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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#1
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097451/vrt-verbal-reasoning-test-a-new-test-for-assessment-of-verbal-reasoning-test-realization-and-italian-normative-data-from-a-multicentric-study
#2
Benedetta Basagni, Claudio Luzzatti, Eduardo Navarrete, Marina Caputo, Gessica Scrocco, Alessio Damora, Laura Giunchi, Paola Gemignani, Annarita Caiazzo, Maria Grazia Gambini, Renato Avesani, Mauro Mancuso, Luigi Trojano, Antonio De Tanti
Verbal reasoning is a complex, multicomponent function, which involves activation of functional processes and neural circuits distributed in both brain hemispheres. Thus, this ability is often impaired after brain injury. The aim of the present study is to describe the construction of a new verbal reasoning test (VRT) for patients with brain injury and to provide normative values in a sample of healthy Italian participants. Three hundred and eighty healthy Italian subjects (193 women and 187 men) of different ages (range 16-75 years) and educational level (primary school to postgraduate degree) underwent the VRT...
January 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095032/the-trajectories-of-overall-disability-in-the-first-5-years-after-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Marit V Forslund, Cecilie Roe, Paul B Perrin, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Juan Lu, Svein Berntsen, Nada Andelic
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To assess longitudinal trajectories of overall disability after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine whether those trajectories could be predicted by socio-demographic and injury characteristics. METHODS: Demographics and injury characteristics of 105 individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI were extracted from medical records. At the 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-ups, TBI-related disability was assessed by the GOSE. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used to examine functional outcomes up to 5 years following injury and whether those outcomes could be predicted by: time, gender, age, relationship, education, employment pre-injury, occupation, GCS, cause of injury, length of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), CT findings and injury severity score, as well as the interactions between each of these predictors and time...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092362/the-role-of-endothelial-hif-1-%C3%AE-in-the-response-to-sublethal-hypoxia-in-c57bl-6-mouse-pups
#4
Qi Li, Michael Michaud, Chan Park, Yan Huang, Rachael Couture, Frank Girodano, Michael L Schwartz, Joseph A Madri
Chronic sublethal hypoxia, a complication of premature birth, is associated with cognitive and motor handicaps. Responsiveness to and recovery from this hypoxic environment is dependent on induction of HIF-1 α in the cells affected. Microvascular endothelial-glial and microvascular endothelial-neuronal precursor interactions have been found to be dynamic and reciprocal, involving autocrine and paracrine signaling, with response and recovery correlated with baseline levels and levels of induction of HIF-1 α...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087392/predictors-and-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-occurrence-in-cerebral-gliomas-what-to-look-for-in-clinicopathology
#5
Cheng Huang, Xiao-Sa Chi, Xin Hu, Ni Chen, Qiao Zhou, Dong Zhou, Jin-Mei Li
Gliomas, especially low-grade gliomas, are highly epileptogenic brain tumors. Histopathological information is valuable in evaluating the diagnosis and/or biologic behavior of various gliomas. Here we explored the clinical data and histopathological predictors of the occurrence of epilepsy in patients with gliomas. A retrospective study examined 310 consecutive patients who had undergone surgical treatment for gliomas in our institution from January 2013 to January 2015. Clinical data and pathological examination results were analyzed...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087295/postconditioning-induced-neuroprotection-mechanisms-and-applications-in-cerebral-ischemia
#6
REVIEW
Yan-Ying Fan, Wei-Wei Hu, Fang Nan, Zhong Chen
Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) is defined as a series of rapid intermittent interruptions of blood flow at the phase of reperfusion, which produces neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via mobilizing the brain's own endogenous adaptive mechanisms. Now the concept of conventional ischemic PostC has been extended to limb remote ischemic PostC and chemical PostC with hypoxia, volatile anesthetic, CO2, etc. According to the different temporal profile of PostC, it is divided into rapid and delayed PostC...
January 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078351/outcomes-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-treatment-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumours
#8
Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha, Lori-Ann Linkins, Said Y ALKindi, Matthew Cheah, Mark A Crowther, Alfonso Iorio
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common complications in patients with brain tumours. There is limited data available in the literature on VTE treatment in these patients. We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study of patients with primary or metastatic brain cancer who were diagnosed with cancer-associated VTE. Patients were selected after a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who were diagnosed with cancer-associated VTE between January 2010 and January 2014 at the Juravinski Thrombosis Clinic, Hamilton, Canada...
January 12, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077170/prosodic-processing-post-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#9
Gabriela Ilie, Michael D Cusimano, Wenshan Li
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often report difficulties with understanding and producing paralinguistic cues, as well as understanding and producing basic communication tasks. However, a large range of communicative deficits in this population cannot be adequately explained by linguistic impairment. The review examines prosodic processing performance post-TBI, its relationship with injury severity, brain injury localization, recovery and co-occurring psychiatric or mental health issues post-TBI METHODS: A systematic review using several databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, LLBA (Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstract) and Web of Science (January 1980 to May 2015), as well as a manual search of the cited references of the selected articles and the search cited features of PubMed was performed...
January 4, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076832/dietary-supplementation-of-grape-seed-and-skin-flour-mitigates-brain-oxidative-damage-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-rat-gender-dependency
#10
Kamel Charradi, Mohamed Mahmoudi, Takwa Bedhiafi, Safwen Kadri, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
It is unknown whether gender has an impact on brain injury in obesity, and, if so, whether treatment with grape seed and skin flour could exert a protective effect. Both male and female rats were fed a standard diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) during eight weeks and treated with high dosage grape seed and skin flour (GSSF). Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated into the brain with a special emphasis on transition metals determination. HFD induced male-cholesterol overload (+78.12%) and an oxidative stress status characterized by increased lipoperoxidation (+68...
January 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073034/unraveling-the-different-toxic-effect-of-flufenoxuron-on-the-thyroid-endocrine-system-of-the-mongolia-racerunner-eremias-argus-at-different-stages
#11
Jing Chang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Peng Xu, Yinghuan Wang, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Flufenoxuron is a widely used pesticide to inhibit the synthesis of chitin during insect development and its effect on the growth of lizards has been little addressed. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis plays an important role on the development of lizards. In this study, the lizards at different development stages (proliferation and resting stages) were exposed to flufenoxuron for 21 days. The plasma thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland histopathology and expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptors (trα, trβ), deiodinases (dio1, dio2), and transthyretin (ttr) genes were measured to evaluated the toxic effect of flufenoxuron on the HPT axis at different stages...
January 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072803/neural-correlates-of-maladaptive-pain-behavior-in-chronic-neck-pain-a-single-case-control-fmri-study
#12
Konstantin Beinert, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Chronic neck pain patients display functional impairments like decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and reduced sensorimotor function. In patients without structural damage, the reason for the persistence of pain is not well understood. Therefore, it is assumed that in chronic pain states, memory processes play an important role. We have now detected and tested a patient that might help us to better understand the neural correlates of maladaptive pain expectation/memory. This patient displays chronic neck pain and restricted unilateral motion of the cervical spine to the left...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072386/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#13
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070123/a-meta-analysis-of-peripheral-blood-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
X-Y Qin, H-T Wu, C Cao, Y P Loh, Y Cheng
Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069638/feasibility-and-predictors-of-early-discharge-after-percutaneous-edge-to-edge-mitral-valve-repair
#15
Corrado Tamburino, Sergio Buccheri, Antonio Popolo Rubbio, Salvatore Scandura, Maria Elena Di Salvo, Sarah Mangiafico, Sebastiano Immé, Giuseppe Caruso, Matteo Scalia, Antonio Condorelli, Marco Barbanti, Piera Capranzano, Davide Capodanno, Carmelo Grasso
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR) recently emerged as an effective treatment modality for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Length of postprocedural hospital stay may represent a modifiable cost associated with percutaneous treatment. We looked at feasibility, predictors and safety of early discharge (ED), defined as hospital discharge within 72 hours, in patients undergoing PMVR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients treated with MitraClip from October 2008 to December 2015 were analysed...
January 9, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069385/changes-of-renin-angiotensin-system-related-aminopeptidases-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Paul Richard Gard, Sara Fidalgo, Isabelle Lotter, Cassandra Richardson, Nicolas Farina, Jennifer Rusted, Naji Tabet
Activities of aminopeptidases A, B, and N (ApA, ApB & ApN) and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) have been seen to be decreased amongst patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). All of these enzymes are involved with the brain renin-angiotensin system which is believed to be involved with learning and memory. This study aimed to explore the time course and the mechanisms underlying these changes. Serum samples were collected from 45 AD patients at the start of the study, and again 13months later (n=37)...
January 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065620/treatment-response-and-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-are-prognostic-factors-in-a-real-life-limited-disease-small-cell-lung-cancer-patient-cohort-comprehensively-staged-with-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Chukwuka Eze, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Maximilian Niyazi, Guido Hildebrandt, Rainer Fietkau, Claus Belka, Farkhad Manapov
INTRODUCTION: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has proven to decrease the incidence of brain metastases (BMs), with a modest improvement in survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The impact of PCI was evaluated in 184 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. PCI was applied to patients with disease with partial and complete response only when cranial magnetic resonance imaging before and after primary treatment revealed no BMs. Correlation between PCI and overall survival (OS), BM-free survival (BMFS), and time to progression (TTP) was analyzed to describe survival within subgroups...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062908/role-of-altered-cerebello-thalamo-cortical-network-in-the-neurobiology-of-essential-tremor
#18
Abhishek Lenka, Ketaki Swapnil Bhalsing, Rajanikant Panda, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, Rajini M Naduthota, Jitender Saini, Rose Dawn Bharath, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder among adults. Although ET has been recognized as a mono-symptomatic benign illness, reports of non-motor symptoms and non-tremor motor symptoms have increased its clinical heterogeneity. The neural correlates of ET are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the neurobiology of ET using resting state fMRI. METHODS: Resting state functional MR images of 30 patients with ET and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were obtained...
January 6, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061768/a-matched-pair-study-comparing-whole-brain-irradiation-alone-to-radiosurgery-or-fractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-alone-in-patients-irradiated-for-up-to-three-brain-metastases
#19
Dirk Rades, Stefan Janssen, Liesa Dziggel, Oliver Blanck, Amira Bajrovic, Theo Veninga, Steven E Schild
BACKGROUND: This matched-pair study was initiated to validate the results of a retrospective study of 186 patients published in 2007 that compared whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone and radiosurgery (RS) alone for up to three brain metastases. METHODS: One-hundred-fifty-two patients receiving WBI alone for up to three brain metastases were matched with 152 patients treated with RS of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) alone 1:1 for each of eight factors (age, gender, Eastern Oncology Cooperative Group (ECOG)-performance score, nature of tumor, brain metastases number, extra-cerebral spread, period from cancer detection to irradiation of brain metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA)-class...
January 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057515/evidence-for-erp-biomarkers-of-eating-disorder-symptoms-in-women
#20
Katie Groves, Steffan Kennett, Helge Gillmeister
Growing evidence suggests that the brain processes bodies distinctively from other stimuli, but little research has addressed whether visual body perception is modulated by the observer's thoughts and feelings about their own body. The present study thus investigated the relationship between body image and electrophysiological signatures of body perception, with the aim of identifying potential biomarkers of body image disturbances. Occipito-parietal (P1 and N1) and fronto-central (VPP) processing of body and non-body stimuli were assessed in 29 weight-restored eating disordered (ED) women and compared to 27 healthy controls...
January 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
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