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recurrent clostridium difficile

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216276/national-epidemiology-of-initial-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-veterans-health-administration-from-2003-to-2014
#1
Kelly R Reveles, Kenneth A Lawson, Eric M Mortensen, Mary Jo V Pugh, Jim M Koeller, Jacqueline R Argamany, Christopher R Frei
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies demonstrated marked increases in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the United States (U.S.) in recent years. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of initial and recurrent CDI in a national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) cohort over a 12-year period. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult VHA beneficiaries with CDI (ICD-9-CM code 008.45) plus a positive CDI stool test between October 1, 2002 and September 30, 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208562/microbiological-factors-affecting-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#2
REVIEW
C H Chilton, D S Pickering, J Freeman
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may impact quality of life, leaving patients in a 'rCDI cycle', and dependant on antibiotic therapy. AIMS: This article discusses the importance of microbiological factors in the development of rCDI. SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term "recurrent Clostridium difficile infection"; and further references quoted within these articles...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203364/the-presence-of-il-8-781-t-c-polymorphism-is-associated-with-the-parameters-of-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Jacek Czepiel, Grażyna Biesiada, Mirosław Dróżdż, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Justyna Żuranska, Jakub Marchewka, William Perucki, Paweł Wołkow, Aleksander Garlicki
PURPOSE: There is large variation in the clinical manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We also still can not predict which patients are more susceptible to reinfection with CDI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of proinflammatory cytokines, specifically IL-1β, IL-8 on the development, clinical course and recurrence of CDI. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of adults (130 people ≥ 18 years) including 65 patients with CDI treated in tertiary hospital and 65 healthy persons...
December 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198534/an-intragastric-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-program-for-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-in-children-is-efficacious-safe-and-inexpensive
#4
David E Brumbaugh, Edwin F De Zoeten, Amy Pyo-Twist, Sara Fidanza, Shannon Hughes, Susan A Dolan, Jason Child, Samuel R Dominguez
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, efficacy, and relative expense of a nurse-led fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) program for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study design in children aged 1-18 years with recurrent CDI. The intervention was an intragastric FMT with stool derived from a donor stool bank. Primary outcome was resolution of diarrhea at 3 months post-transplantation. A secondary analysis compared charge data associated with FMT by intragastric delivery vs administration by colonoscopy or nasoduodenal tube...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190854/-clostridium-difficile-infection-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-therapy-and-prevention
#5
Magnus Kaffarnik, Caroline Isner, Uwe Hamsen
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are common causes of diarrhoea in hospitalised medical and surgical patients. Clinical presentation ranges from mild diarrhoea to pseudomembraneous enterocolitis of the colon and sometimes the small intestines, with development of a toxic megacolon. Recurrent infections are common. Early diagnosis is necessary because of high rates of complications and mortality. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of CDI is recommended. Early initiation of therapy is recommended to avoid complications and standard therapy is antibiotics, while therapy with monoclonal antibodies and vaccination is under research and development...
November 30, 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190320/comparing-the-outcomes-of-adults-with-enterobacteriaceae-bacteremia-receiving-short-course-versus-prolonged-course-antibiotic-therapy-in-a-multicenter-propensity-score-matched-cohort
#6
Darunee Chotiprasitsakul, Jennifer H Han, Sara E Cosgrove, Anthony D Harris, Ebbing Lautenbach, Anna T Conley, Pam Tolomeo, Jacqueleen Wise, Pranita D Tamma
Background: The recommended duration of antibiotic treatment for Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections is 7-14 days. We compared the outcomes of patients receiving short-course (6-10 days) vs prolonged-course (11-16 days) antibiotic therapy for Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 3 medical centers and included patients with monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia treated with in vitro active therapy in the range of 6-16 days between 2008 and 2014...
October 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188472/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-should-screening-be-included-in-the-pre-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-evaluation
#7
Jessica R Allegretti, Zain Kassam, Walter W Chan
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is safe and effective for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) and often involves terminal ileal (TI) stool infusion. Patients report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms post-FMT despite rCDI resolution. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) screening is not routinely performed pre-FMT. The effect of donor/recipient SIBO status on FMT outcomes and post-FMT GI symptoms is unclear. We aim to evaluate the value of pre-FMT SIBO screening on post-FMT outcomes and symptoms...
November 29, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183720/contemporary-applications-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-intestinal-diseases-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
The intestinal microbiota comprise an important organ that plays a vital role in host digestion, development, energy maintenance, hemostasis, and immunity. Disruption of the gut microbial community due to diet, lifestyle, or antibiotic exposure increases susceptibility to chronic infection and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the transfer of gut microbiota from a healthy donor to a patient in order to restore normal diversity and function of the microbial community. This method has become a well established alternative therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183074/effect-of-oral-capsule-vs-colonoscopy-delivered-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Dina Kao, Brandi Roach, Marisela Silva, Paul Beck, Kevin Rioux, Gilaad G Kaplan, Hsiu-Ju Chang, Stephanie Coward, Karen J Goodman, Huiping Xu, Karen Madsen, Andrew Mason, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Juan Jovel, Jordan Patterson, Thomas Louie
Importance: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). However, it is not known whether clinical efficacy differs by route of delivery. Objective: To determine whether FMT by oral capsule is noninferior to colonoscopy delivery in efficacy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Noninferiority, unblinded, randomized trial conducted in 3 academic centers in Alberta, Canada...
November 28, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183052/capsules-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-the-new-way-forward-or-a-tough-pill-to-swallow
#10
EDITORIAL
Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young, Preeti N Malani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180448/a-neutralizing-antibody-that-blocks-delivery-of-the-enzymatic-cargo-of-clostridium-difficile-toxin-tcdb-into-host-cells
#11
Heather K Kroh, Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, Zhifen Zhang, Kim Rosenthal, Rob Woods, Xiaofang Jin, Andrew C Nyborg, G Jonah Rainey, Paul Warrener, Roman A Melnyk, Benjamin W Spiller, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and is mediated by the actions of two toxins, TcdA and TcdB. The toxins perturb host cell function through a multi-step process of receptor binding, endocytosis, low pH-induced pore formation, and the translocation and delivery of an N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain (GTD) that inactivates host GTPases. Infection studies with isogenic strains having defined toxin deletions have established TcdB as an important target for therapeutic development...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169816/existing-and-investigational-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-focus-on-narrow-spectrum-microbiota-sparing-agents
#12
REVIEW
H G Maxwell-Scott, S D Goldenberg
Despite intense international attention and efforts to reduce its incidence, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a significant concern for patients, clinicians, and healthcare organizations. It is costly for payers and disabling for patients. Furthermore, recurrent CDI is particularly difficult to manage, resulting in excess mortality, hospital length of stay, and other healthcare resource use. A greater understanding of the role of the gut microbiome has emphasized the importance of this diverse community in providing colonization resistance against CDI...
November 20, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161712/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-nephrology-ward
#13
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157145/clostridium-difficile-treatment-in-neutropenic-patients-clinical-outcomes-of-metronidazole-vancomycin-combinations-and-switch-therapy
#14
Jennifer D Tieu, Sarah A Schmidt, Jamie L Miller, Katherine E Kupiec, Grant H Skrepnek, Connie Liu, Winter J Smith
Background Clostridium difficile infection treatment guidelines exist for immunocompetent patients; however, there is a paucity of data evaluating clinical outcomes and time to C. difficile-associated diarrhea resolution in neutropenic patients. Objective To assess clinical outcomes in neutropenic patients treated with metronidazole, oral vancomycin, the combination of metronidazole plus oral vancomycin, and switch of metronidazole to oral vancomycin. Methods This retrospective, observational cohort study assessed adult neutropenic inpatients with C...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#15
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134299/fecal-transplantation-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-elderly-and-debilitated-patients
#16
Tali Friedman-Korn, Dan Meir Livovsky, Nitsan Maharshak, Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Kalman Paz, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit, Eran Goldin, Benjamin Koslowsky
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new technique recently introduced to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Little is known about the efficacy and risks of FMT in elderly and ill patients. AIM: To investigate FMT efficacy in ill and elderly patients compared to conventional treatment. METHODS: The study comprised two groups of patients between 2012 and 2016 with recurrent CDI at two medical centers in Israel...
November 13, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132405/identifying-predictive-features-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-before-during-and-after-primary-antibiotic-treatment
#17
Sepideh Pakpour, Amit Bhanvadia, Roger Zhu, Abhimanyu Amarnani, Sean M Gibbons, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm, Laura A Martello
BACKGROUND: Colonization by the pathogen Clostridium difficile often occurs in the background of a disrupted microbial community. Identifying specific organisms conferring resistance to invasion by C. difficile is desirable because diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on the human microbiota have the potential to provide more precision to the management and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of adult patients diagnosed with their first CDI...
November 13, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126751/shift-to-community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-national-veterans-health-administration-2003-2014
#18
Kelly R Reveles, Mary Jo V Pugh, Kenneth A Lawson, Eric M Mortensen, Jim M Koeller, Jacqueline R Argamany, Christopher R Frei
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurs frequently in inpatient settings; however, community-onset cases have been reported more frequently in recent years. This study evaluated hospital-onset and community-onset CDI in the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population over a 12-year period. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult VHA beneficiaries with CDI between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2014. Data were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123385/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-elderly-an-update-on-management
#19
REVIEW
Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau
The burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is profound and growing. CDI now represents a common cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. CDI disproportionally affects the elderly, possibly explained by the following risk factors: age-related impairment of the immune system, increasing antibiotic utilization, and frequent health care exposure. In the USA, recent epidemiological studies estimate that two out of every three health care-associated CDIs occur in patients 65 years or older...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120481/medication-exposure-and-risk-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-community-dwelling-older-people-and-nursing-home-residents
#20
John P Haran, Evan Bradley, Emily Howe, Xun Wu, Jennifer Tjia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how medication exposures differ in their association with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) in elderly nursing home (NH) residents and community-dwelling individuals. This study examined these exposures to determine whether the risk of rCDI differs according to living environment. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Academic and community healthcare settings. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older with CDI (N = 616)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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