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Ali Mobasheri, Csaba Matta, Ilona Uzielienè, Emma Budd, Pablo Martín-Vasallo, Eiva Bernotiene
Chondrocytes are the main cells in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and possess a highly differentiated phenotype that is the hallmark of the unique physiological functions of this specialised load-bearing connective tissue. The plasma membrane of articular chondrocytes contains a rich and diverse complement of membrane proteins, known as the membranome, which defines the cell surface phenotype of the cells. The membranome is a key target of pharmacological agents and is important for chondrocyte function...
February 13, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
G Aneeshkumar Arimbasseri
Eukaryotes have at least three nuclear RNA polymerases to carry out transcription. While RNA polymerases I and II are responsible for ribosomal RNA transcription and messenger RNA transcription, respectively, RNA Polymerase III transcribes approximately up to 300 nt long noncoding RNAs, including tRNA. For all three RNAPs, the nascent transcripts generated undergo extensive post-transcriptional processing. Transcription of mRNAs by RNAP II and their processing are coupled with the aid of the C-terminal domain of the RNAP II...
February 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ralf Wiedemuth, Sebastian Thieme, Katrin Navratiel, Benjamin Dorschner, Sebastian Brenner
The X-linked histone demethylase UTX has a pivotal role in cellular and developmental processes including embryogenesis, hematopoiesis and cancer. UTX removes di- and trimethyl groups on histone H3 lysine 27, thereby regulating gene expression. But there is growing evidence that UTX displays biological functions independent of its histone demethylase activity. To elucidate these novel functions, it is of great interest to define subcellular localization of UTX. Here we show for the first time that native UTX is primarily localized in the cytoplasm whereas ectopic GFP and Flag-tagged UTX display nuclear and cytoplasmic localization...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Patricia H Reggio
Phospholipids can undergo transverse diffusion, changing leaflets in the bilayer via translocase or scramblase activity. In this issue of Structure, Morra et al. (2018) provide insight into the mechanism used by one scramblase, opsin, based on large-scale ensemble atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Results support a proposed "credit card reader" model.
February 6, 2018: Structure
Zhen Wu, Gang Wang, Wenwen Wang, Daodong Pan, Liuyang Peng, Liwei Lian
Many health effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus are desirable among these the adhesion ability is vital to enhance the possibility of colonization and stabilisation associated with the gut mucosal barrier. In this study, the growth characteristics and the adhesion activity of L. acidophilus in the intestine-like pH environment (pH 7.5) were identified. The number of bacteria adhering to the HT-29 cells was found with a gradual increase trend (pH 5.5-7.5). This also led to the morphological changes of L. acidophilus after exposure to different pH environments...
February 7, 2018: Proteomics
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Myeong Heon Shin, Young Ah Lee, Yoon Kong
The obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess. E. histolytica adheres to the host tissues in a contact-dependent manner. E. histolytica excretory-secretory products (ESP) might play critical roles during invasion. We comparatively analyzed the secretome profile of E. histolytica pathogenic HM-1:IMSS and non-pathogenic Rahman strains. The two ESP revealed similar but distinct spotting patterns. In both ESP, alcohol dehydrogenase, enolase 1 and transketolase, which control classical carbohydrate metabolism and other moonlighting effects, constituted the most abundant fractions...
February 6, 2018: Proteomics
Giulia Callegaro, Matilde Forcella, Pasquale Melchioretto, Annalisa Frattini, Laura Gribaldo, Paola Fusi, Marco Fabbri, Chiara Urani
Cadmium is a well recognized carcinogen, primarily released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. In the effort to understand the early events responsible for cadmium carcinogenesis, we have used an in vitro biological system (the Cell Transformation Assay, CTA), that has been shown to closely model some key stages of the conversion of normal cells into malignant ones. Cadmium-triggered early responses in CTA were analysed through microarray-based toxicogenomics. Metallothioneins represent the earliest cell response, together with Slc30a1 encoding for a ZnT-1 zinc exporter...
January 31, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Elrashdy M Redwan, Ahmed M Al-Hejin, Hussein A Almehdar, Abdelrahman M Elsaway, Vladimir N Uversky
Butyrophilins (BTNs) are a group of the moonlighting proteins, some members of which are secreted in milk. They constitute a large family of structurally similar type 1 transmembrane proteins from the immunoglobulin superfamily. Although the founding member of this family is related to lactation, participating in the secretion, formation and stabilization of milk fat globules, it may also have a cell surface receptor function. Generally, the BTN family members are known to modulate co-stimulatory responses, T cell selection, differentiation, and cell fate determination...
February 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alissa duPuy Guarnaccia, William Patrick Tansey
WDR5 is a highly conserved WD40 repeat-containing protein that is essential for proper regulation of multiple cellular processes. WDR5 is best characterized as a core scaffolding component of histone methyltransferase complexes, but emerging evidence demonstrates that it does much more, ranging from expanded functions in the nucleus through to controlling the integrity of cell division. The purpose of this review is to describe the current molecular understandings of WDR5, discuss how it participates in diverse cellular processes, and highlight drug discovery efforts around WDR5 that may form the basis of new anti-cancer therapies...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Udom Lao-On, Paul V Attwood, Sarawut Jitrapakdee
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), an anaplerotic enzyme, plays an essential role in various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, de novo fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Deregulation of PC expression or activity has long been known to be associated with metabolic syndrome in several rodent models. Accumulating data in the past decade clearly showed that deregulation of PC expression is associated with type 2 diabetes in humans, while targeted inhibition of PC expression in a mouse model reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced type 2 diabetes...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Shubhajit Mitra, Paige S Dunphy, Seema Das, Bing Zhu, Tian Luo, Jere W McBride
Ehrlichia chaffeensis has a group of well-characterized type I secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors that have moonlighting capabilities. TRPs modulate various cellular processes, reprogram host gene transcription as nucleomodulins, function as ubiquitin ligases, and directly activate conserved host cell signaling pathways to promote E. chaffeensis infection. One TRP interacting host target is polycomb group ring finger protein 5 (PCGF5), a member of the polycomb group (PcG) protein family, and a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)...
January 22, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Xinyun Cao, Yaoqin Hong, Lei Zhu, Yuanyuan Hu, John E Cronan
Lipoic acid is synthesized by a remarkably atypical pathway in which the cofactor is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety diverted from fatty acid synthesis is covalently attached to the acceptor protein, and sulfur insertion at carbons 6 and 8 of the octanoyl moiety form the lipoyl cofactor. Covalent attachment of this cofactor is required for function of several central metabolism enzymes, including the glycine cleavage H protein (GcvH). In Bacillus subtilis, GcvH is the sole substrate for lipoate assembly...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sherri L Morgan, James W Jarvis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Claude Gutierrez, Yves-Marie Boudehen, Olivier Neyrolles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: EMBO Journal
Sander M Houten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Yanfei Yu, Yunyun Qian, Dechao Du, Quan Li, Chenyang Xu, Hanze Liu, Mianmian Chen, Huochun Yao, Chengping Lu, Wei Zhang
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an emerging zoonotic agent that is responsible for significant economic losses to the porcine industry worldwide. However, most research regarding the pathogenic mechanisms has used in vitro cultures of S. suis, which may not provide an accurate representation of the in vivo biological activities. In this study, 188 differential abundance S. suis proteins were identified in in vivo samples obtained from the blood of the infected pigs. These were compared with in vitro samples by a Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) experiment...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Jamie N McWilliam, Robert D McCauley, Christine Erbe, Miles J G Parsons
The coral reefs surrounding Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef have a diverse soundscape that contains an array of bioacoustic phenomena, notably choruses produced by fishes. Six fish choruses identified around Lizard Island exhibited distinctive spatial and temporal patterns from 2014 to 2016. Several choruses displayed site fidelity, indicating that particular sites may represent important habitat for fish species, such as fish spawning aggregations sites. The choruses displayed a broad range of periodicities, from diel to annual, which provides new insights into the ecology of vocalising reef fish species and the surrounding ecosystem...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ana Gil-Bona, Ahinara Amador-García, Concha Gil, Lucia Monteoliva
The cell surface and secreted proteins are the initial points of contact between Candida albicans and the host. Improvements in protein extraction approaches and mass spectrometers have allowed researchers to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of these external subproteomes. In this paper, we review the published proteomic studies that have examined C. albicans extracellular proteins, including the cell surface proteins or surfome and the secreted proteins or secretome. The use of different approaches to isolate cell wall and cell surface proteins, such as fractionation approaches or cell shaving, have resulted in different outcomes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Francisco J Fernández, Sara Gómez, M Cristina Vega
The surveillance and pathogen fighting functions of the complement system have evolved to protect mammals from life-threatening infections. In turn, pathogens have developed complex molecular mechanisms to subvert, divert and evade the effector functions of the complement. The study of complement immunoevasion by pathogens sheds light on their infection drivers, knowledge that is essential to implement therapies. At the same time, complement evasion also acts as a discovery ground that reveals important aspects of how complement works under physiological conditions...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Marta Delsoglio, Susanne Brix, Enrica Pessione, Birte Svensson
SCOPE: Plant phenolics, known to exert beneficial effects on human health, were supplemented to cultures of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) to assess their effect on its adhesive capacity and the abundancy of individual proteins. METHODS AND RESULTS: The presence of resveratrol and ferulic acid during bacterial growth stimulated adhesion of NCFM to mucin and human intestinal HT-29 cells, while tannic acid improved adhesion only to HT-29 cells and caffeic acid had very modest effect overall...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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