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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334939/association-between-tau-deposition-and-antecedent-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-rates-in-normal-and-early-symptomatic-individuals
#1
Duygu Tosun, Susan Landau, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Mark Mintun, William Jagust, Michael W Weiner
A long-term goal of our field is to determine the sequence of pathological events, which ultimately lead to cognitive decline and dementia. In this study, we first assessed the patterns of brain tau tangle accumulation (measured with the positron emission tomography tracer 18F-AV-1451) associated with well-established Alzheimer's disease factors in a cohort including cognitively healthy elderly individuals and individuals at early symptomatic stages of Alzheimer's disease. We then explored highly associated patterns of greater 18F-AV-1451 binding and increased annualized change in cortical amyloid-β plaques measured as florbetapir positron emission tomography binding antecedent to 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography scans, and to what extent these multimodal pattern associations explained the variance in cognitive performance and clinical outcome measures, independently and jointly...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334675/exercise-increases-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
A Kerling, M Kück, U Tegtbur, L Grams, S Weber-Spickschen, A Hanke, B Stubbs, K G Kahl
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Existing data on exercise treatment in people with MDD are inconsistent concerning the effect of exercise on BDNF pointing either to increased or unaltered BDNF concentrations. However, studies in non-depressed persons demonstrated a significant effect on resting peripheral BDNF concentrations in aerobic training interventions. Given the lack of clarity mentioned above, the current study aimed at examining the effect of adjunctive exercise on serum BDNF levels in guideline based treated patients with MDD...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334252/individualized-prediction-of-reading-comprehension-ability-using-gray-matter-volume
#3
Zaixu Cui, Mengmeng Su, Liangjie Li, Hua Shu, Gaolang Gong
Reading comprehension is a crucial reading skill for learning and putatively contains 2 key components: reading decoding and linguistic comprehension. Current understanding of the neural mechanism underlying these reading comprehension components is lacking, and whether and how neuroanatomical features can be used to predict these 2 skills remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we analyzed a large sample from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) dataset and successfully built multivariate predictive models for these 2 skills using whole-brain gray matter volume features...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334217/testosterone-effects-on-the-brain-in-transgender-men
#4
Sarah M Burke, Amir H Manzouri, Cecilia Dhejne, Karin Bergström, Stefan Arver, Jamie D Feusner, Ivanka Savic-Berglund
Transgender individuals experience incongruence between their gender identity and birth-assigned sex. The resulting gender dysphoria (GD), which some gender-incongruent individuals experience, is theorized to be a consequence of atypical cerebral sexual differentiation, but support for this assertion is inconsistent. We recently found that GD is associated with disconnected networks involved in self-referential thinking and own body perception. Here, we investigate how these networks in trans men (assigned female at birth with male gender identity) are affected by testosterone...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333508/morphological-variability-in-second-language-learners-an-examination-of-electrophysiological-and-production-data
#5
José Alemán Bañón, David Miller, Jason Rothman
We examined sources of morphological variability in second language (L2) learners of Spanish whose native language (L1) is English, with a focus on L1-L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event-related potentials to examine noun-adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun-adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half were masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half were used in the singular...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332369/gender-specific-associations-between-chgb-genetic-variants-and-schizophrenia-in-a-korean-population
#6
Joong Gon Shin, Jeong Hyun Kim, Chul Soo Park, Bong Jo Kim, Jae Won Kim, Ihn Geun Choi, Jaeuk Hwang, Hyoung Doo Shin, Sung Il Woo
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder and is known to be affected by genetic factors. The chromogranin B (CHGB), a member of the chromogranin gene family, has been proposed as a candidate gene associated with the risk of schizophrenia. The secretory pathway for peptide hormones and neuropeptides in the brain is regulated by chromogranin proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations between genetic variants of CHGB and schizophrenia susceptibility...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331148/optimized-acquisition-time-for-dopamine-transporter-imaging
#7
Naoya Hayashi, Naoki Akagi, Masataka Sawada, Akiko Hirota, Kenji Ito
Excess acquisition counts were often obtained by the current image acquisition of 30 minutes after (123)I-ioflupane administration in a dopamine transporter study. The purpose of this study was to calculate the minimum acquisition time while retaining sufficient image quality, which could be adjusted for individual characteristics. Fifty patients who underwent dopamine transporter imaging were included in this retrospective study. The brain count density, determined by a striatum phantom, was compared to the participant's characteristics...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330571/use-of-3d-orbital-reconstruction-in-the-assessment-of-orbital-sexual-dimorphism-and-its-pathological-consequences
#8
N Graillon, C Boulze, P Adalian, A Loundou, L Guyot
INTRODUCTION: Surrounded by a variety of structures including the facial sinuses and the brain, the human orbit displays unique anatomical features. It is known that orbital volume correlates with age and sex. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dimorphism of orbital volume relative to the size of the skull, and to establish criteria for gender determination. METHODS: Orbital volume was measured from 3D models of the orbits. The volumes were expressed in relation to the centroid size of the skull, to ensure that any sexual dimorphism in orbital volume was not simply due to a difference in skull size...
February 2017: J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330509/chemically-treated-plasma-a%C3%AE-is-a-potential-blood-based-biomarker-for-screening-cerebral-amyloid-deposition
#9
Jong-Chan Park, Sun-Ho Han, Hyun Jin Cho, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Young Min Choe, Seokjo Kang, Eun Sun Jung, Su Jin Won, Eun Hye Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Dong Young Lee, Inhee Mook-Jung
BACKGROUND: Plasma β-amyloid (Aβ) is a potential candidate for an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker because blood is an easily accessible bio-fluid, which can be collected routinely, and Aβ is one of the major hallmarks of AD pathogenesis in the brain. However, the association between plasma Aβ levels and AD diagnosis is still unclear due to the instability and inaccurate measurements of plasma Aβ levels in the blood of patients with AD. If a consistent value of plasma Aβ from the blood can be obtained, this might help determine whether plasma Aβ is a potential biomarker for AD diagnosis...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327948/three-or-more-courses-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-patients-with-multiply-recurrent-brain-metastases
#10
Rupesh Kotecha, Nicholas Damico, Jacob A Miller, John H Suh, Erin S Murphy, Chandana A Reddy, Gene H Barnett, Michael A Vogelbaum, Lilyana Angelov, Alireza M Mohammadi, Samuel T Chao
BACKGROUND: Although patients with brain metastasis are treated with primary stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the use of salvage therapies and their consequence remains understudied. OBJECTIVE: To study the intracranial recurrence patterns and salvage therapies for patients who underwent multiple SRS courses. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 59 patients with brain metastases who underwent ≥3 SRS courses for new lesions. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for overall survival...
February 4, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327899/thirty-day-readmission-rates-following-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#11
Ashwin G Ramayya, Kalil G Abdullah, Arka N Mallela, John T Pierce, Jayesh Thawani, Dmitry Petrov, Gordon H Baltuch
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a safe and efficacious surgical intervention for several movement disorders; however, the 30-day all-cause readmission rate associated with this procedure has not previously been documented. OBJECT: To perform a retrospective cohort study to estimate the 30-day all-cause readmission rate associated with DBS. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients over the age of 18 who underwent DBS surgery at Pennsylvania Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2014...
March 15, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326463/relationship-between-selenium-lead-and-mercury-in-red-blood-cells-of-saudi-autistic-children
#12
Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny, Hussain Al Dera
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Environmental contribution to ASD is due in large part to the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) as toxic heavy metals or due to a poor detoxification ability as the phenotype of this disorder. Selenium (Se) as an antioxidant element that counteracts the neurotoxicity of Hg, and Pb, presumably through the formation of nontoxic complexes...
March 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323582/white-matter-integrity-in-high-altitude-pilots-exposed-to-hypobaria
#13
Stephen A McGuire, Goldie R E Boone, Paul M Sherman, David F Tate, Joe D Wood, Beenish Patel, George Eskandar, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M Rowland, Geoffrey D Clarke, Patrick M Grogan, John H Sladky, Peter V Kochunov
INTRODUCTION: Nonhypoxic hypobaric (low atmospheric pressure) occupational exposure, such as experienced by U.S. Air Force U-2 pilots and safety personnel operating inside altitude chambers, is associated with increased subcortical white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this discrete WMH change remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that occupational exposure to nonhypoxic hypobaria is associated with altered white matter integrity as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA) measured using diffusion tensor imaging and relate these findings to WMH burden and neurocognitive ability...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322907/different-underlying-mechanisms-for-face-emotion-and-gender-processing-during-feature-selective-attention-evidence-from-event-related-potential-studies
#14
Hailing Wang, Chengteng Ip, Shimin Fu, Pei Sun
Face recognition theories suggest that our brains process invariant (e.g., gender) and changeable (e.g., emotion) facial dimensions separately. To investigate whether these two dimensions are processed in different time courses, we analyzed the selection negativity (SN, an event-related potential component reflecting attentional modulation) elicited by face gender and emotion during a feature selective attention task. Participants were instructed to attend to a combination of face emotion and gender attributes in Experiment 1 (bi-dimensional task) and to either face emotion or gender in Experiment 2 (uni-dimensional task)...
March 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321189/plasma-tau-levels-in-cognitively-normal-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#15
Ming-Jang Chiu, Ling-Yun Fan, Ta-Fu Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Jen-Jei Chieh, Herng-Er Horng
Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320165/hla-genotype-as-a-marker-of-multiple-sclerosis-prognosis-a-pilot-study
#16
Andreas P Lysandropoulos, Nicolas Mavroudakis, Massimo Pandolfo, Kaoutar El Hafsi, Wim van Hecke, Anke Maertens, Thibo Billiet, Annemie Ribbens
OBJECTIVE: The identification of a biomarker with prognostic value is an unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to investigate a possible association of HLA genotype with disease status and progression in MS, based on comprehensive and sensitive clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters to measure disease effects. METHOD: A total of 118 MS patients (79 females, 39 males) underwent HLA typing. Patient MS status was assessed at two time points in a 2-year interval, based on clinical scores (including EDSS, MSSS, T25FW, 9-HPT, SDMT, BVMT, CVLT-II) and MRI evaluations...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319479/brainstem-evoked-potential-indices-of-subcortical-auditory-processing-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Kathy R Vander Werff, Brian Rieger
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess subcortical auditory processing in individuals with chronic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to standard click and complex speech stimuli. Consistent with reports in the literature of auditory problems after mTBI (despite normal-hearing thresholds), it was hypothesized that individuals with mTBI would have evidence of impaired neural encoding in the auditory brainstem compared to noninjured controls, as evidenced by delayed latencies and reduced amplitudes of ABR components...
March 17, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318935/vector-model-supported-optimization-in-volumetric-modulated-arc-stereotactic-radiotherapy-planning-for-brain-metastasis
#18
Eva Sau Fan Liu, Vincent Wing Cheung Wu, Benjamin Harris, Matthew Foote, Margot Lehman, Lawrence Wing Chi Chan
Long planning time in volumetric-modulated arc stereotactic radiotherapy (VMA-SRT) cases can limit its clinical efficiency and use. A vector model could retrieve previously successful radiotherapy cases that share various common anatomic features with the current case. The prsent study aimed to develop a vector model that could reduce planning time by applying the optimization parameters from those retrieved reference cases. Thirty-six VMA-SRT cases of brain metastasis (gender, male [n = 23], female [n = 13]; age range, 32 to 81 years old) were collected and used as a reference database...
March 17, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318282/altered-resting-state-eeg-complexity-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#19
Wen-Chin Weng, Chi-Feng Chang, Lee Chin Wong, Jui-Hsiang Lin, Wang-Tso Lee, Jiann-Shing Shieh
OBJECTIVE: Tourette syndrome is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder in children, and abnormal corticobasal ganglion connectivity is implied for the pathophysiology. Multiscale entropy, an entropy-based method to measure dynamic complexity at multiple temporal scales, is helpful to disclose the information of brain connectivity. This preliminary study investigated the complexity of resting-state electroencephalogram signals using multiscale entropy in children with Tourette syndrome...
March 20, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317246/brain-gene-expression-is-influenced-by-incubation-temperature-during-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-development
#20
Maria Michela Pallotta, Mimmo Turano, Raffaele Ronca, Marcello Mezzasalma, Agnese Petraccioli, Gaetano Odierna, Teresa Capriglione
Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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