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Joseph R Fauver, James Weger-Lucarelli, Lawrence S Fakoli, Kpehe Bolay, Fatorma K Bolay, Joseph W Diclaro, Doug E Brackney, Brian D Foy, Mark D Stenglein, Gregory D Ebel
BACKGROUND: Novel surveillance strategies are needed to detect the rapid and continuous emergence of infectious disease agents. Ideally, new sampling strategies should be simple to implement, technologically uncomplicated, and applicable to areas where emergence events are known to occur. To this end, xenosurveillance is a technique that makes use of blood collected by hematophagous arthropods to monitor and identify vertebrate pathogens. Mosquitoes are largely ubiquitous animals that often exist in sizable populations...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Valentina Marino, Rosa Gálvez, Vito Colella, Juliana Sarquis, Rocío Checa, Ana Montoya, Juan P Barrera, Sonia Domínguez, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Domenico Otranto, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: The fruit fly Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae: Steganinae) feeds on the ocular secretions of animals and humans, and has been described as an intermediate host of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae) in Italy. Despite the increased detection of T. callipaeda in many European countries, information about its vector role in natural conditions is still limited. In the Iberian Peninsula, thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda has been reported in dogs, cats, red foxes, wild rabbits and humans...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Stefanos Siozios, Michael Gerth, Joanne S Griffin, Gregory D D Hurst
The inherited bacterium Wolbachia is an important component of the biology of many arthropods. What makes it so common? An analysis of drosophilids revealed one strain host shifts at a surprisingly high rate, infecting eight species in under 30,000 years.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Roberto Pizzolotto, Antonio Mazzei, Teresa Bonacci, Stefano Scalercio, Nino Iannotta, Pietro Brandmayr
The impact of agricultural practices and soil management on the communities of arthropods living in the agricultural landscape is acknowledged as a critical issue by the literature, and it needs to be better investigated to improve the ecological sustainability of agriculture. In the present study, we aimed to study how soil management affect carabid species distribution in one of the most typical agroecosystem of the Mediterranean region, i.e. the olive grove. In South Italy olive plantations feature different types of soil management, from tillage to half- or full-cover cropping...
2018: PloS One
Arunkumar Krishnan, Lakshminarayan M Iyer, Stephen J Holland, Thomas Boehm, L Aravind
AID/APOBEC deaminases (AADs) convert cytidine to uridine in single-stranded nucleic acids. They are involved in numerous mutagenic processes, including those underpinning vertebrate innate and adaptive immunity. Using a multipronged sequence analysis strategy, we uncover several AADs across metazoa, dictyosteliida, and algae, including multiple previously unreported vertebrate clades, and versions from urochordates, nematodes, echinoderms, arthropods, lophotrochozoans, cnidarians, and porifera. Evolutionary analysis suggests a fundamental division of AADs early in metazoan evolution into secreted deaminases (SNADs) and classical AADs, followed by diversification into several clades driven by rapid-sequence evolution, gene loss, lineage-specific expansions, and lateral transfer to various algae...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Natalia M Pukhovskaya, Olga V Morozova, Nelya P Vysochina, Nadejda B Belozerova, Svetlana V Bakhmetyeva, Nina I Zdanovskaya, Stephen J Seligman, Leonid I Ivanov
Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. Different proportions of four main tick species of the family Ixodidae: Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930; Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844; Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi Nuttall et Warburton, 1915 and Dermacentor silvarum Olenev, 1932 were found in forests and near settlements...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Michael G Walsh, Cameron Webb
BACKGROUND: The current understanding of the landscape epidemiology of Ross River virus (RRV), Australia's most common arthropod-borne pathogen, is fragmented due to gaps in surveillance programs and the relatively narrow focus of the research conducted to date. This leaves public health agencies with an incomplete understanding of the spectrum of infection risk across the diverse geography of the Australian continent. The current investigation sought to assess the risk of RRV epidemics based on abiotic and biotic landscape features in anthropogenic landscapes, with a particular focus on the influence of water and wildlife hosts...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca Justine Traub
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) caused by Rickettsia felis is an arthropod-borne zoonosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, primary species and genotype(s) of R. felis infecting fleas from dogs and cats. RESULTS: All fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis. All rickettsial DNA detected in fleas was identified as being 100% homologous to R. felis URRWXCal2, with positivity within tropical, subtropical and temperate regions noted at 6...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Angela Vullo, Marisa Masucci, Antonella Migliazzo, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: Cats can be carriers of infected arthropods and be infected with several vector-borne pathogens (VBP) but there is limited knowledge about their pathogenic role in cats. RESULTS: A cross-sectional controlled study investigated the clinical status and antibody (Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti and Leishmania infantum) and/or blood PCR (Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Natsuki Hemmi, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Koichi Fujimoto, Hiroki Oda
One of the conserved traits of arthropod embryonic development is striped expression of homologs of Drosophila segment polarity genes, including hedgehog (hh). Although a diversity of stripe-forming processes is recognized among arthropod embryos, such varied stripe-forming processes have not been well characterized from cellular and quantitative perspectives. The spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum embryo, which has a hh-dependent mechanism of axis formation, offers a cell-based field where the stripes of Pt-hh (a hh homolog) expression dynamically develop in accordance with axis formation and growth, with the patterning processes varying among the regions of the field...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
Fredy A Rivera-Páez, Thiago F Martins, Paula A Ossa-López, Bruno Rodrigues Sampieri, Maria I Camargo-Mathias
Rickettsiosis are emerging or re-emerging diseases, with a worldwide distribution associated to transmission by arthropod vectors. Rickettsia species belong to the spotted fever group (SFG) and are transmitted by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that may act as vectors and reservoirs. This study carried out a molecular detection of Rickettsia from 7 species of the family Ixodidae collected from domestic hosts by PCR amplification of fragments of the citrate synthase "gltA" gene and outer membrane protein "ompA" gene...
March 9, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Marina Amaral Xavier, Lucas Tirloni, Antônio F M Pinto, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Albert Mulenga, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Adriana Seixas, Carlos Termignoni
Ticks are arthropod ectoparasites of importance for public and veterinary health. The understanding of tick oogenesis and embryogenesis could contribute to the development of novel control methods. However, to date, studies on the temporal dynamics of proteins during ovary development were not reported. In the present study we followed protein profile during ovary maturation. Proteomic analysis of ovary extracts was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using shotgun strategy, in addition to dimethyl labelling-based protein quantification...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroko Ejiri, Chang-Kweng Lim, Haruhiko Isawa, Ryosuke Fujita, Katsunori Murota, Tomomi Sato, Daisuke Kobayashi, Miki Kan, Masashi Hattori, Toshiya Kimura, Yukie Yamaguchi, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Madoka Horiya, Guillermo Posadas-Herrera, Shohei Minami, Ryusei Kuwata, Hiroshi Shimoda, Ken Maeda, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Masayuki Saijo, Koki Kaku, Hiroto Shinomiya, Kyoko Sawabe
The genus Thogotovirus, as represented by Thogoto virus and Dhori virus, comprises a group of arthropod-borne viruses, most members of which are transmitted by ticks. Here we report the genetic and biological characterization of a new thogotovirus, designated Oz virus (OZV), isolated from the hard tick Amblyomma testudinarium in Ehime, Japan. OZV efficiently replicated and induced a cytopathic effect in Vero cells, from which enveloped pleomorphic virus particles were formed by budding. OZV could also replicate in BHK-21 and DH82 cells and caused high mortality in suckling mice after intracerebral inoculation...
March 13, 2018: Virus Research
Evgeny V Yan, Rolf G Beutel, John F Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Gyrinidae are a charismatic group of highly specialized beetles, adapted for a unique lifestyle of swimming on the water surface. They prey on drowning insects and other small arthropods caught in the surface film. Studies based on morphological and molecular data suggest that gyrinids were the first branch splitting off in Adephaga, the second largest suborder of beetles. Despite its basal position within this lineage and a very peculiar morphology, earliest Gyrinidae were recorded not earlier than from the Upper Triassic...
March 16, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Timothy F Vandervoet, Peter C Ellsworth, Yves Carrière, Steven E Naranjo
Conservation biological control can be an effective tactic for minimizing insect-induced damage to agricultural production. In the Arizona cotton system, a suite of generalist arthropod predators provides critical regulation of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (MEAM1) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and other pests. Arthropod predator and B. tabaci populations were manipulated with a range of broad-spectrum and selective insecticide exclusions to vary predator to prey interactions in a 2-yr field study. Predator to prey ratios associated with B...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Santosh Shrestha, Henrik Bak Topbjerg, Nanna Karkov Ytting, Henrik Skovgård, Birte Boelt
BACKGROUND: Multispectral (MS) imaging system is a non-destructive method that has potential in reducing labour and time required for quality control in the production of beneficial arthropods like the parasitoid Bathyplectus curculionis. In Denmark, a project is focusing on possible use of B. curculionis in augmentative control of Hypera weevil pests in white clover seed production where cocoons of the parasitoid remain as a by-product of seed processing. Only a fraction of the by-product contains live parasitoid larvae and requires an effective method for sorting the live cocoons for later augmentative control of the pest...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Thomas Cahon, Robin Caillon, Sylvain Pincebourde
Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation...
March 14, 2018: Insects
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Xiao Hui Xu, Yinghui Guo, Hongwei Sun, Fan Li, Shuke Yang, Rui Gao, Xingbo Lu
Transgenic maize hybrids that express the Aspergillus niger phyA2 gene could significantly improve phosphorus bioavailability to poultry and livestock. However, little information has been reported about the effects of phytase transgenic maize on the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). This study provides valuable information about the physiological, biochemical and gut microflora functional diversity changes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize. The weights, survival rates, in vivo protein contents, activities of two detoxification enzymes and three antioxidant enzymes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize exhibited no significant differences to those fed non-transgenic maize...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chan-Hee Kim, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Maurice R Elphick, Nam Gyu Park
Pedal peptides and orcokinins are structurally related neuropeptides that were first discovered in protostomian invertebrates - mollusks and arthropods, respectively. Recently, pedal peptide/ocokinin (PP/OK)-type neuropeptides were discovered in a deuterostomian phylum, the echinoderms, indicating that the evolutionary origin of this neuropeptide family can be traced back to the common ancestor of bilaterian animals. Sequences comparison of PP/OK-type neuropeptides reveals several conserved residues, including N- and C-terminally located hydrophobic residues that are important for the bioactivity of orcokinin...
March 10, 2018: Peptides
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