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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688901/safety-and-efficacy-of-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review
#1
Umair Iqbal, Hafsa Anwar, Muhammad A Karim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The efficacy and safety of freeze-dried encapsulated FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI is unclear. We performed a systematic review to evaluate and analyze the current evidence in this respect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases until December 2017 to identify all original studies that investigated the role of administration of encapsulated FMT in recurrent CDI...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674329/regional-variability-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-practices-a-survey-of-the-southern-ontario-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-movement
#2
Susy S Hota, Salman Surangiwala, Aimee S Paterson, Bryan Coburn, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but little guidance exists for implementation of FMT programs. The objective of this study is to describe the program characteristics and protocols of 9 planned or operating FMT programs in the Southern Ontario Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (SOFT) Movement, to help guide future FMT program implementation. METHODS: A 59-item survey was administered electronically to clinical leads of the SOFT Movement on June 2, 2016...
April 18, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670798/anca-vasculitis-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-following-a-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#3
Adam Amlani, Amy Bromley, Aurore Fifi-Mah
A 69-year-old female with antisynthetase syndrome, a history of multiple recurrent infections, and documented previous negative titres for anti-neutrophil cystoplasmic antibody (ANCA) suddenly developed a de novo MPO-ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis three weeks after a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Six months following her FMT and less than two weeks following treatment for urosepsis, she developed severe cholestasis, a markedly elevated ferritin and hypertriglyceridemia...
2018: Case Reports in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670191/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-reverses-antibiotic-and-chemotherapy-induced-gut-dysbiosis-in-mice
#4
Quentin Le Bastard, Tonya Ward, Dimitri Sidiropoulos, Benjamin M Hillmann, Chan Lan Chun, Michael J Sadowsky, Dan Knights, Emmanuel Montassier
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is now widely used to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but has been less studied as a means to restore microbiome diversity and composition following antibiotic or chemotherapy treatments. The purpose of our study was to assess the efficacy of FMT to reverse antibiotic- and chemotherapy-induced gut dysbiosis in a mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were treated with ampicillin for 1 week and/or received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5-Fluorouracil. Fresh stool was collected and analyzed using shotgun metagenomics and the Illumina sequencing platform...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659753/patient-and-strain-characteristics-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-transmission-and-adverse-outcomes
#5
Jessica S H Martin, David W Eyre, Warren N Fawley, David Griffiths, Kerrie Davies, Damian P C Mawer, Timothy E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: No previous study has used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate risk factors for C. difficile(CD) transmission between symptomatic cases, or assessed the impact of recent acquisition on patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive diarrhoeal samples positive by cytotoxin assay in Leeds, UK(Aug10-Apr12). All samples underwent culture, ribotyping and WGS(Illumina). Sequenced isolates were compared using single nucleotide variants(SNVs)...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655966/secular-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-barcelona-2006-2015-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655671/overreporting-healthcare-associated-c-difficile-a-comparison-of-nhsn-labid-with-clinical-surveillance-definitions-in-the-era-of-molecular-testing
#7
Kathryn Albert, Barbara Ross, David P Calfee, Matthew S Simon
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated gastrointestinal infection. Hospitals are required to report cases of healthcare facility-onset CDI (HO-CDI) using the National Healthcare Safety Network's CDI laboratory-identified (LabID) event definition. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of potential over-reporting due to the exclusion of important clinical data within LabID reporting definitions. METHODS: In 2015, retrospective chart review was performed on 212 HO-CDI cases reported from a large urban medical center...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651860/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-baranya-county-southern-hungary
#8
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have become a major public health challenge. Their epidemiology has radically changed with a significant rise in the number of cases and an increase in severe episodes. Recurrence and failure of conventional treatments are very common. Furthermore, a spread of CDI has emerged in general population without the usual risk factors (unexposed to antibiotic treatment, young people, etc.). The conventional treatments (metronidazole and vancomycin) are still effective and are the first-line antibiotics with new recommendations...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627951/risk-factors-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-israel
#9
Wasef Na'amnih, Amos Adler, Tamar Miller-Roll, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli
To estimate the rate and identified risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) in Israel. We conducted a retro-prospective case-control study of all adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients with an initial episode of CDI (iCDI) at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. We collected demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information for patients who were classified as recurrent (cases) and non-recurrent (control) groups. In total, 648 patients with iCDI were identified in the study...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626003/probable-fidaxomicin-induced-pancytopenia
#10
Samantha Axtell, Aisha Shokoya, Christine Yocum
PURPOSE: A case of pancytopenia in a patient receiving treatment with fidaxomicin for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is described. SUMMARY: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with a chief complaint of loose stools occurring approximately 7 times a day; she also reported fever, nausea, diffuse abdominal pain, and fatigue. The patient had a history of recurrent CDI, recurrent urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, chronic hepatitis C, and endometriosis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617739/results-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-a-rbx2660-a-microbiota-based-drug-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
Erik R Dubberke, Christine H Lee, Robert Orenstein, Sahil Khanna, Gail Hecht, Dale N Gerding
Background: Despite advancements, recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remain an urgent public health threat with insufficient response rates to currently-approved antibiotic therapies. Microbiota-based treatments appear effective, but rigorous clinical trials are required to optimize dosing strategies and substantiate long-term safety. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2B trial (NCT02299570) enrolled adult patients with two or more CDI recurrences to receive: two doses of RBX2660, a standardized microbiota-based drug (Group A); two doses of placebo (Group B); or one dose of RBX2660 followed by one dose of placebo (Group C)...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615987/mutacin-1140-lantibiotic-variants-are-efficacious-against-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Johan A Kers, Robert E Sharp, Anthony W Defusco, Jae H Park, Jin Xu, Mark E Pulse, William J Weiss, Martin Handfield
Lantibiotics offer an untapped pipeline for the development of novel antibiotics to treat serious Gram-positive (+) infections including Clostridium difficile . Mutacin 1140 (MU1140) is a lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus mutans and acts via a novel mechanism of action, which may limit the development of resistance. This study sought to identify a lead compound for the treatment of C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). Compounds were selected from a saturation mutagenesis library of 418 single amino acid variants of MU1140...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606940/successful-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-severe-complicated-clostridium-difficile-infection-after-liver-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Kai Markus Schneider, Theresa H Wirtz, Daniela Kroy, Stefanie Albers, Ulf Peter Neumann, Till Strowig, Gernot Sellge, Christian Trautwein
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most common healthcare-associated infections. Due to increasing numbers of recurrences and therapy failures, CDI has become a major disease burden. Studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can both be a safe and highly efficacious therapy for patients with therapy-refractory CDI. However, patients undergoing solid organ transplantation are at high risk for CDI due to long-term immunosuppression, previous antibiotic therapy, and proton pump inhibitor use...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601446/analysis-of-treatment-outcomes-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#14
Aileen M Aldrich, Taylor Argo, Tracy J Koehler, Rosemary Olivero
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections in the United States, with an increasing incidence in children. Approximately 20% of pediatric patients develop recurrent infections. It's imperative to further analyze the incidence of recurrent CDI in the pediatric population and determine the most effective treatments. The primary goal of this study is to characterize children with recurrent CDI at our institution, including both hospital-acquired (HA-CDI) and community-acquired (CA-CDI) cases, summarize the various treatments utilized, including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), and compare their success rates...
March 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600252/is-a-single-fecal-microbiota-transplant-a-promising-treatment-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Susy S Hota, Susan M Poutanen
Clostridium difficile infection, a common hospital-associated infection, is a gastrointestinal illness that becomes recurrent in about 25% of infected patients. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly supported by clinical trials as an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but a number of questions remain about how it can be optimally performed. In this Perspective, we discuss controversies in FMT methodologies and reporting within randomized controlled trials, all of which may influence clinical outcomes in treated patients...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597352/clostridium-difficile-toxins-a-and-b-decrease-intestinal-slc26a3-protein-expression
#16
Hayley P Coffing, Shubha Priyamvada, Arivarasu Natarajan Anbazhagan, Christine Salibay, Melinda A Engevik, James Versalovic, Mary Beth Yacyshyn, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Sangeeta Tyagi, Seema Saksena, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja
Clostridium difficile infection is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. While C. difficile toxins A and B are the primary mediators of CDI, the overall pathophysiology underlying C. difficile associated diarrhea remains poorly understood. Studies have shown that both NHE3 (Na+ /H+ exchanger) and DRA (Down Regulated in Adenoma, Cl- /HCO3 - exchanger) resulting in decreased electrolyte absorption are implicated in infectious and inflammatory diarrhea. Furthermore, studies have shown that NHE3 is depleted at the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells and down-regulated in patients with CDI, but the role of DRA in C...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570171/factors-associated-with-health-care-utilization-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-new-york-state
#17
Steven N Mathews, Ryan Lamm, Jie Yang, Jihye Park, Demetrios Tzimas, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Aurora Pryor, Mark Talamini, Dana Telem, Juan C Bucobo
BACKGROUND: The incidence of infection due to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and subsequent economic burden are substantial. GOALS: The impact of changing practice patterns on demographics at risk and utilization of health care resources for recurrence of CDI remains unclear. STUDY: A total of 291,163 patients hospitalized for CDI were identified from 1995 to 2014 from the New York SPARCS database. The χ test, the Welch t test, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate factors related to readmission...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545957/refractory-abdominal-pain-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-be-wary-of-acquired-angioedema-due-to-c1-esterase-inhibitor-deficiency
#18
Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Ryan S D'Souza, Joshua Mundorff, Pragya Shrestha, Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Anthony Donato
Acquired angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1INH-AAE) is a rare and potentially fatal syndrome of bradykinin-mediated angioedema characterized by episodes of angioedema without urticaria. It typically manifests with nonpitting edema of the skin and edema in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa or upper airway. Edema of the upper airway and tongue may lead to life-threatening asphyxiation. C1INH-AAE is typically under-diagnosed because of its rarity and its propensity to mimic more common abdominal conditions and allergic reactions...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536125/-treatment-of-acute-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-what-is-new
#19
REVIEW
A von Braun, C Lübbert
The incidence of clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remains on a high level globally. In Germany, the number of severe or even lethal cases continues to increase. The main risk factor for the development of CDI is exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics, which disturb the physiological microbiome and therefore enable colonization with C. difficile. According to the updated US and European guidelines, orally administered vancomycin is the treatment of choice. Fidaxomicin is as effective as vancomycin but has the advantage of a lower rate of recurrence...
March 13, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535530/recent-progress-for-the-effective-prevention-and-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Isobel Ramsay, Nicholas M Brown, David A Enoch
Recurrence occurs in approximately 25% of all cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and poses a unique clinical challenge. Traditionally, treatment options of CDI have been limited to regimes of established antibiotics (eg, pulsed/tapered vancomycin) but faecal transplantation is emerging as a useful alternative. In recent years, promising new strategies have emerged for effective prevention of recurrent CDI (rCDI) including new antimicrobials (eg, fidaxomicin) and monoclonal antibodies (eg, bezlotoxumab)...
2018: Infectious Diseases
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