry, caspase-3 enzymatic activity, fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis...
May 19, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779019/small-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-mirna-cargo-are-anti-apoptotic-members-of-the-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype
#19
Lucia Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Ingo Lämmermann, Julie Latreille, Madhusudhan Reddy Bobbili, Vera Pils, Markus Schosserer, Regina Weinmüllner, Hanna Dellago, Susanna Skalicky, Dietmar Pum, Juan Carlos Higareda Almaraz, Marcel Scheideler, Frédérique Morizot, Matthias Hackl, Florian Gruber, Johannes Grillari
Loss of functionality during aging of cells and organisms is caused and accompanied by altered cell-to-cell communication and signalling. One factor thereby is the chronic accumulation of senescent cells and the concomitant senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that contributes to microenvironment remodelling and a pro-inflammatory status. While protein based SASP factors have been well characterized, little is known about small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and their miRNA cargo. Therefore, we analysed secretion of sEVs from senescent human dermal fibroblasts and catalogued the therein contained miRNAs...
May 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779016/integrated-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer-microrna-datasets-identification-of-micrornas-associated-with-tumor-development
#20
Luca Falzone, Letizia Scola, Antonino Zanghì, Antonio Biondi, Antonio Di Cataldo, Massimo Libra, Saverio Candido
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, no effective early diagnostic biomarkers are available for colorectal carcinoma. Therefore, there is a need to discover new molecules able to identify pre-cancerous lesions. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with the onset of specific pathologies, thus the identification of miRNAs associated to colorectal cancer may be used to detect this pathology at early stages. On these bases, the expression levels of miRNAs were analyzed to compare the miRNAs expression levels of colorectal cancer samples and normal tissues in several miRNA datasets...
May 18, 2018: Aging
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