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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815055/green-lacewings-neuroptera-chrysopidae-are-commonly-associated-with-a-diversity-of-rickettsial-endosymbionts
#1
Michael Gerth, Ronny Wolf, Christoph Bleidorn, Julia Richter, Rebekka Sontowski, Jasmin Unrein, Martin Schlegel, Axel Gruppe
BACKGROUND: Bacterial symbionts transmitted from mothers to offspring are found in the majority of arthropods. Numerous studies have illustrated their wide impact on host biology, such as reproduction, behavior, and physiology One of the most common inherited symbionts is Rickettsia spp. (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales), which are found in about one-quarter of terrestrial arthropods, as well as in other invertebrates. In insect populations, Rickettsia spp. have been reported to cause reproductive modifications and fecundity-enhancing effects...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814523/screening-of-fda-approved-drugs-for-inhibitors-against-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#2
Shaobo Wang, Yang Liu, Jiao Guo, Peilin Wang, Leike Zhang, Gengfu Xiao, Wei Wang
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, is a major cause of acute viral encephalitis in humans. There is no approved drug available for JEV-specific treatment, and the vaccines are not effective against all clinical JEV isolates. Herein, a high-throughput screening was performed against JEV from an FDA-approved drug library. Five hit drugs were identified that inhibited JEV infection with a selective index > 10. Antiviral activities of these five hit drugs against other flavivirus, including Zika virus, were also validated...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813469/phytoplasma-infection-of-a-tropical-root-crop-triggers-bottom-up-cascades-by-favoring-generalist-over-specialist-herbivores
#3
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812652/parasites-dominate-hyperdiverse-soil-protist-communities-in-neotropical-rainforests
#4
Frédéric Mahé, Colomban de Vargas, David Bass, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Enrique Lara, David Singer, Jordan Mayor, John Bunge, Sarah Sernaker, Tobias Siemensmeyer, Isabelle Trautmann, Sarah Romac, Cédric Berney, Alexey Kozlov, Edward A D Mitchell, Christophe V W Seppey, Elianne Egge, Guillaume Lentendu, Rainer Wirth, Gabriel Trueba, Micah Dunthorn
High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host-specific parasites potentially contribute to the high animal diversity in the forests by reducing population growth in a density-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811889/genome-size-in-arthropods-different-roles-of-phylogeny-habitat-and-life-history-in-insects-and-crustaceans
#5
Kristian Alfsnes, Hans Petter Leinaas, Dag Olav Hessen
Despite the major role of genome size for physiology, ecology, and evolution, there is still mixed evidence with regard to proximate and ultimate drivers. The main causes of large genome size are proliferation of noncoding elements and/or duplication events. The relative role and interplay between these proximate causes and the evolutionary patterns shaped by phylogeny, life history traits or environment are largely unknown for the arthropods. Genome size shows a tremendous variability in this group, and it has a major impact on a range of fitness-related parameters such as growth, metabolism, life history traits, and for many species also body size...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811340/type-iii-interferon-mediated-signaling-is-critical-for-controlling-live-attenuated-yellow-fever-virus-infection-in-vivo
#6
Florian Douam, Yentli E Soto Albrecht, Gabriela Hrebikova, Evita Sadimin, Christian Davidson, Sergei V Kotenko, Alexander Ploss
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling and type II interferon (IFN-γ) signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action in viral infection...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808554/arthropod-communities-on-hybrid-and-parental-cottonwoods-are-phylogenetically-structured-by-tree-type-implications-for-conservation-of-biodiversity-in-plant-hybrid-zones
#7
Karl J Jarvis, Gerard J Allan, Ashley J Craig, Rebecca K Beresic-Perrins, Gina Wimp, Catherine A Gehring, Thomas G Whitham
Although hybridization in plants has been recognized as an important pathway in plant speciation, it may also affect the ecology and evolution of associated communities. Cottonwood species (Populus angustifolia and P. fremontii) and their naturally occurring hybrids are known to support different plant, animal, and microbial communities, but no studies have examined community structure within the context of phylogenetic history. Using a community composed of 199 arthropod species, we tested for differences in arthropod phylogenetic patterns within and among hybrid and parental tree types in a common garden...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807289/neglected-intravascular-pathogens-babesia-vulpes-and-haemotropic-mycoplasma-spp-in-european-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-population
#8
Martina Koneval, Martina Miterpáková, Zuzana Hurníková, Lucia Blaňarová, Bronislava Víchová
Wild animals, especially canids, are important reservoirs of vector-borne pathogens, that are transmitted by the ticks and other bloodsucking arthropods. In total, 300 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), shot by the hunters in eastern and northern Slovakia, were screened for the presence of vector-borne pathogens by PCR-based methods Blood samples were obtained from nine red foxes and tissue samples originated from 291 animals (the liver tissue samples from 49 foxes and spleen samples from 242 red foxes). Babesia vulpes and haemotropic Mycoplasma species were identified by amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene fragments, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807043/an-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-vector-expressing-rift-valley-fever-virus-rvfv-gn-and-gc-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-in-sheep
#9
Abdelrahman Said, Mona Elmanzalawy, Guanggang Ma, Armando Mario Damiani, Nikolaus Osterrieder
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne bunyavirus that can cause serious and fatal disease in humans and animals. RVFV is a negative-sense RNA virus of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The main envelope RVFV glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, are encoded on the M segment of RVFV and known inducers of protective immunity. In an attempt to develop a safe and efficacious RVF vaccine, we constructed and tested a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine that expresses RVFV Gn and Gc...
August 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806928/colour-polymorphic-lures-exploit-innate-preferences-for-spectral-versus-luminance-cues-in-dipteran-prey
#10
Thomas E White, Darrell J Kemp
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts that colour polymorphism may be favored by variation in the visual context under which signals are perceived. The context encompasses all environmental determinants of light availability and propagation, but also the dynamics of perception in receivers. Color vision involves the neural separation of information into spectral versus luminance channels, which often differentially guide specific tasks. Here we explicitly tested whether this discrete perceptual basis contributes to the maintenance of polymorphism in a prey-luring system...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805638/nonretroviral-integrated-rna-viruses-in-arthropod-vectors-an-occasional-event-or-something-more
#11
REVIEW
Ken E Olson, Mariangela Bonizzoni
With few exceptions, all arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are nonretroviral RNA viruses (NRVs). Despite NRVs do not encode reverse transcriptases and integrases, NRVs-DNA fragments are detected in mosquito cells and mosquitoes at early stages of infection as episomal DNA forms. Additionally, next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analyses have convincingly shown NRVs-vDNA integrated in vector genomes. We hypothesize vDNA role may be linked to host immunity and viral persistence. Key questions remain about nonretroviral integrated RNA virus sequences (NIRVS) in mosquitoes such as what is driving vDNA synthesis from NRVs, how does integration occur and what is their biological function...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805635/mosquito-specific-and-mosquito-borne-viruses-evolution-infection-and-host-defense
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca Halbach, Sandra Junglen, Ronald P van Rij
Recent virus discovery programs have identified an extensive reservoir of viruses in arthropods. It is thought that arthropod viruses, including mosquito-specific viruses, are ancestral to vertebrate-pathogenic arboviruses. Mosquito-specific viruses are restricted in vertebrate cells at multiple levels, including entry, RNA replication, assembly, and by the inability to replicate at high temperatures. Moreover, it is likely that the vertebrate immune system suppresses replication of these viruses. The evolution from single to dual-host tropism may also require changes in the course of infection in the mosquito host...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805630/implications-of-autophagy-on-arbovirus-infection-of-mosquitoes
#13
REVIEW
Doug E Brackney
Arthropod-borne (arbo-) viruses, like all viruses, are obligate intracellular parasites that have evolved mechanisms to subvert cellular processes and evade anti-viral defenses to replicate and persist. An increasing body of research is beginning to recognize the intimate relationship between arboviruses and the cellular autophagy pathway. As a result, new therapeutic approaches that modify the autophagic response to viral infection have shown great promise. The preponderance of work thus far, however, has originated from vertebrate systems...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801151/correlation-between-desiccation-stress-response-and-epigenetic-modifications-of-genes-in-drosophila-melanogaster-an-example-of-environment-epigenome-interaction
#14
Vineeta Sharma, Surbhi Kohli, Vani Brahmachari
Animals from different phyla including arthropods tolerate water stress to different extent. This tolerance is accompanied by biochemical changes which in turn are due to transcriptional alteration. The changes in transcription can be an indirect effect on some of the genes, ensuing from the effect of stress on the regulators of transcription including epigenetic regulators. Within this paradigm, we investigated the correlation between stress response and epigenetic modification underlying gene expression modulation during desiccation stress in Canton-S...
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800485/validation-of-site-specific-soil-ni-toxicity-thresholds-with-independent-ecotoxicity-and-biogeochemistry-data-for-elevated-soil-ni
#15
Beverley Hale, Yamini Gopalapillai, Amanda Pellegrino, Tyson Jennett, Julie Kikkert, Wilson Lau, Christian Schlekat, Mike J McLaughlin
The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799248/molecular-detection-of-wolbachia-pipientis-in-natural-populations-of-sandfly-vectors-of-leishmania-infantum-in-endemic-areas-first-detection-in-lutzomyia-longipalpis
#16
N O DA Rocha, S M Lambert, A G Dias-Lima, F S Julião, B M P S Souza
A polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to screen sandflies for infection with Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont found in many arthropods and filarial hosts. Positive results were obtained in five of 200 field-collected sandflies and were confirmed by sequencing. All sandflies were Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) captured in a region endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. This is the first study to identify Wolbachia infection in this Lutzomyia species, which is the main vector of leishmaniasis in the study area...
August 11, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798806/potential-of-traditional-knowledge-of-plants-in-the-management-of-arthropods-in-livestock-industry-with-focus-on-acari-ticks
#17
REVIEW
Wycliffe Wanzala
Antitick plants and related ethnoknowledge/ethnopractices with potential for integrated tick control and management strategies to improve livestock production are reviewed. About 231 plants reviewed showed a variety of bioactive properties, namely, being toxic, repellent, antifeedant, and antiovipositant and ability to immobilize target tick species. These ethnobotanical substances are potentially useful in developing sustainable, efficient, and effective antitick agents suitable for rural livestock farmers...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797478/heat-stress-is-associated-with-disruption-of-ion-balance-in-the-migratory-locust-locusta-migratoria
#18
James D B O'Sullivan, Heath A MacMillan, Johannes Overgaard
Thermal tolerance is important in determining the spatial and temporal distributions of insects but the mechanisms which determine upper thermal limits remain poorly understood. In terrestrial insects heat tolerance is unlikely to be limited by oxygen supply but in some arthropods, heat stress has been shown to cause haemolymph hyperkalaemia which is known to have detrimental effects on neuromuscular excitability. It is however unresolved if heat-induced hyperkalemia is the cause or the result of cellular heat injury...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797246/characterisation-of-protein-families-in-spider-digestive-fluids-and-their-role-in-extra-oral-digestion
#19
André Walter, Jesper Bechsgaard, Carsten Scavenius, Thomas S Dyrlund, Kristian W Sanggaard, Jan J Enghild, Trine Bilde
BACKGROUND: Spiders are predaceous arthropods that are capable of subduing and consuming relatively large prey items compared to their own body size. For this purpose, spiders have evolved potent venoms to immobilise prey and digestive fluids that break down nutrients inside the prey's body by means of extra-oral digestion (EOD). Both secretions contain an array of active proteins, and an overlap of some components has been anecdotally reported, but not quantified. We systematically investigated the extent of such protein overlap...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796821/legacy-of-historic-ozone-exposure-on-plant-community-and-food-web-structure
#20
M Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, Analía I Menéndez, Pedro E Gundel, Ana M Folcia, Ana M Romero, Jennifer B Landesmann, Laura Ventura, Claudio M Ghersa
Information on whole community responses is needed to predict direction and magnitude of changes in plant and animal abundance under global changes. This study quantifies the effect of past ozone exposure on a weed community structure and arthropod colonization. We used the soil seed bank resulting from a long-term ozone exposure to reestablish the plant community under a new low-pollution environment. Two separate experiments using the same original soil seed bank were conducted. Plant and arthropod richness and species abundance was assessed during two years...
2017: PloS One
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