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recurrent clostridium difficile

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029221/analysis-of-clostridium-difficile-biofilms-imaging-and-antimicrobial-treatment
#1
Garth A James, Laurent Chesnel, Laura Boegli, Elinor deLancey Pulcini, Steve Fisher, Philip S Stewart
Background: Clostridium difficile, a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, is the most common causative agent of healthcare-associated diarrhoea. Formation of biofilms may protect C. difficile against antibiotics, potentially leading to treatment failure. Furthermore, bacterial spores or vegetative cells may linger in biofilms in the gut causing C. difficile infection recurrence. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of four antibiotics (fidaxomicin, surotomycin, vancomycin and metronidazole) in penetrating C...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026601/complications-effectiveness-and-long-term-follow-up-of-fecal-microbiota-transfer-by-nasoduodenal-tube-for-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Yvette H van Beurden, Pieter F de Groot, Els van Nood, Max Nieuwdorp, Josbert J Keller, Abraham Goorhuis
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but data on procedure-related complications and long-term outcome are scarce. METHODS: All patients treated with FMT for recurrent CDI at the Academic Medical Center between July 2010 and January 2016 were included. FMT was performed according to the FECAL trial protocol: administration of fresh donor feces (related or unrelated donor) through a duodenal tube after pre-treatment with vancomycin and bowel lavage...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020328/early-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-improves-survival-in-severe-clostridium-difficile-infections
#3
Marie Hocquart, Jean Christophe Lagier, Nadim Cassir, Nadia Saidani, Carole Eldin, Jad Kerbaj, Marion Delord, Camille Valles, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
Background: Severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are associated with a high mortality rate despite medical and/or surgical treatment. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) prevents recurrences, but its effect on survival has been shown only in O27 ribotype CDI patients. Here, we investigated whether early FMT could improve survival in hospitalized CDI patients, particularly those with severe infection. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study between May 2013 and April 2016 at the infectious diseases department of the North University Hospital of Marseille, France...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020255/mini-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-mini-fmt-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-proctitis-following-total-colectomy
#4
Robert Orenstein, Kara King, Roberto L Patron, John K DiBaise, David Etzioni
Rarely, in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection, the rectal stump is persistently infected following total abdominal colectomy. We report cure of a septic patient with proctitis by fecal microbiota transplant via rectal swabs (mini-FMT). This novel procedure offers a management option for recurrent CDI following total abdominal colectomy.
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020222/antimicrobial-resistance-gene-acquisition-and-depletion-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-fmt-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Victor Leung, Caroline Vincent, Thaddeus Edens, Mark Miller, Amee R Manges
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be a novel approach to eliminate multidrug-resistant bacteria from the gut and to prevent future infections. Using whole metagenome sequencing data from eight FMT donor-recipient pairs, we identified 37 and 95 antimicrobial resistance genes that were acquired by or removed from FMT recipients, respectively.
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020210/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-reduces-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection-frequency
#6
Raseen Tariq, Darrell S Pardi, Pritish K Tosh, Randall C Walker, Raymund R Razonable, Sahil Khanna
Broad-spectrum antibiotics for recurrent multidrug-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) disrupt the gut microbiome and promote antibiotic resistance. Fecal microbiota transplantation led to resolution of recurrent Clostridium difficile, significantly decreased recurrent UTI frequency, and improved antibiotic susceptibility profile of UTI-causing organisms.
July 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986313/impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-the-nap1-rt027-strain-in-severity-and-recurrence-during-an-outbreak-and-transition-to-endemicity-in-a-mexican-tertiary-care-center
#7
Karla María Tamez-Torres, Pedro Torres-González, Francisco Leal-Vega, Ariana García-Alderete, Norma Irene López García, Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes and factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to the ribotype 027 (RT027) and recurrence, including an outbreak period, with transition to endemicity. METHOD: We performed a case-control study. We collected clinical and demographic data for patients with CDI from January 2008 to December 2015, performed ribotyping of isolates, and PCR for Toxin A, B, and binary. RESULTS: Among 324 CDI episodes, 27...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980505/clostridium-difficile-infection-new-approaches-to-prevention-non-antimicrobial-treatment-and-stewardship
#8
Maria Adriana Cataldo, Guido Granata, Nicola Petrosillo
Despite the large amount of scientific publications exploring the epidemiology and the clinical management of Clostridium difficile (CD) infection, some issues remain unsolved or need further studies. The aim of this review is to give an update on the hot topics on CD prevention, including stewardship programs, and on the non-microbiological treatment of CD infection. Areas covered: This article will review the importance of minimizing the CD spore shedding in the healthcare environment for potentially reducing CD transmission...
October 5, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961980/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-probiotics-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-pico
#9
Anna K Barker, Megan Duster, Susan Valentine, Timothy Hess, Laurie Archbald-Pannone, Richard Guerrant, Nasia Safdar
Background: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infections, responsible for >450 000 infections annually in the USA. Probiotics provide a promising, well-tolerated adjunct therapy to standard C. difficile infection (CDI) treatment regimens, but there is a paucity of data regarding their effectiveness for the treatment of an initial CDI. Objectives: We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of 33 participants from February 2013 to February 2015 to determine the feasibility and health outcomes of adjunct probiotic use in patients with an initial mild to moderate CDI...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961905/surotomycin-versus-vancomycin-in-adults-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-primary-clinical-outcomes-from-the-second-pivotal-randomized-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#10
P Daley, T Louie, J E Lutz, S Khanna, U Stoutenburgh, M Jin, A Adedoyin, L Chesnel, D Guris, K B Larson, Y Murata
Background: The available treatment options for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are limited by high recurrence rates. Surotomycin was a novel bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide in development to treat CDI that demonstrated non-inferiority to vancomycin in a Phase 2 trial. Objectives: To assess surotomycin safety and clinical response (non-inferiority versus vancomycin) at the end of treatment (EOT) of CDI. Additionally, to assess surotomycin response over time and sustained response at 30-40 days post-EOT (superiority versus vancomycin)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960437/safety-and-efficacy-of-biologic-agents-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-after-liver-transplantation
#11
Suhail A Shaikh, Linda Stuckey, Sarah Tischer
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) frequently progresses to end-stage liver disease and cirrhosis, requiring liver transplantation. Approximately 70% of patients with PSC have concomitant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during their clinical course. After liver transplantation for PSC, corticosteroids and other high-intensity immunosuppressants are initiated to keep IBD in remission. Patients with IBD that is refractory to these agents may need to be managed with biologic therapies. Biologic agents, however, may further increase the risks for malignancy and infection due their immunosuppressive effects...
September 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957972/process-and-outcome-of-fecal-microbiota-transplants-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-prospective-study
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957971/process-and-outcome-of-fecal-microbiota-transplants-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-prospective-study
#13
Janice Walton, Denise Burns, Kay E Gaehle
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection is on the rise worldwide, causing high mortality rates and costing patients, hospitals, and insurance companies millions of dollars annually. Fecal microbiota transplants successfully treat recurrent C. difficile infections unresponsive to standard pharmacologic treatment such as flagyl, vancomycin, or rifaximin. Evidence in the literature provided the foundation for the development and refinement of this fecal microbiota transplant protocol. During the initial phase of the project, the protocol included patient selection criteria, donor screening/selection, infection control, fecal processing and delivery, and patient pre and postprocedure education...
September 2017: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946934/the-impact-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-on-patients-prevention-behaviors
#14
Frances M Weaver, William E Trick, Charlesnika T Evans, Michael Y Lin, William Adams, Mai T Pho, Susan C Bleasdale, Kathleen M Mullane, Stuart Johnson, Monica K Sikka, Lance R Peterson, Anthony E Solomonides, Dale N Gerding
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) on patient behaviors following illness. METHODS Using a computer algorithm, we searched the electronic medical records of 7 Chicago-area hospitals to identify patients with RCDI (2 episodes of CDI within 15 to 56 days of each other). RCDI was validated by medical record review. Patients were asked to complete a telephone survey. The survey included questions regarding general health, social isolation, symptom severity, emotional distress, and prevention behaviors...
September 26, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939450/prediction-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-the-bedside-the-geih-cdi-score
#15
Javier Cobo, Esperanza Merino, Cristina Martínez, Alberto Cózar-Llistó, Evelyn Shaw, Teresa Marrodán, Esther Calbo, Elena Bereciartúa, Luis A Sánchez-Muñoz, Miguel Salavert, M Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Dácil García-Rosado, J María Bravo-Ferrer, Juan Gálvez-Acebal, César Henríquez-Camacho, Jordi Cuquet, Berta Pino-Calm, Luis Torres, Antonio Sánchez-Porto, Borja M Fernández-Félix
Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has major consequences for both patients and the health system. The ability to predict which patients are at an increased risk of recurrent CDI makes it possible to select candidates for therapy with new drugs and therapies (including fecal microbiota transplantation) that have proven to reduce the incidence of recurrence of CDI. Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction tool, the GEIH-CDI score, to determine the risk of recurrence of CDI. Predictors of recurrence of CDI were investigated using logistic regression in a prospective cohort of 274 patients diagnosed with CDI...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936948/control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-defined-microbial-communities
#16
James Collins, Jennifer M Auchtung
Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and trying to reduce the ∼29,000 patient deaths in which C. difficile has an attributed role. In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion. One factor contributing to the significant health care burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent CDIs. Recurrent CDI, i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within 8 weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ∼25% of patients, with 35 to 65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932754/hair-growth-in-two-alopecia-patients-after-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#17
Dionne Rebello, Elaina Wang, Eugene Yen, Peter A Lio, Colleen R Kelly
Clostridium difficile infections can be life-threatening but are increasingly being treated successfully with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We report two patients with alopecia universalis who developed subsequent hair regrowth after FMT for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infections. Gut microbiota may have immunomodulatory effects in autoimmune conditions such as alopecia areata, and further study may elucidate disease mechanisms and lead to alternative treatment options for these patients for whom treatment options are currently limited...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930913/the-effect-of-lactoferrin-and-pepsin-treated-lactoferrin-on-iec-6-cell-damage-induced-by-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#18
Kosuke Otake, Norio Sato, Ayako Kitaguchi, Takayuki Irahara, Satoru Murata, Keiichiro Shiraga, Yuichi Ogawa, Takahiro K Fujiwara, Kaoru Koike, Hiroyuki Yokota
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have recently increased worldwide. Some CDI progress to fulminant and recurrent CDI and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. CD produces toxins A and B, which cause intestinal mucosal damage, although toxin B exhibits greater cytotoxicity. Pepsin-treated lactoferrin (PLF) is the decomposed product of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigate the effects of LF and PLF in toxin B-stimulated rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930010/disease-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-adults-hong-kong-china-2006-2014
#19
Jeffery Ho, Rudin Z W Dai, Thomas N Y Kwong, Xiansong Wang, Lin Zhang, Margaret Ip, Raphael Chan, Peter M K Hawkey, Kelvin L Y Lam, Martin C S Wong, Gary Tse, Matthew T V Chan, Francis K L Chan, Jun Yu, Siew C Ng, Nelson Lee, Justin C Y Wu, Joseph J Y Sung, William K K Wu, Sunny H Wong
Cross-sectional studies suggest an increasing trend in incidence and relatively low recurrence rates of Clostridium difficile infections in Asia than in Europe and North America. The temporal trend of C. difficile infection in Asia is not completely understood. We conducted a territory-wide population-based observational study to investigate the burden and clinical outcomes in Hong Kong, China, over a 9-year period. A total of 15,753 cases were identified, including 14,402 (91.4%) healthcare-associated cases and 817 (5...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927251/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-past-present-and-future-perspectives
#20
Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Ianiro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
Gut microbiota is known to play a main role in regulating both health and disease in humans. Strategies for the therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota are therefore expected to give a relevant contribution in the management of disorders associated with its impairment. Among these options, one of the most renowned is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). A growing body of evidence showed clearly that FMT is an effective treatment against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Moreover, it was shown to be a promising therapy for the management of several noncommunicable disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases and metabolic disorders...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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