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Ewan M Campbell, Catriona H McIntosh, Alan S Bowman
Varroa destructor is the major pest of Apis mellifera and contributes to the global honey bee health crisis threatening food security. Developing new control strategies to combat Varroa will require the application of molecular biology, including gene expression studies by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Both high quality RNA samples and suitable stable internal reference genes are required for accurate gene expression studies. In this study, ten candidate genes (succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), large ribsosmal subunit, TATA-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 18S rRNA (18S), heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), cyclophilin, α-tubulin, actin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes using the geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and comparative ΔCq algorithims...
2016: PloS One
Abigail Walker, Jaime Jimeno Fraile, Johnathan G Hubbard
BACKGROUND: As many as 25% of women with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) present during their child bearing years. However there is a paucity of data about management of PHPT in pregnancy, despite its association with severe complications including foetal loss. A recent review called for early surgical intervention to optimise maternal and foetal outcomes. We present our experience of parathyroidectomy in five pregnant patients, representing the largest series reported to date, alongside a review of literature to formulate a best evidence approach to management...
August 2014: Gland Surgery
Jemma Booyens, Mapitsi Silvester Thantsha
BACKGROUND: It is generally reported that garlic (Allium sativum) harms pathogenic but not beneficial bacteria. Although numerous studies supporting the alleged garlic effects on pathogens are available, there are limited studies to prove this claim for beneficial bacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against probiotic bifidobacteria. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract (GCE) on Bifidobacterium bifidum LMG 11041, B...
2014: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Laura Surmon, Gabriele Bobek, Angela Makris, Christine L Chiu, Craig A Lind, Joanne M Lind, Annemarie Hennessy
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy characterised by gestational hypertension and proteinuria and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both mothers and infants. Certain anti-angiogenic factors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and the placental expression of factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) are often reported in studies of normal and diseased placentae. Despite evidence showing significant differences in placental gene expression by collection site, many studies fail to provide sufficient details on sample selection and collection...
2014: BMC Research Notes
Atif Ali Hashmi, Naveen Faridi, Muhammad Muzzammil Edhi, Asad Jafri, Mehmood Khan
Fibro-osseous pseudotumor of the digit is rare benign lesion of subcutaneous tissue which is thought to be reactive process as a result of repeated trauma. We report a case of an ulcerated lesion of skin of middle finger, clinically thought to be leishmaniasis which after punch biopsy followed by excision turned out to be fibrosseous pseudotumor. Diagnosis of fibro-osseous pseudotumor requires immense precision as it can clinically mimic unungal exostosis and can sometimes be misinterpreted clinically and radiologically as myositis ossificans...
January 9, 2014: International Archives of Medicine
Robert Gakwaya, Xingwen Li, Yin Ling Wong, Swathilekha Chivukula, Elizabeth J Collins, Jason J Evans
A series of positionally pure triglycerides (TAGs) of the form LXL, YLY, AXA, and YAY was synthesized and analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. L and A represent the linoleate and arachidate moieties, respectively, and X and Y represent large arrays of fatty acid moieties of various chain lengths, degree of unsaturations, double-bond positions, and cis/trans configurations. The abundances of the collision-induced decomposition (CID) products of ammoniated TAGs were examined as a function of these parameters...
2007: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
A K Bacon, A D Paix, J A Williamson, R K Webb, M J Chapman
BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax is a potentially dangerous condition which may arise unexpectedly during anaesthesia. The diagnosis is one of exclusion, as initial changes in vital signs (cardiorespiratory decompensation and difficulty with ventilation) are non-specific, and other causes of such changes are more common, whereas local signs may be difficult to elicit, especially without full access to the chest. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for pneumothorax, in the management of pneumothorax occurring in association with anaesthesia...
June 2005: Quality & Safety in Health Care
K W Schmidt
The author comments on the consensus statement from the point of view of an ethics consultant in Germany. Since many hospitals in Germany are under considerable competitive pressure, mission statements are becoming more and more important in order to draw a distinction between the different hospital types and to convey the meaning of the corporate identity both internally and externally. The Consensus Statement, which provides basic orientation without going into too much detail, can be a helpful initial document...
August 2001: Christian Bioethics
J T Koontz, G T Charras, R E Guldberg
A finite element method to simulate the formation of an interconnected trabectular bone microstructure oriented with respect to applied in vivo mechanical forces is introduced and quantitatively compared to experimental data from a hydraulic bone chamber implant model. Randomly located 45 microm mineralized nodules were used as the initial condition for the model simulations to represent an early stage of intramembranous bone formation. Boundary conditions were applied consistent with the mechanical environment provided by the in vivo bone chamber model...
December 2001: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
D R Pepper, N T Ellis
Whilst covertly in the past many ideas developed in academic environments have made their way into commercial applications, there is growing acknowledgment that this model may be necessary for both funding academics and for project enrichment in private ventures. This paper seeks to explore and expound on the various pressures related to protocol development and the creation of a MAP (Multiphasic Algorithimic Protocol) Engine as a commercial venture based on an evolution from an academic environment, into a service oriented commercial product...
2001: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
S B Hanauer
In most Crohn's disease scenarios a step-up approach has been used to initiate therapy according to disease severity. However, this approach has ignored the concept of inductive therapy followed by maintenance treatment to prevent relapse. It is apparent from clinical trials that the success of maintenance approaches will depend upon the inductive therapy. Furthermore, the step-up approach often results in steroid-dependent or refractory disease. The potential of aggressive initial therapy followed by step-down maintenance therapy affords the potential to modify the disease course, a possibility that has not been accomplished by current therapeutic algorithims...
April 2001: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
P A Love, D G Lewis, I A Al-Affan, C W Smith
The Monte Carlo codes EGS4 and MCNP have been compared when calculating radiotherapy depth doses in water. The aims of the work were to study (i) the differences between calculated depth doses in water for a range of monoenergetic photon energies and (ii) the relative efficiency of the two codes for different electron transport energy cut-offs. The depth doses from the two codes agree with each other within the statistical uncertainties of the calculations (1-2%). The relative depth doses also agree with data tabulated in the British Journal of Radiology Supplement 25...
May 1998: Physics in Medicine and Biology
A M Scott, H Macapinlac, J Zhang, F Daghighian, N Montemayor, H Kalaigian, G Sgouros, M C Graham, K Kolbert, S D Yeh
Image registration of 131I SPECT with CT scans was performed in a patient with metastatic thyroid carcinoma using an external fiduciary band and a three-dimensional surface-fitting algorithim. Areas of metastatic disease taking up 131I were accurately localized to the liver, lungs and vertebral bodies; providing information that could not be obtained by planar or SPECT images alone. Based on these findings, further invasive diagnostic procedures were not performed, therefore considerably altering management in this patient...
January 1995: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
A Milosavljević
A format 1 technology for performing massive hybridization experiments has been developed as part of the sequencing by hybridization (SBH) project. Arrays of tens of thousands of clones are interrogated with short oligomer probes to determine sets of oligomers that are present in individual clones. SBH requires highly discriminative hybridizations with a large number of probes. One of the main uses of a reconstructed DNA sequence is in a similarity search against databases of known DNA. We argue that sequence reconstruction, even partial, should not be performed for this particular purpose; we provide an information-theoretic proof that the oligomer lists obtained from hybridization experiments should be used directly for similarity searches...
1995: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
S R Fox, M S Smith
To ascertain whether changes in the pattern of GnRH release from the hypothalmus occur during the 4-day rat estrous cycle, the pattern of LH release was characterized on each day of the estrous cycle, and the results were interpreted in light of the changes in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH previously described by this laboratory to occur during this time. Blood samples were taken from intact, freely moving rats via venous catheters at 6- to 10-min intervals for 3-4 h. LH pulse height and LH interpulse interval were quantified on each day of the cycle, and the transition on the afternoon of proestrus from tonic LH release to the preovulatory LH surge was detailed...
April 1985: Endocrinology
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