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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323621/smoc-can-act-as-both-an-antagonist-and-an-expander-of-bmp-signaling
#1
J Terrig Thomas, D Eric Dollins, Kristin R Andrykovich, Tehyen Chu, Brian G Stultz, Deborah A Hursh, Malcolm Moos
The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone (pent), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316112/molecular-ecology-studies-of-species-radiations-current-research-gaps-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
Marylaure de la Harpe, Margot Paris, Dirk N Karger, Jonathan Rolland, Michael Kessler, Nicolas Salamin, Christian Lexer
Understanding the drivers and limits of species radiations is a crucial goal of evolutionary genetics and molecular ecology, yet research on this topic has been hampered by the notorious difficulty of connecting micro- and macro-evolutionary approaches to studying the drivers of diversification. To chart the current research gaps, opportunities, and challenges of molecular ecology approaches to studying radiations, we examine the literature in the journal Molecular Ecology and re-visit recent high-profile examples of evolutionary genomic research on radiations...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306545/scent-gland-constituents-of-the-middle-american-burrowing-python-loxocemus-bicolor-serpentes-loxocemidae
#3
Thies Schulze, Paul J Weldon, Stefan Schulz
Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the scent gland secretions of male and female Middle American burrowing pythons (Loxocemus bicolor) revealed the presence of over 300 components including cholesterol, fatty acids, glyceryl monoalkyl ethers, and alcohols. The fatty acids, over 100 of which were identified, constitute most of the compounds in the secretions and show the greatest structural diversity. They include saturated and unsaturated, unbranched and mono-, di-, and trimethyl-branched compounds ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24...
March 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303186/incidence-of-wolbachia-in-aquatic-insects
#4
Eric J Sazama, Michael J Bosch, Carmelita S Shouldis, Scot P Ouellette, Jeff S Wesner
Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303147/interactive-effects-of-uv-b-light-with-abiotic-factors-on-plant-growth-and-chemistry-and-their-consequences-for-defense-against-arthropod-herbivores
#5
REVIEW
Rocio Escobar-Bravo, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Kirsten A Leiss
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light plays a crucial role in plant-herbivorous arthropods interactions by inducing changes in constitutive and inducible plant defenses. In particular, constitutive defenses can be modulated by UV-B-induced photomorphogenic responses and changes in the plant metabolome. In accordance, the prospective use of UV-B light as a tool to increase plant protection in agricultural practice has gained increasing interest. Changes in the environmental conditions might, however, modulate the UV-B -induced plant responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302529/gene-expression-modulation-of-abc-transporter-genes-in-response-to-permethrin-in-adults-of-the-mosquito-malaria-vector-anopheles-stephensi
#6
Valentina Mastrantonio, Marco Ferrari, Sara Epis, Agata Negri, Giulia Scuccimarra, Matteo Montagna, Guido Favia, Daniele Porretta, Sandra Urbanelli, Claudio Bandi
Living organisms have evolved an array of genes coding for detoxifying enzymes and efflux protein pumps, to cope with endogenous and xenobiotic toxic compounds. The study of the genes activated during toxic exposure is relevant to the area of arthropod vector control, since these genes are one of the targets upon which natural selection acts for the evolution of insecticide resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate to insecticide detoxification acting as efflux pumps, that reduce the intracellular concentration of toxic compounds, or of their metabolic derivatives...
March 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300174/ticks-elicit-variable-f%C3%A2-ibrinogenolytic-activities-upon-feeding-on-hosts-with-different-immune-backgrounds
#7
Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, Sucharita M Dutta, John F Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E Sonenshine, John D Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299861/patterns-and-mechanisms-in-instances-of-endosymbiont-induced-parthenogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Wen-Juan Ma, Tanja Schwander
Female-producing parthenogenesis can be induced by endosymbionts that increase their transmission by manipulating host reproduction. Our literature survey indicates that such endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis is known or suspected in 124 host species from seven different arthropod taxa, with Wolbachia as the most frequent endosymbiont (in 56-75% of host species). Most host species (81%, 100 out of 124) are characterized by haplo-diploid sex determination, but a strong ascertainment bias likely underestimates the frequency of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in hosts with other sex determination systems...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299286/the-rickettsia-conorii-adr1-interacts-with-the-c-terminus-of-human-vitronectin-in-a-salt-sensitive-manner
#9
Abigail I Fish, Sean P Riley, Birendra Singh, Kristian Riesbeck, Juan J Martinez
Spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species are inoculated into the mammalian bloodstream by hematophagous arthropods. Once in the bloodstream and during dissemination, the survival of these pathogens is dependent upon the ability of these bacteria to evade serum-borne host defenses until a proper cellular host is reached. Rickettsia conorii expresses an outer membrane protein, Adr1, which binds the complement inhibitory protein vitronectin to promote resistance to the anti-bacterial effects of the terminal complement complex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291601/molecular-detection-of-hepatozoon-spp-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-mammals-in-southern-pantanal-brazil-with-implications-in-the-transmission-route
#10
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Marina Pugnaghi Fernandes, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, João Bosco Campos, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Barros Battesti, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated...
February 22, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291501/lateral-flow-rapid-test-for-accurate-and-early-diagnosis-of-scrub-typhus-a-febrile-illness-of-historically-military-importance-in-the-pacific-rim
#11
Chien-Chung Chao, Zhiwen Zhangm, Giulia Weissenberger, Hua-Wei Chen, Wei-Mei Ching
Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289966/variable-alkaloid-defenses-in-the-dendrobatid-poison-frog-oophaga-pumilio-are-perceived-as-differences-in-palatability-to-arthropods
#12
Sarah K Bolton, Kelsie Dickerson, Ralph A Saporito
Conspicuously colored dendrobatid frogs sequester alkaloid defenses from dietary arthropods, resulting in considerable alkaloid variation among populations; however, little is known about how variation is perceived as a defense against predators. Previous studies have found variable alkaloids in the dendrobatid Oophaga pumilio to be associated with differences in toxicity to laboratory mice, suggesting variable defenses are important. Arthropods are natural predators that use chemoreception to detect prey, including frogs, and may therefore perceive variation in alkaloid profiles as differences in palatability...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289929/co-encapsulation-of-amyloglucosidase-with-starch-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-as-basis-for-a-long-lasting-co2-release
#13
Pascal Humbert, Marina Vemmer, Marco Giampà, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Anant V Patel
CO2 is known as a major attractant for many arthropod pests which can be exploited for pest control within novel attract-and-kill strategies. This study reports on the development of a slow-release system for CO2 based on calcium alginate beads containing granular corn starch, amyloglucosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our aim was to evaluate the conditions which influence the CO2 release and to clarify the biochemical reactions taking place within the beads. The amyloglucosidase was immobilized with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87% in Ca-alginate beads supplemented with corn starch and S...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289253/what-is-a-vector
#14
REVIEW
Anthony James Wilson, Eric René Morgan, Mark Booth, Rachel Norman, Sarah Elizabeth Perkins, Heidi Christine Hauffe, Nicole Mideo, Janis Antonovics, Hamish McCallum, Andy Fenton
Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are 'vector-borne'. However, the term 'vector' has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289203/storage-and-release-of-hydrogen-cyanide-in-a-chelicerate-oribatula-tibialis
#15
Adrian Brückner, Günther Raspotnig, Katja Wehner, Reinhard Meusinger, Roy A Norton, Michael Heethoff
Cyanogenesis denotes a chemical defensive strategy where hydrogen cyanide (HCN, hydrocyanic or prussic acid) is produced, stored, and released toward an attacking enemy. The high toxicity and volatility of HCN requires both chemical stabilization for storage and prevention of accidental self-poisoning. The few known cyanogenic animals are exclusively mandibulate arthropods (certain myriapods and insects) that store HCN as cyanogenic glycosides, lipids, or cyanohydrins. Here, we show that cyanogenesis has also evolved in the speciose Chelicerata...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286876/diversity-as-opportunity-insights-from-600-million-years-of-ahr-evolution
#16
Mark E Hahn, Sibel I Karchner, Rebeka R Merson
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was for many years of interest only to pharmacologists and toxicologists. However, this protein has fundamental roles in biology that are being revealed through studies in diverse animal species. The AHR is an ancient protein. AHR homologs exist in most major groups of modern bilaterian animals, including deuterostomes (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms) and the two major clades of protostome invertebrates [ecdysozoans (e.g. arthropods and nematodes) and lophotrochozoans (e...
February 2017: Curr Opin Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286729/a-novel-cytochrome-p450-cyp3201b1-is-involved-in-r-mandelonitrile-biosynthesis-in-a-cyanogenic-millipede
#17
Takuya Yamaguchi, Yasumasa Kuwahara, Yasuhisa Asano
Specialized arthropods and more than 2500 plant species biosynthesize hydroxynitriles and release hydrogen cyanide as a defensive mechanism. The millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis accumulates (R)-mandelonitrile as a cyanide precursor. Although biosynthesis of hydroxynitriles in cyanogenic plants and in an insect are extensively studied, (R)-mandelonitrile biosynthesis in cyanogenic millipedes has remained unclear. In this study, we identified the biosynthetic precursors of (R)-mandelonitrile and an enzyme involved in (R)-mandelonitrile biosynthesis...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286046/rudimentary-expression-of-ryamide-in-drosophila-melanogaster-relative-to-other-drosophila-species-points-to-a-functional-decline-of-this-neuropeptide-gene
#18
Jan A Veenstra, Hela Khammassi
RYamides are arthropod neuropeptides with unknown function. In 2011 two RYamides were isolated from D. melanogaster as the ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor CG5811. The D. melanogaster gene encoding these neuropeptides is highly unusual, as there are four RYamide encoding exons in the current genome assembly, but an exon encoding a signal peptide is absent. Comparing the D. melanogaster gene structure with those from other species, including D. virilis, suggests that the gene is degenerating. RNAseq data from 1634 short sequence read archives at NCBI containing more than 34 billion spots yielded numerous individual spots that correspond to the RYamide encoding exons, of which a large number include the intron-exon boundary at the start of this exon...
March 7, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285995/deep-time-convergence-in-rove-beetle-symbionts-of-army-ants
#19
Munetoshi Maruyama, Joseph Parker
Recent adaptive radiations provide striking examples of convergence [1-4], but the predictability of evolution over much deeper timescales is controversial, with a scarcity of ancient clades exhibiting repetitive patterns of phenotypic evolution [5, 6]. Army ants are ecologically dominant arthropod predators of the world's tropics, with large nomadic colonies housing diverse communities of socially parasitic myrmecophiles [7]. Remarkable among these are many species of rove beetle (Staphylinidae) that exhibit ant-mimicking "myrmecoid" body forms and are behaviorally accepted into their aggressive hosts' societies: emigrating with colonies and inhabiting temporary nest bivouacs, grooming and feeding with workers, but also consuming the brood [8-11]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285586/serological-evidence-of-exposure-to-rickettsia-felis-and-rickettsia-typhi-in-australian-veterinarians
#20
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Mark A Stevenson, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca J Traub
BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi are emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses causing fever and flu-like symptoms. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure to these organisms was explored in Australian veterinarians. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one veterinarians from across Australia were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Veterinarians provided a single blood sample and answered a questionnaire on potential risk factors influencing their exposure to R...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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