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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538024/effects-of-vilazodone-on-suicidal-ideation-and-behavior-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-post-hoc-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials
#1
Michael E Thase, John Edwards, Suresh Durgam, Changzheng Chen, Cheng-Tao Chang, Maju Mathews, Carl P Gommoll
Treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behavior are ongoing concerns with antidepressants. Vilazodone, currently approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, has also been evaluated in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Post-hoc analyses of vilazodone trials were carried out to examine its effects on suicidal ideation and behavior in adults with MDD or GAD. Data were pooled from vilazodone trials in MDD (four studies) and GAD (three studies). The incidence of suicide-related events was analyzed on the basis of treatment-emergent adverse event reporting and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) monitoring...
May 19, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535460/a-synchrotron-infrared-absorption-study-of-pressure-induced-polymerization-of-acrylamide
#2
Himal Bhatt, M N Deo
The hydrogen bonded dimeric structure of the model amide based molecular crystal acrylamide has been investigated under pressure using micro-spectroscopy, employing synchrotron infrared radiation up to 24GPa at room temperature. The high pressure spectra indicate systematic evolution of new features above 4GPa, which have been identified to be due to the emergence of a polymeric phase. The polymerization gets completed up to 16.8GPa and the observed changes are found to be irreversible upon the release of pressure...
May 1, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535356/one-dimensional-carrier-confinement-in-giant-cds-cdse-excitonic-nanoshells
#3
Natalia Razgoniaeva, Pavel Moroz, Mingrui Yang, Darya S Budkina, Holly Eckard, Marissa Augspurger, Dmitriy Khon, Alexander N Tarnovsky, Mikhail Zamkov
The emerging generation of quantum dot optoelectronic devices offers an appealing prospect of a size-tunable band gap. The confinement-enabled control over electronic properties, however, requires nanoparticles to be sufficiently small, which leads to a large area of inter-particle boundaries in a film. Such interfaces lead to a high density of surface traps which ultimately increase the electrical resistance of a solid. To address this issue, we have developed an inverse energy-gradient core/shell architecture supporting the quantum confinement in nanoparticles larger than the exciton Bohr radius...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535306/examination-of-psychosocial-and-physiological-risk-for-bulimic-symptoms-in-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-transitioning-to-an-insulin-pump-a-pilot-study
#4
Claire M Peterson, Deborah Young-Hyman, Sarah Fischer, Jessica T Markowitz, Andrew B Muir, Lori M Laffel
This study tested hypotheses drawn from a risk model positing that psychosocial risk plus disease-related and treatment factors contribute to bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) transitioning to an insulin pump. The goal of this study was to examine whether disease-related factors, particularly disease- and treatment-based disruption in hunger and satiety, contribute to report of bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D after accounting for psychosocial risk factors. 43 youth (ages 10-17, 54% female) with established T1D were recruited before transition from multiple daily injections to insulin-pump therapy from three tertiary pediatric diabetes centers...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534885/modeling-combination-hcv-prevention-among-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#5
Natasha K Martin, Britt Skaathun, Peter Vickerman, David Stuart
People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534797/transition-icons-for-time-series-visualization-and-exploratory-analysis
#6
Paul Nickerson, Raheleh Baharloo, Amal A Wanigatunga, Todd D Manini, Patrick J Tighe, Parisa Rashidi
The modern healthcare landscape has seen the rapid emergence of techniques and devices which temporally monitor and record physiological signals. The prevalence of time series data within the healthcare field necessitates the development of methods which can analyze the data in order to draw meaningful conclusions. Time series behavior is notoriously difficult to intuitively understand due to its intrinsic high-dimensionality, which is compounded in the case of analyzing groups of time series collected from different patients...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534459/differences-in-neural-response-to-extinction-recall-in-young-adults-with-or-without-history-of-behavioral-inhibition
#7
Tomer Shechner, Nathan A Fox, Jamie A Mash, Johanna M Jarcho, Gang Chen, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is associated with risk for anxiety disorders, yet only about half of behaviorally inhibited children manifest anxiety later in life. We compared brain function and behavior during extinction recall in a sample of nonanxious young adults characterized in childhood with BI (n = 22) or with no BI (n = 28). Three weeks after undergoing fear conditioning and extinction, participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging extinction recall task assessing memory and threat differentiation for conditioned stimuli...
May 23, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533566/cohort-changes-in-the-social-distribution-of-tolerant-sexual-attitudes
#8
Fred C Pampel
Though many studies have described societal-wide changes in tolerance for sexual behaviors outside marriage, few have examined how the social distribution of tolerant attitudes has changed. A diffusion-of-innovations approach predicts nonlinear change in the distribution: high SES groups adopt the attitudes first, which produces a positive relationship, but diffusion to other SES groups subsequently weakens the association with SES. I test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2014 to compare the SES determinants of attitudes toward premarital sex, extramarital sex, same-gender sex, and teenage sex across 86 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1985...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533367/data-driven-modeling-reveals-cell-behaviors-controlling-self-organization-during-myxococcus-xanthus-development
#9
Christopher R Cotter, Heinz-Bernd Schüttler, Oleg A Igoshin, Lawrence J Shimkets
Collective cell movement is critical to the emergent properties of many multicellular systems, including microbial self-organization in biofilms, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. However, even the best-studied systems lack a complete picture of how diverse physical and chemical cues act upon individual cells to ensure coordinated multicellular behavior. Known for its social developmental cycle, the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus uses coordinated movement to generate three-dimensional aggregates called fruiting bodies...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533363/collective-action-and-the-evolution-of-social-norm-internalization
#10
Sergey Gavrilets, Peter J Richerson
Human behavior is strongly affected by culturally transmitted norms and values. Certain norms are internalized (i.e., acting according to a norm becomes an end in itself rather than merely a tool in achieving certain goals or avoiding social sanctions). Humans' capacity to internalize norms likely evolved in our ancestors to simplify solving certain challenges-including social ones. Here we study theoretically the evolutionary origins of the capacity to internalize norms. In our models, individuals can choose to participate in collective actions as well as punish free riders...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532348/perceptual-learning-use-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#11
Wu Li
Our perceptual abilities significantly improve with practice. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, offers an ideal window for understanding use-dependent changes in the adult brain. Different experimental approaches have revealed a diversity of behavioral and cortical changes associated with perceptual learning, and different interpretations have been given with respect to the cortical loci and neural processes responsible for the learning. Accumulated evidence has begun to put together a coherent picture of the neural substrates underlying perceptual learning...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532212/soft-matter-in-lipid-protein-interactions
#12
Michael F Brown
Membrane lipids and cellular water (soft matter) are becoming increasingly recognized as key determinants of protein structure and function. Their influences can be ascribed to modulation of the bilayer properties or to specific binding and allosteric regulation of protein activity. In this review, we first consider hydrophobic matching of the intramembranous proteolipid boundary to explain the conformational changes and oligomeric states of proteins within the bilayer. Alternatively, membranes can be viewed as complex fluids, whose properties are linked to key biological functions...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531980/self-assembled-nanomicelles-of-damnacanthal-loaded-amphiphilic-modified-chitosan-preparation-characterization-and-cytotoxicity-study
#13
Pakin Sukamporn, Seung Joon Baek, Wandee Gritsanapan, Suwabun Chirachanchai, Thararat Nualsanit, Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu
Damnacanthal (Dam) is a phytochemical with many pharmacological properties including anticancer activity. However, its hydrophobicity, poor bioavailability and stability limit its application in many biological approaches. In this study, Dam nanomicelles as an emerging platform were developed to overcome limitations. The deoxycholic and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether grafted chitosan (DCA-CS-mPEG) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR and the degree of substitution (DS) was determined by elemental analysis (EA)...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530795/modelling-living-cells-response-to-surface-tension-and-chemical-patterns
#14
Marco Macis, Francesca Lugli, Francesco Zerbetto
Mechanobiology is an important epigenetic factor. It influences cell functioning and bears on gene induction, protein synthesis, cell growth and differentiation. In the presence of patterned chemical cues, living cells can take shapes that are far from that of a drop of fluid. These shapes are characterized by inward curvatures that are pinned at the points of location of the cues. The mechano-chemical interactions that orchestrate cell behavior is simulated and controlled by modeling the cells as made by parcels of fluid...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530427/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-pubertal-timing-and-psychopathology-in-adolescence-are-there-sex-differences-in-risk
#15
Josie M Ullsperger, Molly A Nikolas
Research examining pubertal timing effects on psychopathology has emphasized that a subset of adolescents, particularly females, who experience early pubertal maturation relative to their peers appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology. The aims of the current meta-analysis were (a) to quantify the magnitude of early pubertal timing effects on psychopathology, (b) to examine potential moderators of pubertal timing effects (sex, psychopathology domain, sample composition, measurement method, and mean sample age), and (c) to examine findings in relation to hypotheses in the extant literature explicating differential pubertal timing effects for early versus late youth and males versus females...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530414/quality-charters-or-quality-members-a-control-theory-perspective-on-team-charters-and-team-performance
#16
Stephen H Courtright, Brian W McCormick, Sal Mistry, Jiexin Wang
Though prevalent in practice, team charters have only recently received scholarly attention. However, most of this work has been relatively devoid of theory, and consequently, key questions about why and under what conditions team charter quality affects team performance remain unanswered. To address these gaps, we draw on macro organizational control theory to propose that team charter quality serves as a team-level "behavior" control mechanism that builds task cohesion through a structured exercise. We then juxtapose team charter quality with an "input" team control mechanism that influences the emergence of task cohesion more organically: team conscientiousness...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530343/-sexuality-in-psychiatric-hospitalization-reality-versus-policy
#17
Anat Shalev, Gabriel Weil, Ludmila Rubinstein
Psychiatric hospitalization might be a necessity for certain groups of patients with mental illness, involving acute symptoms and substantial disability which do not allow independent living in the community. In such situations, it is crucial to enable inpatients to enjoy the best possible quality of life, including the right for sexual autonomy as a basic human right. Satisfying sexual life is part of meaningful life and plays an important role in personal and social recovery. On the other hand, sexual relations in psychiatric wards raise many dilemmas, including the need to protect inpatients from sexual abuse and victimization, particularly when mental illness involves judgment deficits and decreased ability to express autonomous will...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530278/synthesis-and-fast-transfer-of-monolayer-mos2-on-reusable-fused-silica
#18
Tao Liang, Shuang Xie, Weifei Fu, Yu Cai, Chinnathambi Shanmugavel, Hideo Iwai, Daisuke Fujita, Nobutaka Hanagata, Hongzheng Chen, Mingsheng Xu
Atomically thin, two-dimensional materials ranging from superconductors, metals, semiconductors to insulators are emerging as potential candidates for the next-generation digital electronics and optoelectronic applications. Their synthesis on a commonly used substrate and fast transfer to a plenty of desired substrates need to be addressed to meet the industrialization criteria for practical applications. In this study, fused silica, which is amorphous, transparent, and inexpensive, was examined as a substrate for MoS2 synthesis...
May 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529411/the-electronically-activated-recorder-ear-a-method-for-the-naturalistic-observation-of-daily-social-behavior
#19
Matthias R Mehl
This article reviews the Electronically Activated Recorder or EAR as an ambulatory ecological momentary assessment tool for the real-world observation of daily behavior. Technically, the EAR is an audio recorder that intermittently records snippets of ambient sounds while participants go about their lives. Conceptually, it is a naturalistic observation method that yields an acoustic log of a person's day as it unfolds. The power of the EAR lies in unobtrusively collecting authentic real-life observational data...
April 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529398/are-mothers-and-fathers-parenting-characteristics-associated-with-emerging-adults-academic-engagement
#20
Emily A Waterman, Eva S Lefkowitz
Although parenting is clearly linked to academic engagement in adolescence, less is known about links between parenting and academic engagement in emerging adulthood. A diverse sample of college students (N = 633; 53.1% female, 45.7% White/European American, 28.3% Asian American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 26.4% Hispanic/Latino American, 21.6% Black/African American, and 2.8% Native American/American Indian) answered surveys about mothers' and fathers' parenting style, parent-offspring relationship quality, academic attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic performance...
June 2017: Journal of Family Issues
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