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Anika Brüning, Werner Kloas, Torsten Preuer, Franz Hölker
Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus ). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Yuki Takeuchi, Ryo Kabutomori, Chihiro Yamauchi, Hitomi Miyagi, Akihiro Takemura, Keiko Okano, Toshiyuki Okano
Goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, inhabits tropical and subtropical waters and synchronizes its spawning around the first quarter moon likely using an hourglass-like lunar timer. In previous studies, we have found that clock genes (Cryptochrome3 and Period1) could play the role of state variable in the diencephalon when determining the lunar phase for spawning. Here, we identified three Cry, two Per, two Clock, and two Bmal genes in S. guttatus and investigated their expression patterns in the diencephalon and pituitary gland...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elibeth Mirasol-Meléndez, Luis G Brieba-de Castro, Corina Díaz-Quezada, Marisol López-Hidalgo, Elisa E Figueroa-Angulo, Leticia Ávila-González, Rossana Arroyo-Verástegui, Claudia G Benítez-Cardoza
Trichomonas vaginalis is the protist parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection called trichomonosis. Enolase is a moonlighting protein that apart from its canonical function as a glycolytic enzyme, serves as a plasminogen receptor on the cell surface of T. vaginalis and, in consequence, it has been stablished as a virulence factor in this parasite. In the Trichomonas vaginalis sequence database there are nine genes annotated as enolase. In this work, we analyzed these genes as well as their products...
April 13, 2018: Parasitology International
Helen R Irving, David M Cahill, Chris Gehring
Signal generating and processing complexes and changes in concentrations of messenger molecules such as calcium ions and cyclic nucleotides develop gradients that have critical roles in relaying messages within cells. Cytoplasmic contents are densely packed, and in plant cells this is compounded by the restricted cytoplasmic space. To function in such crowded spaces, scaffold proteins have evolved to keep key enzymes in the correct place to ensure ordered spatial and temporal and stimulus-specific message generation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Farshad Amini-Behbahani, Jafar Ghafarzadeh
Traditional medicine scientists believed that sleeping under the stars and moonlight is not healthy because it brings about nose bleeds and respiratory problems. In Avicenna's view, the spirit and its tendency to the light are introduced as main etiology, which cannot explain star light as a proper etiology. In modern knowledge, it seems cosmic rays that reach our planet's atmosphere by electron cascade, play a key role. Internal organs' electrical charge distribution disturbance caused by these electrons can lead to irregular spasms in the muscular walls of arteries and other organs...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
Bianca Cioni, Wilbert Zwart, Andries M Bergman
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is vital for normal development of the prostate, and is critically involved in prostate cancer (PCa). AR is not only found in epithelial prostate cells, but is also expressed in various cells in the PCa-associated stroma, which constitute the tumor microenvironment (TME). In the TME, AR is expressed in fibroblasts, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. AR expression in the TME was shown to be decreased in higher grade and metastatic PCa, suggesting that stromal AR plays a protective role against PCa progression...
April 4, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
George Liechti, Raghuveer Singh, Patricia L Rossi, Miranda D Gray, Nancy E Adams, Anthony T Maurelli
Peptidoglycan is a sugar/amino acid polymer unique to bacteria and essential for division and cell shape maintenance. The d-amino acids that make up its cross-linked stem peptides are not abundant in nature and must be synthesized by bacteria de novo d-Glutamate is present at the second position of the pentapeptide stem and is strictly conserved in all bacterial species. In Gram-negative bacteria, d-glutamate is generated via the racemization of l-glutamate by glutamate racemase (MurI). Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infectious blindness and sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide...
April 3, 2018: MBio
Gualtiero Alvisi, Lucia Paolini, Andrea Contarini, Chiara Zambarda, Veronica Di Antonio, Antonella Colosini, Nicole Mercandelli, Martina Timmoneri, Giorgio Palù, Luigi Caimi, Doris Ricotta, Annalisa Radeghieri
Intersectin 1-short (ITSN1-s) is a 1220 amino acids ubiquitously-expressed scaffold protein presenting a multi-domain structure that allows to spatiotemporally regulate the functional interaction of a plethora of proteins. Beside its well-established role in endocytosis, ITSN1-s is involved in regulation of cell signaling and is implicated in tumorigenesis processes, although the signaling pathways involved are still poorly understood. Here we identify ITSN1-s as a nucleocytoplasmic trafficking protein. We show that, by binding to importin (IMP)a, a small fraction of ITSN1-s localizes in the cell nucleus at the steady state, where it preferentially associates with the nuclear envelope (NE) and interacts with lamin A/C...
March 29, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Elsa D Garcin
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a key role in glycolysis but is also known for its involvement in a myriad of extra-glycolytic functions. While GAPDH is not the only enzyme with established moonlighting roles, it shows great diversity in terms of its functions, cellular localizations, protein partners, and post-translational modifications. This review focuses on GAPDH's role as a non-canonical RNA binding protein to regulate the stability and translation of cellular mRNAs. Despite the clear involvement of GAPDH in gene expression regulation, how and where GAPDH binds to its RNA targets is still unknown...
March 21, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jack Rivers-Auty, Michael J D Daniels, Isaac Colliver, David L Robertson, David Brough
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor and ligand families are components of the immune system. Knowledge of their evolutionary history is essential to understand their function. Using chromosomal anatomy and sequence similarity, we show that IL-1 receptor family members are related and nine members are likely formed from duplication and modification of a proto-IL-1R1 receptor. The IL-1 ligands have a different evolutionary history. The first proto-IL-1β gene coincided with proto-IL-1R1 and duplication events resulted in the majority of IL-1 ligand family members...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
V Z Nezametdinova, D A Mavletova, M G Alekseeva, M S Chekalina, N V Zakharevich, V N Danilenko
The objective of this study was to determine for phosphorylated substrates of the species-specific serine-threonine protein kinase (STPK) Pkb2 from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum GT15. Two approaches were employed: analyses of phosphorylated membrane vesicles protein spectra following kinase reactions and analyses of the genes surrounding pkb2. A bioinformatics analysis of the genes surrounding pkb2 found a species-specific gene cluster PFNA in the genomes of 34 different bifidobacterial species. The identified cluster consisted of 5-8 genes depending on the species...
March 10, 2018: Anaerobe
Ian John McGough, Jean-Paul Vincent
The scaffold protein APC has a well-known function in ensuring β-catenin destruction. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Saito-Diaz et al. (2018) uncover another role for APC in Wnt signaling: to prevent clathrin-dependent signalosome formation in the absence of ligand.
March 12, 2018: Developmental Cell
Estefanía Moreno, Júlia Canet, Eduard Gracia, Carme Lluís, Josefa Mallol, Enric I Canela, Antoni Cortés, Vicent Casadó
Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jennifer M Holden, Ludek Koreny, Samson Obado, Alexander V Ratushny, Wei-Ming Chen, Jean-Mathieu Bart, Miguel Navarro, Brian T Chait, John D Aitchison, Michael P Rout, Mark C Field
Components of the nuclear periphery coordinate a multitude of activities, including macromolecular transport, cell-cycle progression and chromatin organization. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport, mRNA processing and transcriptional regulation, and NPC components can define regions of high transcriptional activity in some organisms at the nuclear periphery and nucleoplasm. Lineage-specific features underpin several core nuclear functions, and in trypanosomatids, which branched very early from other eukaryotes, unique protein components constitute the lamina, kinetochores and parts of the NPCs...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Marie-Lise Lacombe, Malgorzata Tokarska-Schlattner, Mathieu Boissan, Uwe Schlattner
Mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK-D; synonyms: NME4, NM23-H4) represents the major mitochondrial NDP kinase. The homohexameric complex emerged as a protein with multiple functions in bioenergetics and phospholipid signaling. It occurs at different but precise mitochondrial locations and can affect among other mitochondrial shapes and dynamics, as well as the specific elimination of defective mitochondria or cells via mitophagy or apoptosis. With these various functions in cell homeostasis, NDPK-D/NME4 adds to the group of so-called moonlighting (or gene sharing) proteins...
February 28, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Esther Frohnmeyer, Paulina Deptula, Tuula A Nyman, Pia K S Laine, Helena Vihinen, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen, Eija Jokitalo, Vieno Piironen, Pekka Varmanen, Kirsi Savijoki
This study compared the secretomes (proteins exported out of the cell) of Propionibacterium freudenreichii of different origin to identify plausible adaptation factors. Phylosecretomics indicated strain-specific variation in secretion of adhesins/invasins (SlpA, InlA), cell-wall hydrolysing (NlpC60 peptidase, transglycosylase), protective (RpfB) and moonlighting (DnaK, GroEL, GaPDH, IDH, ENO, ClpB) enzymes and/or proteins. Detailed secretome comparison suggested that one of the cereal strains (JS14) released a tip fimbrillin (FimB) in to the extracellular milieu, which was in line with the electron microscopy and genomic analyses, indicating the lack of surface-associated fimbrial-like structures, predicting a mutated type-2 fimbrial gene cluster (fimB-fimA-srtC2) and production of anchorless FimB...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Gopinath Prakasam, Mohammad Askandar Iqbal, Rameshwar N K Bamezai, Sybille Mazurek
Cancer cells rewire metabolism to meet biosynthetic and energetic demands. The characteristic increase in glycolysis, i.e., Warburg effect, now considered as a hallmark, supports cancer in various ways. To attain such metabolic reshuffle, cancer cells preferentially re-express the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2, M2-PK) and alter its quaternary structure to generate less-active PKM2 dimers. The relatively inactive dimers cause the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates that are redirected into anabolic pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Zhimin Lu, Tony Hunter
Protein kinases regulate every aspect of cellular activity, whereas metabolic enzymes are responsible for energy production and catabolic and anabolic processes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some metabolic enzymes, such as pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), ketohexokinase (KHK) isoform A (KHK-A), hexokinase (HK), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 and 2 (NME1/2), that phosphorylate soluble metabolites can also function as protein kinases and phosphorylate a variety of protein substrates to regulate the Warburg effect, gene expression, cell cycle progression and proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, exosome secretion, T cell activation, iron transport, ion channel opening, and many other fundamental cellular functions...
February 17, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Yang Liu, Hai Chi, Longfei Li, Stephen J Rossiter, Shuyi Zhang
The visual ability and associated photic niche of early mammals is debated. The theory that ancestral mammals were nocturnal is supported by diverse adaptations. However, others argue that photopigment repertoires of early mammals are more consistent with a crepuscular niche, and support for this also comes from inferred spectral tuning of middle/long wavelength-sensitive (M/LWS) opsin sequences. Functional studies have suggested that the M/LWS pigment in the ancestor of Mammalia was either red- or green-sensitive; however, these were based on outdated phylogenies with key lineages omitted...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Ali Mobasheri, Csaba Matta, Ilona Uzielienè, Emma Budd, Pablo Martín-Vasallo, Eiva Bernotiene
Chondrocytes are the main cells in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and possess a highly differentiated phenotype that is the hallmark of the unique physiological functions of this specialised load-bearing connective tissue. The plasma membrane of articular chondrocytes contains a rich and diverse complement of membrane proteins, known as the membranome, which defines the cell surface phenotype of the cells. The membranome is a key target of pharmacological agents and is important for chondrocyte function...
February 13, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
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