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Niacin induced hyperglycemia

Tarek K Motawi, Hebatallah A Darwish, Manal A Hamed, Nagy S El-Rigal, Asmaa F Aboul Naser
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin inactivity or insufficiency with increasing risk of developing specific complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), niacin, as well as their combination in ameliorating brain disorders associated with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Glibenclamide, a reference diabetic drug, and donepezil, an acetylcholine inhibitor drug, were also evaluated...
April 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Lihua Chen, Wing Yan So, Stephen Y T Li, Qianni Cheng, Barbara J Boucher, Po Sing Leung
The widely used lipid-lowering drug niacin is reported to induce hyperglycemia during chronic and high-dose treatments, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, the niacin receptor [G-protein-coupled receptor, (GPR) 109a], has been localized to islet cells while its potential role therein remains unclear. We, therefore, aimed at investigating how GPR109a regulates islet beta-cell function and its downstream signaling using high-fat diet-induced obese mice and INS-1E beta cells. Eight-week niacin treatment elevated blood glucose concentration in obese mice with increased areas under the curve at oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests...
March 15, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
R Preston Mason, Robert F Jacob
Lipid oxidation leads to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and foam cell formation during atherogenesis. Glucose also contributes to lipid oxidation and promotes pathologic changes in membrane structural organization, including the development of cholesterol crystalline domains. In this study, we tested the comparative effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid indicated for the treatment of very high triglyceride (TG) levels, and other TG-lowering agents (fenofibrate, niacin, and gemfibrozil) on lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as membrane lipid vesicles prepared in the presence of glucose (200 mg/dL)...
February 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Derek M Erion, Amanda Lapworth, Paul A Amor, Guoyun Bai, Nicholas B Vera, Ronald W Clark, Qingyun Yan, Yimin Zhu, Trenton T Ross, Julie Purkal, Matthew Gorgoglione, Guodong Zhang, Vinicius Bonato, Levenia Baker, Nicole Barucci, Theresa D'Aquila, Alan Robertson, Robert J Aiello, Jiangli Yan, Jeff Trimmer, Timothy P Rolph, Jeffrey A Pfefferkorn
Hyperglycemia resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the main cause of diabetic complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy. A reduction in hyperglycemia has been shown to prevent these associated complications supporting the importance of glucose control. Glucokinase converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and determines glucose flux into the β-cells and hepatocytes. Since activation of glucokinase in β-cells is associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia, we hypothesized that selectively activating hepatic glucokinase would reduce fasting and postprandial glucose with minimal risk of hypoglycemia...
2014: PloS One
Anastazia Kei, Moses S Elisaf
INTRODUCTION: Nicotinic acid (NA), the oldest hypolipidemic drug, possesses unique broad-spectrum beneficial effects on lipid profiles. Specifically, NA reduces both triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, while significantly increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, NA is often avoided in the clinical setting, or prematurely discontinued by the provider or patient, due to side effects that could possibly be prevented (flushing, gastrointestinal disorders) or that are feared out of proportion to their true incidence rate (hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia)...
July 2012: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jingxia Wu, Fang Zhang, Menghong Yan, Dongmei Wu, Qiujing Yu, Yi Zhang, Ben Zhou, Michael W McBurney, Qiwei Zhai
UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE Wld(S) (Wallerian degeneration slow), a fusion protein from a spontaneous mutation containing full-length nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1, has NAD biosynthesis activity and protects axon from degeneration robustly. NAD biosynthesis is also implicated in insulin secretion in β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wld(S) on β-cells and glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Wld(S) mice, we measured the expression of Wld(S) in pancreas and analyzed the effect of Wld(S) on glucose homeostasis...
December 2011: Diabetes
D B McNamara, S N Murthy, A N Fonseca, C V Desouza, P J Kadowitz, V A Fonseca
Diabetes is a complex disorder characterized by impaired insulin formation, release or action (insulin resistance), elevated blood glucose, and multiple long-term complications. It is a common endocrine disorder of humans and is associated with abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. There are two forms of diabetes, classified as type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia is due to an absolute lack of insulin, whereas in type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia is due to a relative lack of insulin and insulin resistance...
January 2009: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
John R Guyton, Harold E Bays
Niacin has beneficial effects on plasma lipoproteins and has demonstrated clinical benefits in reducing cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis progression. The side effects of niacin, however, have limited its use in general clinical practice. An understanding of cutaneous flushing based on the best available evidence should enhance patient education efforts and improve adherence. Although serious hepatic toxicity from niacin administration has been reported, it is largely confined to the use of slow-release formulations given as unregulated nutritional supplements...
March 19, 2007: American Journal of Cardiology
D A Roe
Elderly diabetics take more drugs than other groups of elderly patients. Their multiple drug use is largely explained by the drugs that they take for complications of their primary disease; these include cardiovascular drugs for macrovascular disease and antibiotics for secondary infections. They also take more drugs for control of other conditions that are etiologically associated with the development and progression of their diabetes, including antihypertensive agents, antilipemic agents and steroids, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are taken for relief of joint pain that is intensified by arthritic joints bearing excess weight...
1988: Drug-nutrient Interactions
H J Quabbe, S Bunge, T Walz, B Bratzke
In 11 freely moving rhesus and 5 Java monkeys the plasma GH, PRL, and cortisol responses to suppression and elevation of plasma glucose and FFA concentrations were studied. Blood was sampled and infusions given via chronic jugular catheters, extended via a swivel into the adjacent room. In the rhesus monkeys, the mean plasma GH concentration rose during insulin-induced hypoglycemia from 4.7 +/- 1.9 to 17.4 +/- 2.5 micrograms/L at 60 min (P less than 0.001), and the mean plasma cortisol concentration from 320 +/- 55 to 700 +/- 133 nmol/L at 90 min (P less than 0...
April 1990: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Y Henkin, A Oberman, D C Hurst, J P Segrest
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of niacin therapy in dyslipidemic individuals. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of patients' charts. SETTING: An outpatient referral-based clinic specializing in the treatment of lipid disorders. PATIENTS: All patients with dyslipidemia treated by niacin (n = 82) at the Atherosclerosis Detection and Prevention Clinic during 1987 to 1990, including a subgroup of 17 dyslipidemic heart transplant recipients...
September 1991: American Journal of Medicine
D K McCulloch, S E Kahn, M W Schwartz, D J Koerker, J P Palmer
To study the interaction between insulin secretion and insulin action in maintaining glucose homeostasis, we induced experimental insulin resistance in eight normal baboons, in six baboons treated with 40 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ-40), and in six baboons treated with 200 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ-200). Insulin resistance was induced by a 20-d continuous intravenous infusion of nicotinic acid (NA). Normal animals showed compensatory increases in several measures of insulin secretion (fasting insulin [FI], acute insulin response to arginine [AIRarg], acute insulin response to glucose [AIRgluc], and glucose potentiation slope [delta AIRarg/delta G]), with no net change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAtc)...
April 1991: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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