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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155838/the-tick-biocontrol-agent-metarhizium-brunneum-m-anisopliae-strain-f52-does-not-reduce-non-target-arthropods
#1
Ilya R Fischhoff, Felicia Keesing, Richard S Ostfeld
Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154857/astakines-in-arthropods-phylogeny-and-gene-structure
#2
Lena Ericsson, Irene Söderhäll
Astakine1 was isolated as a hematopoietic cytokine in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study we detect and compare 79 sequences in GenBank, which we consider to be possible astakine orthologs, among which eleven are crustacean, sixteen are chelicerate and 52 are from insect species. Available arthropod genomes are searched for astakines, and in conclusion all astakine sequences in the current study have a similar exon containing CCXX(X), thus potentially indicating that they are homologous genes with the structure of this exon highly conserved...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152704/west-nile-disease-in-tunisia-an-overview-of-60-years
#3
Salah Hammami, Thameur Ben Hassine, Annamaria Conte, Jihène Amdouni, Fabrizio De Massis, Soufiène Sghaier, Sonia Ben Hassen
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne virus of public health importance. The virus is a member of the genus Flavivirus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex under the Flaviviridae family. The WNV is continuously spreading across Tunisia especially in the coastal and Southern area of the country. The first human West Nile disease (WND) epidemic in Tunisia occurred in 1997, since then, the quantity and the extension of spillover effects increased constantly. However, the existing knowledge of factors triggering such events continues to be rather poor...
September 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152174/tree-diversity-drives-diversity-of-arthropod-herbivores-but-successional-stage-mediates-detritivores
#4
Michael J O'Brien, Matteo Brezzi, Andreas Schuldt, Jia-Yong Zhang, Keping Ma, Bernhard Schmid, Pascal A Niklaus
The high tree diversity of subtropical forests is linked to the biodiversity of other trophic levels. Disentangling the effects of tree species richness and composition, forest age, and stand structure on higher trophic levels in a forest landscape is important for understanding the factors that promote biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Using a plot network spanning gradients of tree diversity and secondary succession in subtropical forest, we tested the effects of tree community characteristics (species richness and composition) and forest succession (stand age) on arthropod community characteristics (morphotype diversity, abundance and composition) of four arthropod functional groups...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150322/sex-ratios-of-the-tick-ixodes-arboricola-are-strongly-female-biased-but-there-are-no-indications-of-sex-distorting-bacteria
#5
A Raoul Van Oosten, Olivier Duron, Dieter J A Heylen
Studies on sex ratio are of fundamental importance for understanding the biology of populations and biological control of pests and pathogens. In most Ixodes tick species, only females feed in the adult stage and, hence, contribute to pathogen transmission. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola infests cavity-nesting birds and has limited dispersal possibilities. It plays an important role in the maintenance of zoonotic disease cycles. Here, we quantified the sex ratio of 718 adult I. arboricola ticks obtained from a laboratory stock at nine distinct periods (cohorts) from 2008 to 2015...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145400/zika-virus-an-updated-review-of-competent-or-naturally-infected-mosquitoes
#6
REVIEW
Yanouk Epelboin, Stanislas Talaga, Loïc Epelboin, Isabelle Dusfour
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the Americas. Over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among African, Asian, and Pacific Island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban ZIKV outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. This paper is a systematic review intended to list all mosquito species studied for ZIKV infection or for their vector competence...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145396/detection-of-relapsing-fever-borrelia-spp-bartonella-spp-and-anaplasmataceae-bacteria-in-argasid-ticks-in-algeria
#7
Ismail Lafri, Basma El Hamzaoui, Idir Bitam, Hamza Leulmi, Reda Lalout, Oleg Mediannikov, Mohamed Chergui, Mohamed Karakellah, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141766/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-wolbachia-pipientis-from-culex-quinquefasciatus-collected-from-lahore-pakistan
#8
Muhammad Sajjad Sarwar, Nusrat Jahan, Fatima Shahbaz
The gram-negative, pleomorphic endosymbiont Wolbachia is known to infect a large number of insects and other arthropods naturally. This bacterium modifies the host biology, mainly causing reproductive alterations including feminization, death of male, parthenogenesis, and importantly cytoplasmic incompatibility. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility results in nonviable offspring and vector population suppression. In addition, this bacterium rapidly spreads and propagates within the host population...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141746/monitoring-and-control-of-aedes-albopictus-a-vector-of-zika-virus-near-residences-of-imported-zika-virus-patients-during-2016-in-south-korea
#9
Kyu-Sik Chang, Gi-Hun Kim, Young-Ran Ha, Eun Kyeong Jeong, Heung-Chul Kim, Terry A Klein, Seung Hwan Shin, Eun Jeung Kim, Seung Jegal, Se Jin Chung, Young-Ran Ju, Young Mee Jee
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus mainly transmitted by Aedes species. A total of nine of the 16 imported ZIKV reported cases during the mosquito season in the Republic of Korea (ROK), following the return of local nationals from foreign ZIKV endemic countries, were surveyed for Aedes albopictus. Surveillance and vector control of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of ZIKV, and related species are critical for reducing the potential for autochthonous transmission in the ROK. Surveillance and vector control were coordinated by Korean Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC) and conducted by local health authorities within 200 m of imported ZIKV patients' residences...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136262/treatment-of-cutaneous-pseudolymphoma-a-systematic-review
#10
Diana Miguel, Melanie Peckruhn, Peter Elsner
Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL) is a reactive polyclonal T- or B-cell lymphoproliferative process. CPL may appear as localized or disseminated skin lesions. While most cases of CPL are idiopathic, they may also occur as a response to, for example, contact dermatitis, arthropod reactions, and bacterial infections. CPL can be classified based on its clinical features, but all variants have similar histopathological patterns of either predominantly B-cell infiltrates, T-cell infiltrates, or mixed T/B-cell infiltrates...
November 14, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134493/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-select-macrocyclic-lactones-insecticides-on-forager-worker-honey-bees-under-laboratory-experimental-conditions
#11
Gamal A M Abdu-Allah, Barry R Pittendrigh
Selective insecticide application is one important strategy for more precisely targeting harmful insects while avoiding or mitigating collateral damage to beneficial insects like honey bees. Recently, macrocyclic lactone-class insecticides have been introduced into the market place as selective bio-insecticides for controlling many arthropod pests, but how to target this selectivity only to harmful insects has yet to be achieved. In this study, the authors investigated the acute toxicity of fourmacrocyclic lactone insecticides (commercialized as abamectin, emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, and spinosad) both topically and through feeding studies with adult forager honey bees...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129633/sequence-and-structure-insights-of-kazal-type-thrombin-inhibitor-protein-studied-with-phylogeny-homology-modeling-and-dynamic-mm-gbsa-studies
#12
Aparna Jadhav, RadhaCharan Dash, Raj Hirwani, Malik Abdin
Despite the wide medical importance of serine protease inhibitors, many of kazal type proteins are still to be explored. These thrombin inhibiting proteins are found in the digestive system of hematophagous organisms mainly Arthropods. We studied one of such protein i.e. Kazal type-1 protein from sand-fly Phlebotomus papatasi as its structure and interaction with thrombin is unclear. Initially, Dipetalin a kazal-follistasin domain protein was run through PSI-BLAST to retrieve related sequences. Using this set of sequence a phylogenetic tree was constructed, which identified a distantly related kazal type-1 protein...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129287/can-agricultural-practices-that-mitigate-or-improve-crop-resilience-to-climate-change-also-manage-crop-pests
#13
REVIEW
Ebony G Murrell
Sustainable agricultural practices that are promoted for mitigating climate change have the potential to also improve pest management. The author highlights recent studies that demonstrate effects of climate-mitigating agricultural practices on arthropod pests and predators in agronomic cropping systems. Promising practices for suppressing pests and/or improving biological control include: plant species diversification, especially via the addition of perennial species; cover cropping; tillage practices that retain crop residue; application of organic fertilizers such as compost and manure; and water management practices such as irrigation and sustainable rice intensification...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129285/mass-mortality-events-and-the-role-of-necrophagous-invertebrates
#14
REVIEW
Jeffery K Tomberlin, Brandon T Barton, Marcus A Lashley, Heather R Jordan
Scale is important in understanding and applying concepts in ecology. Historically, the mechanisms regulating necrophagous arthropod community structure have been well explored on a single vertebrate carcass. However, practically nothing is known of whether such findings can be extrapolated to cases where large numbers of carcasses have been introduced into an ecosystem at a single time point. With the increasing incidences of mass mortality events (MMEs), understanding how scale effects community assembly of necrophagous insects and the resulting bottom-up or top-down effects on the impacted ecosystem are of utmost importance...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128494/the-shrimp-hormone-receptor-acts-as-an-anti-apoptosis-and-anti-inflammatory-factor-in-innate-immunity
#15
Zhi Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Previously, we found that the expression of several genes, including HR, varied in Drosophila melanogaster after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this present study, we further investigated the role of HR in Kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus and determined its anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation role in the innate immune system. We successfully identified a partial sequence (866 bp in length) of the M. japonicus hormone receptor ligand binding domain (mjHR_LBD/mjHR). The 5' end of mjHR was successfully obtained; the open reading frame (ORF) ran from 33 to 701 bp, and encoded a protein containing 222 amino acids...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127991/arthropod-borne-agents-in-wild-orinoco-geese-neochen-jubata-in-brazil
#16
Karin Werther, Mayara de Cássia Luzzi, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Juliana Paula de Oliveira, José Roberto Ferreira Alves Junior, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Although Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) is an anatid species widely distributed in South America, scarce are the reports on the occurrence of arthropod-borne pathogens in this avian species. The present work aimed to verify, by serological and molecular methods, the occurrence of haemosporida piroplasmids and Anaplasmataceae agents in wild Orinoco geese captured in Brazil. Between 2010 and 2014, 62 blood samples were collected from free-living geese captured in the Araguaia River, Goiás State, Brazil. Six geese (10%) were seropositive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, showing titers ranging from 40 and 80...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127990/bartonella-bats-and-bugs-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Eloi Claret de Fleurieu, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Chao-Chin Chang
Ecological, immunological, and epidemiological factors enable bats to transmit an increasingly recognized spectrum of zoonotic agents, and bartonellae are among those emerging pathogens identified in bats and their arthropod ectoparasites. Current data reveal a multifaceted disease ecology where diverse host species distributed around the world interact with a number of Bartonella spp. and several potential vectors. This review summarizes the methods and findings of studies conducted since 2005 to illustrate that Bartonella bacteremia varies by bat species, location, and other potential variables, such as diet with a very high prevalence in hematophagous bats...
December 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127737/genomic-data-from-arthropods-reveal-high-conservation-but-divergent-evolutionary-pattern-of-polycomb-trithorax-group-genes-in-arthropods
#18
Feng Jiang, Qing Liu, Xiang Liu, Xian-Hui Wang, Le Kang
Epigenetic gene control is maintained by chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) genes, which act antagonistically via the interplay between PcG and TrxG regulation to generate silenced or permissive transcriptional states. In this study, we searched for PcG/TrxG genes in 180 arthropod genomes, covering all the sequenced arthropod genomes at the time of conducting this study, to perform a global investigation of PcG/TrxG genes in a phylogenetic frame. Results of ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed that the ancestor of arthropod species has an almost complete repertoire of PcG/TrxG genes, and most of these genes were seldom lost above order level...
November 11, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127355/the-habitats-humans-provide-factors-affecting-the-diversity-and-composition-of-arthropods-in-houses
#19
Misha Leong, Matthew A Bertone, Amy M Savage, Keith M Bayless, Robert R Dunn, Michelle D Trautwein
The indoor biome is a novel habitat which recent studies have shown exhibit not only high microbial diversity, but also high arthropod diversity. Here, we analyze findings from a survey of 50 houses (southeastern USA) within the context of additional survey data concerning house and room features, along with resident behavior, to explore how arthropod diversity and community composition are influenced by physical aspects of rooms and their usage, as well as the lifestyles of human residents. We found that indoor arthropod diversity is strongly influenced by access to the outdoors and carpeted rooms hosted more types of arthropods than non-carpeted rooms...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127004/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-sifamide-precursor-and-receptor-in-a-hymenopteran-insect-bombus-terrestris
#20
Els Lismont, Nele Mortelmans, Heleen Verlinden, Jozef Vanden Broeck
SIFamides (SIFa) are a family of neuropeptides that are highly conserved among arthropods. In insects, this peptide is mainly expressed in four medial interneurons in the pars intercerebralis and affects sexual behavior, sleep regulation and pupal mortality. Furthermore, an influence on the hatching rate has been observed. The first SIFa receptor (SIFR) was pharmacologically characterized in Drosophila melanogaster and is homologous to the vertebrate gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) receptor (NPFFR). In this study, we pharmacologically characterized the SIFR of the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris...
November 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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