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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771340/reproductive-manipulators-in-the-bark-beetle-pityogenes-chalcographus-coleoptera-curculionidae-the-role-of-cardinium-rickettsia-spiroplasma-and-wolbachia
#1
Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Belen Marín, Susanne Krumböck, Hannes Schuler, Christian Stauffer
Heritable bacterial endosymbionts can alter the biology of numerous arthropods. They can influence the reproductive outcome of infected hosts, thus affecting the ecology and evolution of various arthropod species. The spruce bark beetle Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was reported to express partial, unidirectional crossing incompatibilities among certain European populations. Knowledge on the background of these findings is lacking; however, bacterial endosymbionts have been assumed to manipulate the reproduction of this beetle...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771322/corrigendum-to-landscape-effects-on-reproduction-of-euschistus-servus-hemiptera-pentatomidae-a-mobile-polyphagous-multivoltine-arthropod-herbivore
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769332/identification-of-plant-virus-receptor-candidates-in-the-stylets-of-their-aphid-vectors
#3
Craig G Webster, Elodie Pichon, Manuella van Munster, Baptiste Monsion, Maëlle Deshoux, Daniel Gargani, Federica Calevro, Jaime Jimenez, Aranzazu Moreno, Björn Krenz, Jeremy R Thompson, Keith L Perry, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
Plant viruses transmitted by insects cause tremendous losses in most important crops around the world. The identification of receptors of plant viruses within their insect vectors is a key challenge to understanding the mechanisms of transmission, and offers an avenue for future alternative control strategies to limit viral spread. We here report the identification of two cuticular proteins within aphid mouthparts, and we provide experimental support for the role of one of them in the transmission of a non-circulative virus...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768549/evaluating-the-use-of-fluorescence-based-flow-cytometry-assay-for-dengue-diagnosis-using-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#4
Luzia Aparecida Costa Barreira, Priscila Santos Scheucher, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Leonardo La Serra, Soraya Jabur Badra, William Marciel de Souza, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION: Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide with an estimated 50 million infections occurring each year. METHODS: In this study, we present a flow cytometry assay (FACS) for diagnosing DENV, and compare its results with those of the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) immunochromatographic assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: All three assays identified 29...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768102/identification-of-dengue-and-chikungunya-cases-among-suspected-cases-of-yellow-fever-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#5
Sheila Makiala-Mandanda, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Jessica L Abbate, Elisabeth Pukuta-Simbu, Justus Nsio-Mbeta, Nicolas Berthet, Eric Maurice Leroy, Pierre Becquart, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum
For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765686/phylogeography-of-hydrothermal-vent-stalked-barnacles-a-new-species-fills-a-gap-in-the-indian-ocean-dispersal-corridor-hypothesis
#6
Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Chong Chen, Daniel P Marie, Ken Takai, Katsunori Fujikura, Benny K K Chan
Phylogeography of animals provides clues to processes governing their evolution and diversification. The Indian Ocean has been hypothesized as a 'dispersal corridor' connecting hydrothermal vent fauna of Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Stalked barnacles of the family Eolepadidae are common associates of deep-sea vents in Southern, Pacific and Indian oceans, and the family is an ideal group for testing this hypothesis. Here, we describe Neolepas marisindica sp. nov. from the Indian Ocean, distinguished from N. zevinae and N...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765633/differential-arthropod-responses-to-warming-are-altering-the-structure-of-arctic-communities
#7
Amanda M Koltz, Niels M Schmidt, Toke T Høye
The Arctic is experiencing some of the fastest rates of warming on the planet. Although many studies have documented responses to such warming by individual species, the idiosyncratic nature of these findings has prevented us from extrapolating them to community-level predictions. Here, we leverage the availability of a long-term dataset from Zackenberg, Greenland (593 700 specimens collected between 1996 and 2014), to investigate how climate parameters influence the abundance of different arthropod groups and overall community composition...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764954/survey-of-uk-horse-owners-knowledge-of-equine-arboviruses-and-disease-vectors
#8
Gail Elaine Chapman, Matthew Baylis, Debra C Archer
Increased globalisation and climate change have led to concern about the increasing risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) outbreaks globally. An outbreak of equine arboviral disease in northern Europe could impact significantly on equine welfare, and result in economic losses. Early identification of arboviral disease by horse owners may help limit disease spread. In order to determine what horse owners understand about arboviral diseases of horses and their vectors, the authors undertook an open, cross-sectional online survey of UK horse owners...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764939/the-importance-of-a-halotyrosine-dehalogenase-for-drosophila-fertility
#9
Abhishek Phatarphekar, Qi Su, Suk Ho Eun, Xin Chen, Steven E Rokita
The ability of iodotyrosine deiodinase to salvage iodide from iodotyrosine has long been recognized as critical for iodide homeostasis and proper thyroid function in vertebrates. The significance of its additional ability to dehalogenate bromo- and chlorotyrosine is less apparent and none of these functions could have been anticipated in invertebrates until recently. Drosophila , as most arthropods, contains a deiodinase homolog encoded by CG6279 , now named condet ( cdt ), with a similar catalytic specificity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764658/transgenerational-effects-of-insecticides-implications-for-rapid-pest-evolution-in-agroecosystems
#10
REVIEW
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764657/does-host-plant-adaptation-lead-to-pesticide-resistance-in-generalist-herbivores
#11
REVIEW
Wannes Dermauw, Adam Pym, Chris Bass, Thomas Van Leeuwen, René Feyereisen
Most herbivorous arthropods feed on one or a few closely related plant species; however, certain insect and mite species have a greatly expanded host range. Several of these generalists also show a remarkable propensity to evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. In this review, we ask if the evolution of mechanisms to tolerate the diversity of plant secondary metabolites that generalist herbivores encounter, has pre-adapted them to resist synthetic pesticides. Critical examination of the evidence suggests that a generalist life-style per se is not a predictor of rapid resistance evolution to pesticides...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764652/genetics-and-physiology-of-varroa-mites
#12
REVIEW
Jay D Evans, Steven C Cook
Varroa destructor is the primary biological threat to domesticated honey bee colonies in much of the world, impacting host fitness both directly and by transmitting RNA viruses. Genomic, proteomic, and functional-genetic resources provide a framework for Varroa biology. When coupled with physiological analyses of development, host finding, and reproduction, these resources reveal general traits of arthropods and offer new strategies for mite control. Efforts to develop novel controls are focused on efficacy, efficient delivery, and the avoidance of both host impacts and the swift evolution of resistance by mites...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763485/what-s-eating-you-ixodes-tick-and-related-diseases-part-2-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-regional-tick-borne-diseases
#13
Kelsey D Wilson, Dirk M Elston
The Ixodes tick is an important arthropod vector in the transmission of human disease. Although Lyme disease is the most prevalent zoonosis transmitted by Ixodes ticks, other less common diseases may be encountered, including human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and tick paralysis. In part 2 of this review, disease presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these less commonly encountered tick-borne diseases are discussed.
April 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761470/navigating-the-i5k-workspace-nal-a-resource-for-arthropod-genomes
#14
Monica F Poelchau, Mei-Ju May Chen, Yu-Yu Lin, Christopher P Childers
The i5k Workspace@NAL is a genome database tailored toward newly sequenced arthropod genomes and their research communities. With 56 arthropod genomes and counting, the i5k Workspace strives to facilitate public data access, visualization, and community curation across arthropod species. Any researcher with an arthropod genome project who would like to take advantage of the i5k Workspace facilities is encouraged to submit their data. In this chapter, we explain how to use the i5k Workspace@NAL to submit, find, and improve arthropod genomics data...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761037/uncovering-the-hidden-players-in-lepidoptera-biology-the-heritable-microbial-endosymbionts
#15
Anne Duplouy, Emily A Hornett
The Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread and recognisable insect orders. Due to their remarkable diversity, economic and ecological importance, moths and butterflies have been studied extensively over the last 200 years. More recently, the relationship between Lepidoptera and their heritable microbial endosymbionts has received increasing attention. Heritable endosymbionts reside within the host's body and are often, but not exclusively, inherited through the female line. Advancements in molecular genetics have revealed that host-associated microbes are both extremely prevalent among arthropods and highly diverse...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758296/isolation-of-the-sex-determining-gene-sex-lethal-sxl-in-penaeus-litopenaeus-vannamei-boone-1931-and-characterization-of-its-embryogenic-gametogenic-and-tissue-specific-expression
#16
Itzia López-Cuadros, Alejandra García-Gasca, Gracia Gomez-Anduro, Cristina Escobedo-Fregoso, Raúl A Llera-Herrera, Ana M Ibarra
The Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei is the most cultured shrimp species around the world. Because females grow larger than males, the culture of 'only females' is of great interest, but knowledge on sex determination and differentiation is required for producing only females. In an effort to obtain information associated with reproduction in P. vannamei, transcriptomic data from female gonads was generated, and partial sequences of a transcript were identified as Sex-lethal (Sxl). Its characterization indicated that, differently from other penaeids in which this gene has been isolated, there are six isoforms of the Sxl transcript in P...
May 11, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758239/the-use-of-memri-for-monitoring-central-nervous-system-activity-during-intact-insect-walking
#17
Daniel Knebel, Yaniv Assaf, Amir Ayali
BACKGROUND: Monitoring neuronal activity in the intact behaving animal is most desired in neuroethological research, yet it is rarely straightforward or even feasible. Here we present the use of manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), a technique allowing monitoring the activity of an animal's nervous system during specific behavioral patterns. Using MEMRI we were able to show activity in different ganglia of the central nervous system of intact locusts during walking RESULTS: We injected two groups of locusts with manganese, which serves as a magnetic contrast agent...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757522/evidence-of-natural-wolbachia-infections-and-molecular-identification-of-field-populations-of-culex-pipiens-complex-diptera-culicidae-mosquitoes-in-western-turkey
#18
Burçin Morçiçek, Belgin Gocmen Taskin, Ersin Doğaç, Taylan Doğaroğlu, Vatan Taskin
Establishing reliable risk projection information about the distribution pattern of members of the Culex pipiens complex is of particular interest, as these mosquitoes are competent vectors for certain disease-causing pathogens. Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterial symbiont, are distributed in various arthropod species and can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, i.e., reduced egg hatch, in certain crosses. It is being considered as a tool for population control of mosquito disease vectors. The Aegean region is characterized by highly populated, rural, and agricultural areas and is also on the route of the migratory birds...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753913/tough-and-deformable-glasses-with-bioinspired-cross-ply-architectures
#19
Zhen Yin, Ahmad Dastjerdi, Francois Barthelat
Glasses are optically transparent, hard materials that have been in sustained demand and usage in architectural windows, optical devices, electronics and solar panels. Despite their outstanding optical qualities and durability, their brittleness and low resistance to impact still limits wider applications. Here we present new laminated glass designs that contain toughening cross-ply architectures inspired from fish scales and arthropod cuticles. This seemingly minor enrichment completely transforms the way laminated glass deforms and fractures, and it turns a traditionally brittle material into a stretchy and tough material with little impact on surface hardness and optical quality...
May 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753140/influence-of-surface-flattening-on-biodiversity-of-terrestrial-arthropods-during-early-stages-of-brown-coal-spoil-heap-restoration
#20
Jabbar Moradi, Pavel Potocký, Petr Kočárek, Martin Bartuška, Karel Tajovský, Filip Tichánek, Jan Frouz, Robert Tropek
Heterogeneity of environmental conditions is the crucial factor supporting biodiversity in various habitats, including post-mining sites. The effects of micro-topographic heterogeneity on biodiversity and conservation potential of arthropod communities in post-industrial habitats had not been studied before now. At one of the largest European brown coal spoil heaps, we sampled eight groups of terrestrial arthropods with different life strategies (moths, spiders, ground beetles, ants, orthopteroids, centipedes, millipedes, and woodlice), in successionally young plots (5-18 y), with a heterogeneous wavy surface after heaping, and compared the communities with plots flattened by dozing...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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