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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339191/current-status-and-perspectives-of-fungal-entomopathogens-used-for-microbial-control-of-arthropod-pests-in-brazil
#1
REVIEW
Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Rogerio Biaggioni Lopes, Ítalo Delalibera, Éverton Kort Kamp Fernandes, Christian Luz, Marcos Faria
Entomopathogenic fungi play a central role in Brazil's biopesticide market. Approximately 50% of registered microbial biopesticides comprise mycoinsecticides consisting of hypocrealean fungi, with most based on Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto (s.str.) and Beauveria bassiana (s.str.). These fungi are used to control spittlebugs in sugarcane fields and whiteflies in row crops, respectively, with annual applications surpassing three million hectares. Research in Brazil also emphasizes the potential of fungal entomopathogens to manage arthropod vectors of human diseases...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337662/studies-of-transgenic-mosquitoes-in-disease-endemic-countries-preparation-of-containment-facilities
#2
M Megan Quinlan, James Mutuku Mutunga, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Moussa Namountougou, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Lakamy Sylla, Jonathan Kayondo, Victor Balyesima, Lorna Clark, Mark Q Benedict, Peter Raymond
Novel approaches to area-wide control of vector species offer promise as additional tools in the fight against vectored diseases. Evaluation of transgenic insect strains aimed at field population control in disease-endemic countries may involve international partnerships and should be done in a stepwise approach, starting with studies in containment facilities. The preparations of both new-build and renovated facilities are described, including working with local and national regulations regarding land use, construction, and biosafety requirements, as well as international guidance to fill any gaps in regulation...
January 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336499/ecologically-driven-ultrastructural-and-hydrodynamic-designs-in-stomatopod-cuticles
#3
Lessa Kay Grunenfelder, Garrett Milliron, Steven Herrera, Isaias Gallana, Nicholas Yaraghi, Nigel Hughes, Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt, Pablo Zavattieri, David Kisailus
Ecological pressures and varied feeding behaviors in a multitude of organisms have necessitated the drive for adaptation. One such change is seen in the feeding appendages of stomatopods, a group of highly predatory marine crustaceans. Stomatopods include "spearers," who ambush and snare soft bodied prey, and "smashers," who bludgeon hard-shelled prey with a heavily mineralized club. The regional substructural complexity of the stomatopod dactyl club from the smashing predator Odontodactylus scyllarus represents a model system in the study of impact tolerant biominerals...
January 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336495/acute-toxicity-of-six-neonicotinoid-insecticides-to-freshwater-invertebrates
#4
Melanie Raby, Monica Nowierski, Dmitri Perlov, Xiaoming Zhao, Chunyan Hao, David G Poirier, Paul K Sibley
Neonicotinoids are a group of insecticides commonly used in agriculture. Due to their high water solubility, neonicotinoids can be transported to surface waters and have the potential to be toxic to aquatic life. The present study assessed and compared the acute (48 or 96 h) toxicity of 6 neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to 21 laboratory-cultured and field-collected aquatic invertebrates spanning 10 aquatic arthropod orders. Test conditions mimicked species' habitat, with lentic taxa exposed under static conditions, and lotic taxa using recirculating exposure systems...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332707/cutaneous-hemophagocytosis-clinicopathologic-features-of-21-cases
#5
Francesca Boggio, Viviana Lora, Carlo Cota, Amanda Pereira, Robert Müllegger, Lucia Prieto-Torres, Lorenzo Cerroni
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytosis is well known in cytotoxic cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs), in which it may represent a sign of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome (HLHS), and is also typical of cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease (cRDD) (without prognostic relevance). Only rarely, has cutaneous hemophagocytosis (CH) been described in other skin conditions. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinicopathologic features of CH in skin biopsy specimens from patients with conditions other than CTCL or cRDD...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329399/yield-losses-in-transgenic-cry1ab-and-non-bt-corn-as-assessed-using-a-crop-life-table-approach
#6
Gerson A Silva, Marcelo C Picanço, Lino R Ferreira, Dalton O Ferreira, Elizeu S Farias, Thadeu C Souza, Nilson Rodrigues-Silva, Eliseu José G Pereira
In this study, we constructed crop life tables for Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) Cry1Ab and non-Bt corn hybrids, in which yield-loss factors and abundance of predaceous arthropods were recorded during 2 yr at two locations. Corn kernel/grain was the yield component that had the heaviest losses and that determined the overall yield loss in the corn hybrids across years and locations. Yield losses in both corn hybrids were primarily caused by kernel-destroying insects. Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were the key loss factors at one location, while at the other, the key loss factor was the silk fly larvae, Euxesta spp...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329230/metagenomic-virome-analysis-of-culex-mosquitoes-from-kenya-and-china
#7
Evans Atoni, Yujuan Wang, Samuel Karungu, Cecilia Waruhiu, Ali Zohaib, Vincent Obanda, Bernard Agwanda, Morris Mutua, Han Xia, Zhiming Yuan
Many blood-feeding arthropods are known vectors of viruses that are a source of unprecedented global health concern. Mosquitoes are an integral part of these arthropod vectors. Advancements in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics has expanded our knowledge on the richness of viruses harbored by arthropods. In the present study, we applied a metagenomic approach to determine the intercontinental virome diversity of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Kwale, Kenya and provinces of Hubei and Yunnan in China...
January 12, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327416/comparative-proteomics-studies-of-insect-cuticle-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry-application-of-a-novel-proteomics-approach-to-the-pea-aphid-cuticular-proteins
#8
Masson Victor, Arafah Karim, Voisin Sébastien, Bulet Philippe
The exoskeleton of arthropods, called cuticle, is a biological composite material consisting principally of N-acetylglucosamine polymer embedded in cuticular proteins (CPs). The CPs have been studied and characterized by mass spectrometry in several cuticular structures and in many arthropods. Such analyses were usually carried out by protein extraction using SDS detergent followed by electrophoresis, allowing detection and identification of a large number of CPs. To build a repertoire of cuticular structures from Bombyx mori, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae we avoided the use of SDS and electrophoresis...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325765/a-systematic-investigation-on-the-composition-evolution-and-expression-characteristics-of-chemokine-superfamily-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#9
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Xun Xiao, Jianfei Ji, Jianguo Su
Chemokines are a superfamily of small cytokines and characterized based on their ability to induce directional migration of cells along a concentration gradient by binding to chemokine receptors, which have important roles in immunology and development. Due to the numerous and diverse members, systematic identifications of chemokine superfamily genes are difficult in many species. To that end, a comprehensive analysis of BLAST and scripting language was conducted to systematically identify and characterize chemokine system in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)...
January 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324809/temporal-trends-in-arthropod-abundances-after-the-transition-to-organic-farming-in-paddy-fields
#10
Masaru H Tsutsui, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Tadashi Miyashita
Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324725/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2016
#11
Alexis Burakoff, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Nicole P Lindsey
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324320/first-survey-of-forensically-important-insects-from-human-corpses-in-shiraz-iran
#12
Mohammad D Moemenbellah-Fard, Davood Keshavarzi, Mehran Fereidooni, Aboozar Soltani
The presence of insects on human cadavers has potential judicial value in medicolegal cases. This research emphasized the important role of insects in postmortem decomposition. It was conducted to investigate the composition and abundance of insects from human corpses during autopsies in legal medicine. It was implemented in the city of Shiraz, south Iran. Insects associated with human corpses were carefully collected and put into labelled vials. They were then identified using valid taxonomic keys. Fifteen outdoor (67%) and indoor discovered cadavers were examined...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324047/the-discovery-of-arthropod-specific-viruses-in-hematophagous-arthropods-an-open-door-to-understanding-the-mechanisms-of-arbovirus-and-arthropod-evolution
#13
Charles H Calisher, Stephen Higgs
The discovery of an odd virus from hematophagous arthropods 40 years ago by Stollar and Thomas described cell fusing agent virus in cells derived from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Then came the report of Kamiti River virus from Ae. macintoshi in 1999, followed by worldwide reports of the discovery of other viruses of mosquitoes, ticks, and midges that replicate only in arthropods and not in vertebrates or in vertebrate cells. These viruses (now totaling at least 64 published) have genomes analogous to viruses in various families that include arboviruses and nonarboviruses...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324038/the-evolution-and-metamorphosis-of-arthropod-proteomics-and-genomics
#14
Judith H Willis
This article presents an overview of the development of techniques for analyzing cuticular proteins (CPs), their transcripts, and their genes over the past 50 years based primarily on experience in the laboratory of J.H. Willis. It emphasizes changes in the kind of data that can be gathered and how such data provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect metamorphosis and cuticle structure. It describes the techniques that allowed visualization of the location of CPs at both the anatomical and intracuticular levels and measurement of the appearance and deployment of transcripts from CP genes as well as what was learned from genomic and transcriptomic data...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324037/health-hazards-associated-with-arthropod-infestation-of-stored-products
#15
Jan Hubert, Vaclav Stejskal, Christos G Athanassiou, James E Throne
Insects and mites are common inhabitants and accidental invaders of food, including durable commodities, and their presence can have both direct and indirect effects on human health. The most common direct effect is contamination of food with arthropod fragments and related contaminants, which may be allergenic or even carcinogenic. The most important indirect effect is that their presence can change the storage microenvironment, making durable products suitable for the rapid development of fungi and other microorganisms...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324036/entomological-opportunities-and-challenges-for-sustainable-viticulture-in-a-global-market
#16
Kent M Daane, Charles Vincent, Rufus Isaacs, Claudio Ioriatti
Viticulture has experienced dramatic global growth in acreage and value. As the international exchange of goods has increased, so too has the market demand for sustainably produced products. Both elements redefine the entomological challenges posed to viticulture and have stimulated significant advances in arthropod pest control programs. Vineyard managers on all continents are increasingly combating invasive species, resulting in the adoption of novel insecticides, semiochemicals, and molecular tools to support sustainable viticulture...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322060/geographical-distribution-of-scorpion-odontobuthus-doriae-in-isfahan-province-central-iran
#17
Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri
Background: Scorpions are among the world's venomous arthropods, they sting humans every year, suffering painful symptoms or losing their lives because of the venom. Odontobuthus doriae Thorell 1876 (Arachnida: Scorpionida: Buthidae) is a scorpion of medical importance and therefore its geographical distribution in Isfahan Province has been studied. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed between Mar and Jun in 2012 and 2013 in Province of Isfahan, central Iran...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322054/spatial-distribution-of-medically-important-scorpions-in-north-west-of-iran
#18
Mulood Mohammadi Bavani, Javad Rafinejad, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Shahrokh Navidpour, Farrokh Dabiri, Mehdi Badakhshan, Esmaeil Ghorbani, Masoomeh Bagheri
Background: Scorpions are one of the most important medical arthropods in Iran. This study aimed to determine the fauna, spatial distribution and some morphological characteristics of these venomous arthropods in the study area. Methods: Scorpions were collected using Ultra Violet light, rock rolling and digging methods in West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Ardabil Provinces during 2015-2016. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethyl alcohol and transferred to the laboratory for species identification and morphological studies...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321939/isolation-of-rickettsia-amblyommatis-in-huvec-line
#19
S Santibáñez, A Portillo, A M Palomar, J A Oteo
Rickettsia amblyommatis, formerly named Rickettsia amblyommii and 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is an intracellular bacterium belonging to the spotted fever group Rickettsia. It is highly prevalent in Amblyomma americanum and in other Amblyomma spp. throughout the Western Hemisphere. R. amblyommatis has been cultivated in chicken fibroblast, primary embryonated chicken eggs, Vero cells and arthropod-derived cells. Because of the affinity of rickettsiae to invade vascular endothelial cells, we tried to isolate R...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321899/silicon-amendment-to-rice-plants-contributes-to-reduced-feeding-in-a-phloem-sucking-insect-through-modulation-of-callose-deposition
#20
Lang Yang, Pei Li, Fei Li, Shahbaz Ali, Xiaoqin Sun, Maolin Hou
Silicon (Si) uptake by Poaceae plants has beneficial effects on herbivore defense. Increased plant physical barrier and altered herbivorous feeding behaviors are documented to reduce herbivorous arthropod feeding and contribute to enhanced plant defense. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants contributes to reduced feeding in a phloem feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), through modulation of callose deposition. We associated the temporal dynamics of BPH feeding with callose deposition on sieve plates and further with callose synthase and hydrolase gene expression in plants amended with Si...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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