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Jaclyn Chesner, Lauren M Ogrich, Carrie Ann Cusack, John R Durkin
BACKGROUND: Moonlighting refers to the practice of medicine outside one's training institution in exchange for financial compensation. High medical debt-to-income ratios drive residents to seek additional compensation during residency. OBJECTIVE: To gather information to establish the current practices of moonlighting and to better understand the thoughts and experiences of dermatology residency program directors regarding moonlighting. METHODS: All allopathic and osteopathic dermatology residency program directors in the United States and Puerto Rico received a blinded survey between February 1, 2017 and April 1, 2017 through an email link...
April 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Michael Girardot, Elsa Bayet, Justine Maurin, Philippe Fort, Pierre Roux, Peggy Raynaud
SOX9 is known as a crucial transcription factor for various developmental processes and for tissue homeostasis. We examined here its potential role in alternative splicing by analyzing global splicing changes, using RNA-seq of colon tumor cells. We show that SOX9 knockdown alters the splicing of hundreds of genes without affecting their expression levels, revealing that SOX9 controls distinct splicing and transcriptional programs. SOX9 does not affect splicing patterns through the control of splicing factors expression...
June 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Carol Anne Nichols, Kathleen Alexander
Wildlife activity patterns tend to be defined by terms such as diurnal and nocturnal that might not fully depict the complexity of a species' life history strategy and behavior in a given system. These activity pattern categories often influence the methodological approaches employed, including the temporal period of study (daylight or nighttime). We evaluated banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) behavior in Northern Botswana through the use of remote sensing cameras at active den sites in order to characterize early morning behavior for this diurnal species...
2018: PloS One
Moumita Adak, Debajyoti Das, Sougata Niyogi, Challa Nagalakshmi, Dipika Ray, Partha Chakrabarti
Hepatocellular death or ballooning distinguishes the transition of simple steatosis to irreversible nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the molecular mechanism of hepatocellular apoptosis in NASH is largely unclear, and discovery of endogenous mediators that could prevent or inhibit cell death is thereby critical in intercepting NASH progression. Here, we identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted, moonlighting hepatokine as 1 hepatoprotective agent in mice with diet-induced NASH...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Bassam H Sabha, Fuad Alzahrani, Hussein A Almehdar, Vladimir N Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is one of the milk components that is produced by the lactating mammary glands and released to the milk in the form of vesicles. MFGM surrounds milk fat globule secreted by the milk producing cells and has a complex structure containing various lipids (e.g., triacylglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol), proteins and other macromolecules. Among the proteinaceous components of MFGM is lactadherin, also known as milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8). Being one of the main proteins present in MFGM, lactadherin is related to milk secretion, has antimicrobial and antiviral effects, and plays important roles in the immune defense as one of the immune system molecules...
June 7, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Elvira Marín, Annelies Haesaert, Laura Padilla, Jaume Adán, María L Hernáez, Lucía Monteoliva, Concha Gil
Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the main etiologic agents of bacterial vaginosis (BV). This infection is responsible for a wide range of public health costs and is associated with several adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Improving our understanding of G. vaginalis protein cell surface will assist in BV diagnosis. This study represents the first proteomic approach that has analyzed the exposed proteins on G. vaginalis cell surface using a shaving approach. The 261 G. vaginalis proteins identified using this approach were analyzed with bioinformatic tools to detect characteristic motifs from surface-exposed proteins, such as signal peptides (36 proteins), lipobox domains (17 proteins), LPXTG motifs (5 proteins) and transmembrane alpha-helices (66 proteins)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yanfei Yu, Hongen Wang, Jia Wang, Zhixin Feng, Meng Wu, Beibei Liu, Jiuqing Xin, Qiyan Xiong, Maojun Liu, Guoqing Shao
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a colonizing respiratory pathogen that can cause great economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Although putative virulence factors have been reported, the pathogenesis of this species remains unclear. Here, we used the virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 to infect swine tracheal epithelial cells (STEC) to identify the infection-associated factors by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Whole proteins of M. hyopneumoniae were obtained and compared with samples cultured in broth...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David A Fell
The article "Evidence that the metabolite repair enzyme NAD(P)HX epimerase has a moonlighting function" in this issue illustrates a number of the problems that still arise when attempting to translate genotypes to phenotypes, such as for interpreting mutant phenotypes or building genome-scale metabolic models. In this case, the mutation concerned appears to map to an enzyme in one of the little-known but essential metabolite repair pathways that have been discovered in recent years. However, the bioinformatic and experimental evidence presented suggests that the annotated enzyme activity of the mutated gene product, whilst correct, accounts neither for the phenotype nor the chromosomal and transcriptional associations of the gene...
May 30, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Naofumi Ito, Mohammad Badrul Anam, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq Ahmad, Kunimasa Ohta
Ribosomes are intracellular organelles ubiquitous in all organisms, which translate information from mRNAs to synthesize proteins. They are complex macromolecules composed of dozens of proteins and ribosomal RNAs. Other than translation, some ribosomal proteins also have side-jobs called "Moonlighting" function. The majority of these moonlighting functions influence cancer progression, early development and differentiation. Recently, we discovered that ribosome is involved in the regulation of cellular transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)...
May 29, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Dustin C Ernst, Andrew J Borchert, Diana M Downs
Microorganisms respond to a variety of metabolic perturbations by repurposing or recruiting pathways to reroute metabolic flux and overcome the perturbation. Elimination of the 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase, PanE, both reduces total coenzyme A (CoA) levels and causes a conditional HMP-P auxotrophy in Salmonella enterica. CoA or acetyl-CoA has no demonstrable effect on the HMP-P synthase, ThiC, in vitro. Suppressors aimed at probing the connection between the biosynthesis of thiamine and CoA contained mutations in the gene encoding the ilvC transcriptional regulator, ilvY...
2018: PloS One
Rina Soni, Shubhangi S Soman
DPP-IV "a moonlighting protein" has immerged as promising pathway to control Type 2 diabetes as well as found to play key role in earlier stages of cancer. Here we have reported design, synthesis and applications of aminocoumarin derivatives as DPP-IV inhibitors. Compounds have been synthesized and studied for their DPP-IV inhibition activity. Three compounds have shown moderate inhibition at 100 µM concentration. All compounds were also screened for their anticancer activity against A549 (Lung cancer cell line), MCF-7 (Breast cancer cell line) using MTT assay...
May 17, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Bergljót Magnadóttir, Polly Hayes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Birkir Þór Bragason, Mariya Hristova, Anthony P Nicholas, Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir, Sigrun Lange
Pentraxins are fluid phase pattern recognition molecules that form an important part of the innate immune defence and are conserved between fish and human. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), two pentraxin-like proteins have been described, CRP-I and CRP-II. Here we show for the first time that these two CRP forms are post-translationally deiminated (an irreversible conversion of arginine to citrulline) and differ with respect to tissue specific localisation in cod ontogeny from 3 to 84 days post hatching. While both forms are expressed in liver, albeit at temporally differing levels, CRP-I shows a strong association with nervous tissue while CRP-II is strongly associated to mucosal tissues of gut and skin...
May 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Lixin Cheng, Kwong-Sak Leung
Motivation: Moonlighting proteins are a class of proteins having multiple distinct functions, which play essential roles in a variety of cellular and enzymatic functioning systems. Although there have long been calls for computational algorithms for the identification of moonlighting proteins, research on approaches to identify moonlighting long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has never been undertaken. Here, we introduce a novel methodology, MoonFinder, for the identification of moonlighting lncRNAs...
May 16, 2018: Bioinformatics
Paul D Veith, Caroline Luong, Keng H Tan, Stuart G Dashper, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic, Gram-negative oral pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an obligate requirement for heme which it obtains from the host. Heme availability has been linked to disease initiation and progression. In this study we used continuous culture of the bacterium to determine the effect of heme limitation and excess on the P. gingivalis proteome. Four biological replicates of whole cell lysate (WCL) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) samples were digested with trypsin and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry and MaxQuant label-free quantification...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Inmaculada Serrano, Ana Luque, Josep M Aran
The acute phase response is generated by an overwhelming immune-inflammatory process against infection or tissue damage, and represents the initial response of the organism in an attempt to return to homeostasis. It is mediated by acute phase proteins (APPs), an assortment of highly conserved plasma reactants of seemingly different functions that, however, share a common protective role from injury. Recent studies have suggested a crosstalk between several APPs and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) in the resolution of inflammation, to restore tissue integrity and function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nozomu Matsunaga, Haruka Shimizu, Kanako Fujimoto, Kanako Watanabe, Tsutomu Yamasaki, Naoya Hatano, Eiji Tamai, Seiichi Katayama, Yasuo Hitsumoto
During research to identify fibronectin (Fn)-binding proteins (Fbps) on the surface of Clostridium perfringens cells, we identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a candidate Fbp. GAPDH is a glycolytic enzyme found in a wide range of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The Fn-binding activity of recombinant C. perfringens GAPDH (rGAPDH) was investigated using both ligand blotting analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). rGAPDH strongly bound plasminogen but not laminin or gelatin...
May 9, 2018: Anaerobe
Joo Heon Yoon, Junsun Ryu, Seung Joon Baek
Moonlighting proteins exhibit multiple activities in different cellular compartments, and their abnormal regulation could play an important role in many diseases. To date, many proteins have been identified with moonlighting activity, and more such proteins are being gradually identified. Among the proteins that possess moonlighting activity, several secreted proteins exhibit multiple activities in different cellular locations, such as the extracellular matrix, nucleus, and cytoplasm. While acute inflammation starts rapidly and generally disappears in a few days, chronic inflammation can last for months or years...
June 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
P Gaydecki
Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Petr Heneberg
Significance Hexokinases are key enzymes that are responsible for the first reaction of glycolysis, but they also moonlight other cellular processes, including mitochondrial redox signaling regulation. Modulation of hexokinase activity and spatiotemporal location by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as other gasotransmitters serves as the basis for a unique, underexplored method of tight and flexible regulation of these fundamental enzymes. Recent advances Redox modifications of thiols serve as a molecular code that enables the precise and complex regulation of hexokinases...
May 10, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Luis Franco, Juan Cedano, JosepAntoni Perez-Pons, Angel Mozo-Villarias, Jaume Piñol, Isaac Amela, Enrique Querol
Moonlighting or multitasking proteins refer to those proteins with two or more functions performed by a single polypeptide chain. Proteins that belong to key ancestral functions and metabolic pathways such as primary metabolism typically exhibit moonlighting phenomenon. We have collected 698 moonlighting proteins in MultitaskProtDB-II database. A survey shows that 25% of the proteins of the database correspond to moonlighting functions related to pathogens virulence activity. Why is the canonical function of these virulence proteins mainly from ancestral key biological functions (especially of primary metabolism)? Our hypothesis is that these proteins present a high conservation between the pathogen protein and the host counterparts...
April 30, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
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