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recurrent clostridium difficile

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822380/recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-after-diverting-loop-ileostomy-and-colonic-lavage-an-unreported-complication-of-the-novel-surgical-therapy
#1
Anna Z Fashandi, Patty T Wang, Traci L Hedrick, Charles M Friel, R Ann Hays, Peter T Hallowell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811244/comparison-of-the-clinical-course-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-gdh-positive-toxin-negative-patients-diagnosed-by-pcr-to-those-with-a-positive-toxin-test
#2
Julia Origüen, Laura Corbella, María Ángeles Orellana, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Francisco López-Medrano, Rafael San Juan, Manuel Lizasoain, Tamara Ruiz-Merlo, Alejandra Morales-Cartagena, Guillermo Maestro, Patricia Parra, Jennifer Villa, Rafael Delgado, José María Aguado
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential role of PCR-based assays in the overdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by using a validated diagnostic algorithm in daily clinical practice. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating all C. difficile-positive stool samples identified at our institution during a 12-month period, to compare outcomes and recurrence rate between patients with a positive enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B ("toxin-positive group"), with those with GDH-positive, toxin-negative samples in which the diagnosis was made by a positive PCR-based assay ("toxin-/PCR+ group")...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810021/bezlotoxumab-zinplava-for-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805081/bezlotoxumab-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#4
Antoine Couture-Cossette, Alex Carignan, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Louis Valiquette
Clostridium difficile infection is a major economic and clinical burden, due to its high frequency of recurrence. Currently recommended treatments are not efficient for prevention and may contribute to the risk of recurrent infection. In recent years, research has focused on strategies to lessen this risk. Bezlotoxumab is a monoclonal antibody that prevents recurrences of C. difficile infection through the antagonism of toxin B. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the burden of C. difficile infection and its recurrences, the mechanisms underlying the recurrences, and current C...
August 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801119/stability-and-efficacy-of-frozen-and-lyophilized-fecal-microbiota-transplant-fmt-product-in-a-mouse-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi
#5
Zhi-Dong Jiang, Ashley Alexander, Shi Ke, Evangelia M Valilis, Shaofan Hu, Bingjie Li, Herbert L DuPont
Freezing donor fecal microbiota has simplified fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). However, the optimal storage time for the frozen FMT products remains unknown. Using an established murine model of CDI, stability and efficacy of frozen and lyophilized FMT product was studied at time points from 2 months to 15 months. DNA was extracted from fecal samples from the mice with identification of specific bacterial species by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
August 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800598/an-in-silico-evaluation-of-treatment-regimens-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
Natalia Blanco, Betsy Foxman, Anurag N Malani, Min Zhang, Seth Walk, Alexander H Rickard, Marisa C Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant nosocomial infection worldwide, that recurs in as many as 35% of infections. Risk of CDI recurrence varies by ribotype, which also vary in sporulation and germination rates. Whether sporulation/germination mediate risk of recurrence and effectiveness of treatment of recurring CDI remains unclear. We aim to assess the role of sporulation/germination patterns on risk of recurrence, and the relative effectiveness of the recommended tapered/pulsing regimens using an in silico model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791215/clostridium-difficile-infections-in-young-infants-case-presentations-and-literature-review
#7
Gé-Ann Kuiper, Joffrey van Prehn, Wim Ang, Frank Kneepkens, Sophie van der Schoor, Tim de Meij
It has been assumed that symptomatic Clostridium difficile infections do not occur in young infants, as this specific group would lack specific C. difficile toxin receptors. As a consequence, it is often current practice not to test for C. difficile in neonates and young infants up to 2 years of age presenting with (bloody) diarrhea. The evidence to support this is, however, weak and largely based on small, poorly designed animal studies. We present two young infants with recurrent bloody diarrhea following antimicrobial therapy, positive testing for toxigenic C...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782647/host-factors-are-more-important-in-predicting-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-than-ribotype-and-use-of-antibiotics
#8
Yvette H van Beurden, Shabir Nezami, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVE: A frequent complication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether early recurrence risk was higher after infection with ribotype 027 (outbreak strain) compared to infection with endemic strain types of C. difficile METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI between May 2013 and March 2014 were included (outbreak strain, and non-outbreak strains). Patients who developed recurrent CDI within 30 days after completion of CDI treatment, were compared to patients without a recurrence...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776206/healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infections-are-sustained-by-disease-from-the-community
#9
Angus McLure, Archie C A Clements, Martyn Kirk, Kathryn Glass
Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are some of the most common hospital-associated infections worldwide. Approximately 5% of the general population is colonised with the pathogen, but most are protected from disease by normal intestinal flora or immune responses to toxins. We developed a stochastic compartmental model of CDI in hospitals that captures the condition of the host's gut flora and the role of adaptive immune responses. A novel, derivative-based method for sensitivity analysis of individual-level outcomes was developed and applied to the model...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771654/predictors-of-30-day-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
Jayakrishna Chintanaboina, Seyedehsan Navabi, Kristen Suchniak-Mussari, Benjamin Stern, Simranjit Bedi, Erik B Lehman, Andrew Tinsley
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States, with associated annual costs of approximately $3 billion. The epidemiology of CDI has changed with the identification of novel risk factors for incident and recurrent CDI. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CDI. METHODS: We identified all of the patients diagnosed as having CDI from January 2011 to December 2014 at our university-setting hospital...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768452/aetiology-and-clinical-features-of-facial-cellulitis-a-prospective-study
#11
Eivind Rath, Steinar Skrede, Haima Mylvaganam, Trond Bruun
BACKGROUND: In the early 20th century, the face was the predominant site of cellulitis. Despite a relative decrease in the incidence of facial cellulitis, it is still common. There are few studies on this condition during the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe contemporary aetiological and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital with non-suppurative facial cellulitis. METHODS: Patients were included prospectively. Clinical details, comorbidities and biochemistry results were recorded...
August 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764868/modeling-new-immunoregulatory-therapeutics-as-antimicrobial-alternatives-for-treating-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Vida Abedi, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Caroline Stewart, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
The current treatment paradigm in Clostridium difficile infection is the administration of antibiotics contributing to the high rates of recurrent infections. Recent alternative strategies, such as fecal microbiome transplantation and anti-toxin antibodies, have shown similar efficacy in the treatment of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD). However, barriers exist for either treatment or other novel treatments to displace antibiotics as the standard of care. To aid in the comparison of these and future treatments in CDAD, we developed an in silico pipeline to predict clinical efficacy with nonclinical results...
May 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761936/clostridium-difficile-colonizes-alternative-nutrient-niches-during-infection-across-distinct-murine-gut-microbiomes
#13
Matthew L Jenior, Jhansi L Leslie, Vincent B Young, Patrick D Schloss
Clostridium difficile is the largest single cause of hospital-acquired infection in the United States. A major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is prior exposure to antibiotics, as they disrupt the gut bacterial community which protects from C. difficile colonization. Multiple antibiotic classes have been associated with CDI susceptibility, many leading to distinct community structures stemming from variation in bacterial targets of action. These community structures present separate metabolic challenges to C...
July 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760934/next-generation-probiotics-targeting-clostridium-difficile-through-precursor-directed-antimicrobial-biosynthesis
#14
Jennifer K Spinler, Jennifer Auchtung, Aaron Brown, Prapaporn Boonma, Numan Oezguen, Caná L Ross, Ruth Ann Luna, Jessica Runge, James Versalovic, Alex Peniche, Sara M Dann, Robert A Britton, Anthony Haag, Tor C Savidge
Integration of antibiotic and probiotic therapy has the potential to lessen the public health burden to antimicrobial-associated diseases. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents an important example where rational design of next generation probiotics is being actively pursued to prevent disease recurrence. Because intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant CDI antibiotics (vancomycin, metronidazole, and fidaxomicin) is a desired trait in such probiotic species, we screened several bacteria and identified Lactobacillus reuteri as a promising candidate for adjunct therapy...
July 31, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754222/outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infected-patients-managed-in-a-common-isolation-unit-compared-with-isolation-in-their-bed-of-diagnosis
#15
Dante Alí García-Lecona, Elvira Garza-González, Magaly Padilla-Orozco, Lidia Mendoza-Flores, Samatha Flores-Treviño, Soraya Mendoza-Olazaran, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
Cohorting Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients is a strategy which has not been thoroughly evaluated. We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of CDI patients treated in a common isolation unit (CIU) versus those treated in their bed of diagnosis. Patients treated in the CIU showed lower mortality rates and antibiotic usage; however, a higher recurrence rate was reported.
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748314/the-present-status-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-its-value-in-the-elderly
#16
REVIEW
Yao-Wen Cheng, Monika Fischer
OPINION STATEMENT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will review current literature describing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of various diseases, and its potential role in elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years). RECENT FINDINGS: Research on FMT has blossomed in the last decade and its pivotal role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been recognized by the American College of Gastroenterology in the latest guidelines...
July 26, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747056/fecal-transplantation-as-a-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Marta Izquierdo Romero, Pilar Varela Trastoy, Alejo Mancebo Mata
Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is currently the most frequent etiology of nosocomial diarrhea. Besides, its incidence is progressively increasing in ambulatory patients. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a risk factor of CD infection itself, but also due to the regular immunosuppressive treatment used in these patients. At the present time, fecal transplantation (FT) is a safe and cost-effective alternative if the previous antibiotic treatments have failed. Similar outcomes between patients with IBD and general population have been reported...
July 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744822/magnitude-and-direction-of-the-association-between-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-adults-and-pediatric-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Tadayuki Oshima, Liping Wu, Min Li, Hirokazu Fukui, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a cause of increased morbidity and health care costs among hospitalized patients. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are mainly used for the treatment of acid-related upper gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the risks associated with initial and recurrent CDI in adult and pediatric patients treated with PPIs. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using PubMed (Medline), Embase, and Web of Science with the following search terms: ("proton pump inhibitor," "PPI," or "acid suppression") AND ("infection," "diarrhea," "diarrhoea," "colitis," or "disease") AND ("Clostridium difficile")...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730660/bezlotoxumab-a-novel-agent-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Wesley D Kufel, Aaron S Devanathan, Ashley H Marx, David J Weber, Lindsay M Daniels
Over the last decade, the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have significantly increased, leading to a rise in CDI-associated hospitalizations, health care costs, and mortality. Although treatment options exist for CDI, recurrence is frequent following treatment. Furthermore, patients with at least one CDI recurrence are at an increased risk of developing additional recurrences. A novel approach to the prevention of recurrent CDI is the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the toxins responsible for CDI as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment...
July 21, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716810/clinicians-should-assess-the-benefits-and-risks-of-using-bezlotoxumab-for-reducing-the-risk-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Habiba Hassouna, Abhishek Deshpande
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
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