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Serotonin and motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660654/assessment-of-the-possible-roles-of-sb-269970-versus-ketanserin-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-oxidative-stress-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-hscs-activation-pathway
#1
Marwa Ahmed Amin Atallah, Samah M Elaidy, Mona K Tawfik
BACKGROUND: In liver fibrosis, a major morbid and mortal disease, oxidative stress motivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)-into myofibroblasts terminated in collagen deposition remain the key pathophysiological deal. Serotonin (5-HT) through its HSCs-expressed receptors, especially 5-HT2A and 7, shows crucial events in fibrogenesis of chronic liver diseases. Molecular hepatic oxidative stress-fibrotic roles of 5-HT2A and 7 receptors antagonists (ketanserin and SB-269970 respectively) are still a challenging issue...
November 28, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616335/behavioral-mechanisms-underlying-the-maternal-disruptive-effect-of-serotonin-5-ht-2a-receptor-activation-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Ruiyong Wu, Collin Davis, Ming Li
Recent evidence indicates that acute activation of 5-HT2A receptors causes a disruption of maternal behavior in rats. However, the behavioral mechanisms underlying such a disruption are not known. We addressed this issue using two behavioral approaches targeting the maternal motivational and emotional processing systems. First, we used the pup-separation technique to increase maternal motivation to see whether pup separation is capable of reducing the maternal disruptive effect of TCB-2 (a high-affinity 5-HT2A agonist) treatment...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555337/5-ht-2c-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-but-not-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-mediate-the-hypophagic-and-hypolocomotor-effects-of-the-selective-5-ht-2c-receptor-agonist-ar231630-in-rats
#3
Sina Faton, Jean-Pol Tassin, Flore Duranton, Didier Bagnol, Anne-Dominique Lajoix
Central serotonin systems have long been associated with the control of feeding behavior and the modulation of behavioral effects of psychostimulants. 5-HT2C receptors are present in hypothalamic centers such as the arcuate nucleus (ARC), controlling homeostatic regulation of food intake, as well as in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region involved in motivation aspects in multiple behaviors, including feeding. In the present study, we investigated whether the 5-HT2C receptors control amphetamine-evoked locomotor activity and regulate food consumption...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520239/behavioral-phenotyping-of-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats-compulsive-traits-motor-stereotypies-and-anhedonia
#4
Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520000/activation-of-serotonin-neurons-promotes-active-persistence-in-a-probabilistic-foraging-task
#5
Eran Lottem, Dhruba Banerjee, Pietro Vertechi, Dario Sarra, Matthijs Oude Lohuis, Zachary F Mainen
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a variety of functions that involve patience or impulse control. Many of these effects are consistent with a long-standing theory that 5-HT promotes behavioral inhibition, a motivational bias favoring passive over active behaviors. To further test this idea, we studied the impact of 5-HT in a probabilistic foraging task, in which mice must learn the statistics of the environment and infer when to leave a depleted foraging site for the next. Critically, mice were required to actively nose-poke in order to exploit a given site...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479060/a-gabaergic-cell-type-in-the-lateral-habenula-links-hypothalamic-homeostatic-and-midbrain-motivation-circuits-with-sex-steroid-signaling
#6
Limei Zhang, Vito S Hernández, Jerome D Swinny, Anil K Verma, Torsten Giesecke, Andrew C Emery, Kerim Mutig, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Lee E Eiden
The lateral habenula (LHb) has a key role in integrating a variety of neural circuits associated with reward and aversive behaviors. There is limited information about how the different cell types and neuronal circuits within the LHb coordinate physiological and motivational states. Here, we report a cell type in the medial division of the LHb (LHbM) in male rats that is distinguished by: (1) a molecular signature for GABAergic neurotransmission (Slc32a1/VGAT) and estrogen receptor (Esr1/ERα) expression, at both mRNA and protein levels, as well as the mRNA for vesicular glutamate transporter Slc17a6/VGLUT2, which we term the GABAergic estrogen-receptive neuron (GERN); (2) its axonal projection patterns, identified by in vivo juxtacellular labeling, to both local LHb and to midbrain modulatory systems; and (3) its somatic expression of receptors for vasopressin, serotonin and dopamine, and mRNA for orexin receptor 2...
February 26, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367407/an-interaction-between-serotonin-receptor-signaling-and-dopamine-enhances-goal-directed-vigor-and-persistence-in-mice
#7
Matthew R Bailey, Olivia Goldman, Estefanía P Bello, Muhammad O Chohan, Nuri Jeong, Vanessa Winiger, Eileen Chun, Elke Schipani, Abigail Kalmbach, Joseph F Cheer, Peter D Balsam, Eleanor H Simpson
The functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand SB242084 can increase motivation and have rapid onset anti-depressant-like effects. We sought to identify the specific behavioral effects of SB242084 treatment and elucidate the mechanism in female and male mice. Using a quantitative behavioral approach, we determined that SB242084 increases the vigor and persistence of goal-directed activity across different types of physical work, particularly when work requirements are demanding. We found this influence of SB242084 on effort, rather than reward to be reflected in striatal DA measured during behavior...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238196/the-role-of-new-antidepressants-in-clinical-practice-in-canada-a-brief-review-of-vortioxetine-levomilnacipran-er-and-vilazodone
#8
REVIEW
Roger S McIntyre
Although many branded and generic antidepressants are approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Canada, efficacy and tolerability differ among patients, and new treatment options are needed. Symptom types (eg, fatigue, energy/motivation, cognition, and functioning), medication type, treatment duration, and the need for maintenance therapy are factors that may influence treatment effectiveness. Three antidepressants, vortioxetine, levomilnacipran extended-release (ER), and vilazodone have recently become available in Canada...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195487/efficacy-of-levomilnacipran-extended-release-in-treating-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Renee-Marie Ragguett, Samantha J Yim, Peter T Ho, Roger S McIntyre
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide with a heterogeneous symptom profile. Levomilnacipran extended release (ER) (Fetzima), a SNRI, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of MDD. While categorized as a SNRI, in contradistinction to other approved SNRIs, levomilnacipran exhibits differential affinity for the norepinephrine reuptake transporter when compared to the serotonin reuptake transporter. Areas covered: Completed clinical trials which focused on levomilnacipran ER administered in those with MDD were included in this drug evaluation...
December 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127070/an-early-experience-of-mild-adversity-involving-temporary-denial-of-maternal-contact-affects-the-serotonergic-system-of-adult-male-rats-and-leads-to-a-depressive-like-phenotype-and-inability-to-adapt-to-a-chronic-social-stress
#10
Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Theodora Kalpachidou, Georgios Aspiotis, Ioannis Gampierakis, Fotini Stylianopoulou, Antonios Stamatakis
Adverse early life experiences can affect adaptability to chronic stressors and lead to depressive-like behaviors in animal models. We employed an early experience model in which rat pups during postnatal days 10-13 are exposed to a T-maze in which they learn the location of their mother motivated by the rewarding stimulus of maternal contact; one group of rats receives the expected reward, by being allowed contact with the mother upon finding her, while the other group is temporarily denied this contact (Denied Expected Reward, DER), thus experiencing mild adversity...
February 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066874/optimization-of-drug-therapy-in-elderly-individuals-admitted-to-a-geriatric-unit
#11
Antoine Piau, Yoann Huet, Adeline Gallini, Laurine Andre, Bruno Vellas, Fati Nourhashemi
BACKGROUND: A substantial share of adverse drug events involves inappropriate prescribing (IP). Specialized geriatric units are supposed to pay particular attention to prescribing appropriateness and to promoting a higher prescribing quality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reality of such assessment and optimization in real life (usual care) in a population of elderly individuals admitted to a geriatric unit. METHOD: This is an observational study including all older patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit over a 6-month period...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063139/dissociable-effects-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-nalfurafine-on-pain-itch-stimulated-and-pain-itch-depressed-behaviors-in-male-rats
#12
Matthew L Lazenka, Megan J Moerke, E Andrew Townsend, Kevin B Freeman, F Ivy Carroll, S Stevens Negus
RATIONALE: Nalfurafine is a G protein signaling-biased kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist approved in Japan for second-line treatment of uremic pruritus. Neither nalfurafine nor any other KOR agonist is currently approved anywhere for treatment of pain, but recent evidence suggests that G protein signaling-biased KOR agonists may have promise as candidate analgesics/antipruritics with reduced side effects compared to nonbiased or ß-arrestin-signaling-biased KOR agonists. OBJECTIVES: This study compared nalfurafine effects in rats using assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior used previously to evaluate other candidate analgesics...
January 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042433/serotonin-decreases-the-gain-of-visual-responses-in-awake-macaque-v1
#13
Lenka Seillier, Corinna Lorenz, Katsuhisa Kawaguchi, Torben Ott, Andreas Nieder, Paria Pourriahi, Hendrikje Nienborg
Serotonin, an important neuromodulator in the brain, is implicated in affective and cognitive functions. However, its role even for basic cortical processes is controversial. For example, in the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1), heterogenous serotonergic modulation has been observed in anesthetized animals. Here, we combined extracellular single-unit recordings with iontophoresis in awake animals. We examined the role of serotonin on well-defined tuning properties (orientation, spatial frequency, contrast, and size) in V1 of two male macaque monkeys...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965828/activation-of-5-ht-2a-receptor-disrupts-rat-maternal-behavior
#14
Jun Gao, Ruiyong Wu, Collin Davis, Ming Li
Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system and plays an important role in sensorimotor function, emotion regulation, motivation, executive control, learning and memory. We investigated its role in rat maternal behavior, a naturalistic behavior encompassing many psychological functions that the 5-HT2A receptor is involved in. We first showed that activation of 5-HT2A receptor by TCB-2 (a highly selective 5-HT2A agonist, 1, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) disrupted maternal behavior dose-dependently, and this effect was reduced by pretreatment with a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL 100907, but exacerbated by pretreatment with a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084 and a 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK212, indicating that the maternal disruptive effect of 5-HT2A activation is receptor-specific and can be modulated by 5-HT2C receptor bidirectionally...
January 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889722/effects-of-central-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-energy-balance
#15
L Recinella, S Leone, C Ferrante, A Chiavaroli, C Di Nisio, S Martinotti, M Vacca, L Brunetti, G Orlando
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a major metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF21 was found to modulate feeding and energy expenditure in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting a central effect by the peptide. In this context, in the present work, we studied the effects of a single central FGF21 administration (0.5-5 µg) on feeding and energy expenditure by evaluating locomotor activity, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in Sprague-Dawley fed rats...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842941/characterization-of-early-communicative-behavior-in-mouse-models-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#16
Susan E Maloney, Krystal C Chandler, Corina Anastasaki, Michael A Rieger, David H Gutmann, Joseph D Dougherty
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic neurodevelopmental disease caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Cognitive impairments are observed in approximately 80% of children with this disease, with 45-60% exhibiting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology. In light of the high comorbidity rate between ASD and NF1, we assessed early communicative behavior by maternal-separation induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and developmental milestones in two distinct Nf1 genetically engineered models, one modeling clinical germline heterozygous loss of Nf1 function (Nf1+/- mice), and a second with somatic biallelic Nf1 inactivation in neuroglial progenitor cells (Nf1GFAP CKO mice)...
January 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726205/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-diprotin-a-and-sitagliptin-administered-on-weeks-2-3-of-postnatal-development-modulate-monoamine-metabolism-in-the-striatum-of-adult-rats
#17
N N Khlebnikova, E V Orshanskaya, V B Narkevich, V S Kudrin, N A Krupina
The levels of monoamines and their metabolites in brain structures of adult (3-month-old) rats with emotional and motivational disorders induced by inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4; EC 3.4.14.5) diprotin A and sitagliptin on weeks 2-3 of postnatal development (postnatal days 5-18) were studied by HPLC with electrochemical detection. A significant decrease in the level of serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and a pronounced tendency towards reduced serotonin level were detected in the striatum of rats in both study groups...
June 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698674/insight-into-synergetic-mechanisms-of-tetracycline-and-the-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-sertraline-in-a-tetracycline-resistant-strain-of-escherichia-coli
#18
Lili Li, Sofie Kromann, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Søren Wedel Svenningsen, Rikke Heidemann Olsen
Sertraline, an antidepressive drug, has been reported to inhibit general bacterial efflux pumps. In the present study, we report for the first time a synergistic effect of sertraline and tetracycline in a TetA-encoded tetracycline-resistant strain of Escherichia coli. Synergy between sertraline and tetracycline in an E. coli strain with TetA-mediated tetracycline resistance (E. coli APEC_O2) was assessed by the MIC and checkerboard assays. The global transcriptome of E. coli APEC_O2 exposed to ½ MIC concentrations of sertraline and/or tetracycline was analyzed to elucidate the interaction mechanism between sertraline and tetracycline...
August 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666896/circadian-neurons-in-the-lateral-habenula-clocking-motivated-behaviors
#19
REVIEW
Jorge Mendoza
The main circadian clock in mammals is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), however, central timing mechanisms are also present in other brain structures beyond the SCN. The lateral habenula (LHb), known for its important role in the regulation of the monoaminergic system, contains such a circadian clock whose molecular and cellular mechanisms as well as functional role are not well known. However, since monoaminergic systems show circadian activity, it is possible that the LHb-clock's role is to modulate the rhythmic activity of the dopamine, serotonin and norephinephrine systems, and associated behaviors...
November 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641524/the-bio-psycho-social-dimension-in-women-s-sexual-desire-argumentum-ad-novitatem
#20
Nur Syazwani Roslan, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Hatta Sidi, Najwa Baharuddin, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussein
Sexual desire includes complex motivation and drive. In the context of biological and cognitive-emotive state art of science, it is often a neglected field in medicine. With regard to the treatment, study on women's sexual function received less attention compared to the men's sexuality. In the past, this endeavor was relatively not well disseminated in the scientific community. Recently, there was a revolutionized surge of drug targets available to treat women with low sexual desire. It is timely to review the relevant biological approach, especially in the context of pharmacotherapy to understand this interesting clinical entity which was modulated by numerous interactive psychosocial inter-play and factors...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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