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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433051/insect-specific-viruses-a-historical-overview-and-recent-developments
#1
Christopher M Roundy, Sasha R Azar, Shannan L Rossi, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Strikingly, these insect-specific viruses have been found to be members of viral families traditionally associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#2
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432831/oncopeltus-fasciatus-as-an-evo-devo-research-organism
#3
REVIEW
Ariel D Chipman
The large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus was one of the main study insects for a range of biological questions throughout much of the 20(th) century. Its importance waned with the introduction of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism. The evo-devo revolution of the turn of the century re-introduced Oncopeltus into the scientific community, and it has proved increasingly useful, mostly within a comparative context for evolution driven research. The last few years have seen a number of significant contributions to our understanding of the evolution of developmental processes in insects, and in arthropods in general, arise from work on Oncopeltus...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431496/the-phylogeny-of-fossil-whip-spiders
#4
Russell J Garwood, Jason A Dunlop, Brian J Knecht, Thomas A Hegna
BACKGROUND: Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428304/complete-genome-sequence-of-spiroplasma-citri-strain-r8-a2-t-causal-agent-of-stubborn-disease-in-citrus-species
#5
Robert E Davis, Jonathan Shao, Yan Zhao, Gail E Gasparich, Brady J Gaynor, Nicole Donofrio
Spiroplasma citri causes stubborn disease in Citrus spp. and diseases in other plants. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,599,709-bp circular chromosome and two plasmids of S. citri strain R8-A2(T) This information will facilitate analyses to understand spiroplasmal pathogenicity and evolutionary adaptations to lifestyles in plants and arthropod hosts.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428300/draft-genome-sequence-of-enterococcus-casseliflavus-pavet15-obtained-from-the-oviduct-infection-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-in-jiutepec-morelos-mexico
#6
R Cossío-Bayúgar, E Miranda-Miranda, C A Arreguín-Pérez, L Lozano, D Peréz de la Rosa, M K Rocha-Martínez, M A Bravo-Díaz, B Sachman-Ruiz
Enterococcus spp. are Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria found in the intestinal tracts of animals, like mammals, birds, and arthropods. Enterococcus spp. may cause oportunistic infections in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. We report here the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus casseliflavus PAVET15 containing 3,722,480 bp, with 80 contigs, an N50 of 179,476 bp, and 41.93% G+C content.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427961/evidence-for-enzootic-circulation-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-among-livestock-in-cameroon
#7
M Rissmann, M Eiden, A Wade, R Poueme, S Abdoulkadiri, H Unger, U Ziegler, T Homeier, M H Groschup
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen, causing serious epidemics in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In Cameroon serological data indicate the presence of RVFV, but active circulation of RVFV, causing clinical infections has not been proven yet. For this purpose we carried out a serological and molecular study on a total of 1,953 randomly selected serum samples of small ruminants and cattle, which were collected in years 2013 and 2014 in Cameroon. In a first step, sera were screened serologically using a variety of assay formats to reveal RVFV specific antibodies...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426182/usefulness-and-accuracy-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-as-a-supplementary-tool-to-identify-mosquito-vector-species-and-to-invest-in-development-of-international-database
#8
F N Raharimalala, T M Andrianinarivomanana, A Rakotondrasoa, J M Collard, S Boyer
Arthropod-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The identification of vector species relies mainly on morphological features and/or molecular biology tools. The first method requires specific technical skills and may result in misidentifications, and the second method is time-consuming and expensive. The aim of the present study is to assess the usefulness and accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a supplementary tool with which to identify mosquito vector species and to invest in the creation of an international database...
April 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425901/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-the-adverse-effects-immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-lyme-disease-vaccines-guiding-novel-vaccine-development
#9
Alaa Badawi, Maria Shering, Shusmita Rahman, L Robbin Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in North America. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent LB in humans, although monovalent and multivalent vaccines have been developed in the past. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the findings from these two classes of vaccines for their reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy, in the hope this may assist in the development of future vaccines...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424664/spotted-fever-epidemiology-and-vector-rickettsia-host-relationship-in-rio-de-janeiro-state
#10
Diego C Montenegro, Karla Bitencourth, Stefan V de Oliveira, Ana P Borsoi, Karen M Cardoso, Maria S B Sousa, Cristina Giordano-Dias, Marinete Amorim, Nicolau M Serra-Freire, Gilberto S Gazêta, Reginaldo P Brazil
The eco-epidemiological scenario of spotted fever (SF), a tick-borne disease that affects humans and other animals in several countries around the world, was analyzed in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) State, Brazil. During the last 34 years, 990 SF cases were reported in RJ (the Brazilian state with the highest population density), including 116 cases confirmed by serology (RIFI) or PCR, among 42.39% of the municipalities with reported cases of SF. The epidemiologic dynamics of SF in RJ State are very heterogeneous in time and space, with outbreaks, high mortality rates and periods of epidemiological silence (no SF cases reported)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424031/yellow-fever-from-angola-and-congo-a-storm-gathers
#11
Qanta A Ahmed, Ziad A Memish
In common with Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue, Yellow Fever (YF) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus. It is transmitted between humans and from monkeys by mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti (its principal vector), haemogogus and albopictus varieties. Three cycles of transmission may occur: urban; sylvatic; and intermediate. Recently, sub-Saharan Africa has seen the resurgence of this neglected disease. The current YF outbreak in Angola began in December 2015 in the capital Luanda and by October 2016 there had been > 4300 suspected cases, with 376 deaths (case fatality rate = 8...
April 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421370/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-neuroactive-compounds-that-affect-the-development-mating-and-reproduction-of-spiders-araneae-compared-to-insects
#12
REVIEW
Marta Sawadro, Agata Bednarek, Agnieszka Babczyńska
The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421048/functional-information-stored-in-the-conserved-structural-rna-domains-of-flavivirus-genomes
#13
REVIEW
Alba Fernández-Sanlés, Pablo Ríos-Marco, Cristina Romero-López, Alfredo Berzal-Herranz
The genus Flavivirus comprises a large number of small, positive-sense single-stranded, RNA viruses able to replicate in the cytoplasm of certain arthropod and/or vertebrate host cells. The genus, which has some 70 member species, includes a number of emerging and re-emerging pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human disease around the world, such as the West Nile, dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Like other RNA viruses, flaviviruses have a compact RNA genome that efficiently stores all the information required for the completion of the infectious cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420742/synergistic-internal-ribosome-entry-site-microrna-based-approach-for-flavivirus-attenuation-and-live-vaccine-development
#14
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Guangping Liu, Evgeniya Volkova, Alexander G Pletnev
The recent emergence of Zika virus underscores the need for new strategies for a rapid development of safe flavivirus vaccines. Using another flavivirus (Langat virus [LGTV]) that belongs to the group of tick-borne flaviviruses as a model, we describe a dual strategy for virus attenuation which synergistically accesses the specificity of microRNA (miRNA) genome targeting and the effectiveness of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) insertion. To increase the stability and immunogenicity of bicistronic LGTVs, we developed a novel approach in which the capsid (C) protein gene was relocated into the 3' noncoding region (NCR) and expressed under translational control from an IRES...
April 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420428/significant-heterogeneity-in-wolbachia-copy-number-within-and-between-populations-of-onchocerca-volvulus
#15
Samuel Armoo, Stephen R Doyle, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Warwick N Grant
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria found in arthropods and several filarial nematode species. The filarial Wolbachia have been proposed to be involved in the immunopathology associated with onchocerciasis. Higher Wolbachia-to-nematode ratios have been reported in the savannah-ecotype compared to the forest-ecotype, and have been interpreted as consistent with a correlation between Wolbachia density and disease severity. However, factors such as geographic stratification and ivermectin drug exposure can lead to significant genetic heterogeneity in the nematode host populations, so we investigated whether Wolbachia copy number variation is also associated with these underlying factors...
April 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412513/wolbachia-induced-loss-of-male-fertility-is-likely-related-to-branch-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-and-ilve-in-laodelphax-striatellus
#16
Jia-Fei Ju, Ary A Hoffmann, Yan-Kai Zhang, Xing-Zhi Duan, Yan Guo, Jun-Tao Gong, Wen-Chao Zhu, Xiao-Yue Hong
Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotype in affected hosts, involving embryonic lethality in crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are currently unclear. Here we examine the molecular correlates of the Wolbachia infection in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important rice pest, where embryonic lethality is strong and almost complete...
April 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411937/preparing-for-international-travel-and-global-medical-care
#17
REVIEW
Swaminatha V Mahadevan, Matthew C Strehlow
Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment, immunization review, and discussion of arthropod protective measures, malaria prophylaxis, traveler's diarrhea, and injury prevention. Travel with children and jet lag reduction require additional planning and prevention strategies; travel and evacuation insurance may prove essential when traveling to less resourced countries...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#18
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410595/examining-the-role-of-macrolides-and-host-immunity-in-combatting-filarial-parasites
#19
REVIEW
Doug S Carithers
Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), specifically the avermectins and milbemycins, are known for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of disease-causing nematodes and arthropods in humans and animals. In most nematodes, drugs in this class induce paralysis, resulting in starvation, impaired ability to remain associated with their anatomical environment, and death of all life stages. Initially, this was also thought to be the ML mode of action against filarial nematodes, but researchers have not been able to validate these characteristic effects of immobilization/starvation of MLs in vitro, even at higher doses than are possible in vivo...
April 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405368/concurrence-in-the-ability-for-lipid-synthesis-between-life-stages-in-insects
#20
Bertanne Visser, Denis S Willett, Jeffrey A Harvey, Hans T Alborn
The ability to synthesize lipids is critical for an organism's fitness; hence, metabolic pathways, underlying lipid synthesis, tend to be highly conserved. Surprisingly, the majority of parasitoids deviate from this general metabolic model by lacking the ability to convert sugars and other carbohydrates into lipids. These insects spend the first part of their life feeding and developing in or on an arthropod host, during which they can carry over a substantial amount of lipid reserves. While many parasitoid species have been tested for lipogenic ability at the adult life stage, it has remained unclear whether parasitoid larvae can synthesize lipids...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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