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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494238/advances-and-potential-applications-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-a-delivery-carrier-in-the-vaccine
#1
Kai Zhao, Dan Li, Hong Kang, Yu Guang Rong, Xiaohua Wang, Zheng Jin
Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, has been widely applied in drug delivery, tissue regeneration, wound healing, blood coagulation and immunostimulation due to its well-known biocompatibility and biodegradability. Chitosan has become a valuable vaccine adjuvant and delivery carrier, which have attracted increasing attention for its applications. Currently chitosan nanoparticles have been developed as adjuvant or immunomodulators and drug carrier. Here we reviewed chitosan nanoparticles, which is a promising biomaterial as vaccine adjuvant and delivery carrier, including characteristics, preparation methods and applications, or even its limitations...
August 4, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494157/advances-and-potential-applications-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-a-delivery-carrier-for-the-mucosal-immunity-of-vaccine
#2
Dan Li, Dongwei Fu, Hong Kang, Guangyu Rong, Zheng Jin, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, has been widely applied in drug delivery, tissue regeneration, wound healing, blood coagulation and immunostimulation due to its well-known biocompatibility and biodegradability. Chitosan has become a valuable vaccine adjuvant and delivery carrier, which have attracted increasing attention for its applications. Currently chitosan nanoparticles have been developed as adjuvant or immunomodulators and drug carrier. Here we reviewed chitosan nanoparticles, which is a promising biomaterial as vaccine adjuvant and delivery carrier, including characteristics, preparation methods and applications, or even its limitations...
August 4, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294905/fabrication-characterization-and-evaluation-of-bionanocomposites-based-on-natural-polymers-and-antibiotics-for-wound-healing-applications
#3
Marius Rădulescu, Alina Maria Holban, Laurențiu Mogoantă, Tudor-Adrian Bălşeanu, George Dan Mogoșanu, Diana Savu, Roxana Cristina Popescu, Oana Fufă, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Veronica Lazar, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc
The aim of our research activity was to obtain a biocompatible nanostructured composite based on naturally derived biopolymers (chitin and sodium alginate) loaded with commercial antibiotics (either Cefuroxime or Cefepime) with dual functions, namely promoting wound healing and assuring the local delivery of the loaded antibiotic. Compositional, structural, and morphological evaluations were performed by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analytical techniques...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265311/novel-chitin-chitosan-glucan-wound-dressing-isolation-characterization-antibacterial-activity-and-wound-healing-properties
#4
A M Abdel-Mohsen, J Jancar, D Massoud, Z Fohlerova, H Elhadidy, Z Spotz, A Hebeish
Chitin/chitosan-glucan complex (ChCsGC) was isolated from Schizophyllum commune (S. commune) and dissolved for the first time in precooled (-15°C) 8wt.% urea/6wt.% NaOH aqueous solution. Novel nonwoven microfiber mats were fabricated by wet-dry-spinning technique and evaluated the mechanical of fabrics mats and surface morphology. Isolated and nonwoven mat were characterized employing FTIR-ATR, Optical microscope, TGA, DSC, H/C NMR, SEM and XRD techniques. According to the physical/chemical characterization measurements we can assumed that, the net and the novel dressing mats have the same chemical structure with slightly changes in the thermal stability for the dressing mats...
August 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015974/development-of-the-intein-mediated-method-for-production-of-recombinant-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-from-the-acetylated-in-vivo-fusion-protein
#5
Roman S Esipov, Dmitry A Makarov, Vasily N Stepanenko, Anatoly I Miroshnikov
Thymosin β4 is a 43 amino acid long peptide with an acetylated N-terminal serin that has a high potential as a remedy for healing ulcers, wounds and burns. Although protein biosynthesis offers attractive opportunities in terms of a large-scale production, currently thymosin β4 is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. The problems that hinder the successful commercialization of the biotechnological approach are associated with the small peptides expression and N-terminal acetylation. This work presents an innovative biotechnological method for thymosin β4 production that employs the peptide acetylation in vivo...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26959621/effects-of-chitin-and-sepia-ink-hybrid-sponge-on-the-healing-of-burning-wound-rats-and-its-impact-on-macrophages-in-vitro
#6
Wei Zhang, Yan Wang, Xianxian Sui, Yulin Sun, Daohai Chen
PURPOSE: To detect whether chitin and sepia ink sponge (CS) can promote wound healing and elevate impact of CS on phagocytosis ability of macrophages. METHODS: Forty-eight rats were assigned to four groups: Normal group (Normal), negative control group (Con), chitin and sepia ink sponge group (CS) and positive control Surgicel Gauze(r) group (SG). Deep second-degree burn model was created in rats. Wound area was recorded by digital imaging and determined using Image J software...
February 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893051/chitosan-functionalized-poly-vinyl-alcohol-for-prospects-biomedical-and-industrial-applications-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Ammara Rafique, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Mohammad Zuber, Shazia Tabasum, Saima Rehman
Chitin and chitosan are amino polysaccharides having multidimensional properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, antibacterial properties and non-toxicity, muco-adhesivity, adsorption properties, etc., and thus they can be widely used in variety of areas. Although human history mainly relies on the biopolymers, however synthetic materials like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have good mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Functionalization of PVA with chitin and chitosan is considered very appropriate for the development of well-designed biomaterials such as biodegradable films, for membrane separation, for tissue engineering, for food packaging, for wound healing and dressing, hydro gels formation, gels formation, etc...
June 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26633500/a-venom-gland-extracellular-chitin-binding-like-protein-from-pupal-endoparasitoid-wasps-pteromalus-puparum-selectively-binds-chitin
#8
Yu Zhu, Xin-Hai Ye, Yang Liu, Zhi-Chao Yan, David Stanley, Gong-Yin Ye, Qi Fang
Chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) are present in many species and they act in a variety of biological processes. We analyzed a Pteromalus puparum venom apparatus proteome and transcriptome and identified a partial gene encoding a possible CBP. Here, we report cloning a full-length cDNA of a sequence encoding a chitin-binding-like protein (PpCBP) from P. puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae. The cDNA encoded a 96-amino-acid protein, including a secretory signal peptide and a chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain...
December 2015: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526199/the-cell-factory-approach-toward-biotechnological-production-of-high-value-chitosan-oligomers-and-their-derivatives-an-update
#9
Shoa Naqvi, Bruno M Moerschbacher
Chitin is one of the most abundant renewable resources, and chitosans, the partially deacetylated derivatives of chitin, are among the most promising functional biopolymers, with superior material properties and versatile biological functionalities. Elucidating molecular structure-function relationships and cellular modes of action of chitosans, however, it is challenging due to the micro-heterogeneity and structural complexity of polysaccharides. Lately, it has become apparent that many of the biological activities of chitosan polymers, such as in agricultural plant disease protection or in mediating scar-free wound healing, may be attributed to oligomeric break-down products generated by the action of chitosanolytic hydrolases present in the target tissues, such as human chitotriosidase...
November 2, 2015: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26485286/high-salt-reduces-the-activation-of-il-4-and-il-13-stimulated-macrophages
#10
Katrina J Binger, Matthias Gebhardt, Matthias Heinig, Carola Rintisch, Agnes Schroeder, Wolfgang Neuhofer, Karl Hilgers, Arndt Manzel, Christian Schwartz, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Jakob Voelkl, Valentin Schatz, Ralf A Linker, Florian Lang, David Voehringer, Mark D Wright, Norbert Hubner, Ralf Dechend, Jonathan Jantsch, Jens Titze, Dominik N Müller
A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages...
November 2, 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26157549/chitin-from-cuttlebone-activates-inflammatory-cells-to-enhance-the-cell-migration
#11
Sung Cil Lim, Ki-Man Lee, Tae Jin Kang
Our previous report showed that the extract from cuttlebone (CB) had wound healing effect in burned lesion of rat and the extract was identified as chitin by HPLS analysis. We herein investigated the morphology in CB extract using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Chitin was used as a control. There is no difference in morphology between CB extract and chitin. We also assessed the role of CB extract on the production of inflammatory mediators using murine macrophages and the migration of inflammatory cells...
July 2015: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25992423/preparation-and-biomedical-applications-of-chitin-and-chitosan-nanofibers
#12
REVIEW
Kazuo Azuma, Shinsuke Ifuku, Tomohiro Osaki, Yoshiharu Okamoto, Saburo Minami
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. Chitin occurs in nature as ordered macrofibrils. It is the major structural component in the exoskeleton of crab and shrimp shells and the cell wall of fungi and yeast. As chitin is not readily dissolved in common solvents, it is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are widely used in tissue engineering, wound healing, and as functional foods...
October 2014: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25845544/an-open-multicenter-comparative-randomized-clinical-study-on-chitosan
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Xiaohui Mo, John Cen, Elaine Gibson, Robin Wang, Steven L Percival
Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derivate from chitin, offers a promising alternative biomaterial for use in wound dressings. In this work, the safety and efficacy of a next-generation KA01 chitosan wound dressing in facilitating the healing of nonhealing chronic wounds was studied. This open multicenter comparative prospective randomized clinical study was conducted at three medical centers in China. A total of 90 patients (45 in test group and 45 in control group) with unhealed chronic wounds including pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and wounds with minor infections, or at risk of infection, were treated with the next generation chitosan wound dressing as the test article or traditional vaseline gauze as a control...
July 2015: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25843880/favorable-effects-of-superficially-deacetylated-chitin-nanofibrils-on-the-wound-healing-process
#14
Ryotaro Izumi, Shuntaro Komada, Kosuke Ochi, Lisa Karasawa, Tomohiro Osaki, Yusuke Murahata, Takeshi Tsuka, Tomohiro Imagawa, Norihiko Itoh, Yoshiharu Okamoto, Hironori Izawa, Minoru Morimoto, Hiroyuki Saimoto, Kazuo Azuma, Shinsuke Ifuku
Previous reports indicate that the beneficial effect of chitin nanofibrils (CNFs), and chitosan nanofibrils (CSNFs) for wound healing. In this study, the wound healing effects of superficially deacetylated chitin nanofibrils (SDACNFs) were evaluated using an experimental model. In the experiments using circular excision wound model, SDACNFs induced re-epithelium and proliferation of the fibroblasts and collagen tissue. In the chitin, CNFs, and CSNFs, on the other hand, the e-epithelium and proliferation of the fibroblasts and collagen tissue were not induced perfectly compared with the SDACNFs group...
June 5, 2015: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25841348/tunicate-mimetic-nanofibrous-hydrogel-adhesive-with-improved-wet-adhesion
#15
Dongyeop X Oh, Sangsik Kim, Dohoon Lee, Dong Soo Hwang
The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition...
July 2015: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25780874/chitin-chitosan-and-its-derivatives-for-wound-healing-old-and-new-materials
#16
REVIEW
Kazuo Azuma, Ryotaro Izumi, Tomohiro Osaki, Shinsuke Ifuku, Minoru Morimoto, Hiroyuki Saimoto, Saburo Minami, Yoshiharu Okamoto
Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized...
2015: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25748620/the-use-of-biodegradable-polymers-in-design-of-cellular-scaffolds
#17
Joanna Orłowska, Urszula Kurczewska, Katarzyna Derwińska, Wojciech Orłowski, Daria Orszulak-Michalak
The objective of this work was to demonstrate the usage of biodegradable polymers, made of calcium alginate and dibutyrylchitin, in the design of cellular scaffolds having broad application in reconstructive therapy (dentistry, orthopedics). To visualize cells seeded on calcium alginate and dibutyrylchitin polymers DAPI staining of fibroblasts nuclei was used. The cytotoxicity of the materials and microscopic evaluation of the viability of seeded cells was tested with a PKH 67 fluorescent dye. To assess the cellular toxicity the proliferation of fibroblasts adjacent to the tested polymers was examined...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25677094/fabrication-and-feasibility-study-of-an-absorbable-diacetyl-chitin-surgical-suture-for-wound-healing
#18
Kai Shao, Baoqin Han, Jinning Gao, Zhiwen Jiang, Weizhi Liu, Wanshun Liu, Ye Liang
Diacetyl chitin (DAC) is an acidylated chitin obtained using acetic anhydride mixed perchloric acid system. By wet spinning and weaving technique, DAC has been successfully developed into a novel absorbable surgical suture. Thanks to the unique properties of chitins, the potential application of this novel monocomponent multifilament DAC suture may break the monopoly of synthetic polymer sutures in wound closure area. In this study, DAC was synthesized and characterized by multiple approaches including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
January 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25415349/emerging-biomedical-applications-of-nano-chitins-and-nano-chitosans-obtained-via-advanced-eco-friendly-technologies-from-marine-resources
#19
REVIEW
Riccardo A A Muzzarelli, Mohamad El Mehtedi, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte
The present review article is intended to direct attention to the technological advances made in the 2010-2014 quinquennium for the isolation and manufacture of nanofibrillar chitin and chitosan. Otherwise called nanocrystals or whiskers, n-chitin and n-chitosan are obtained either by mechanical chitin disassembly and fibrillation optionally assisted by sonication, or by e-spinning of solutions of polysaccharides often accompanied by poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(caprolactone). The biomedical areas where n-chitin may find applications include hemostasis and wound healing, regeneration of tissues such as joints and bones, cell culture, antimicrobial agents, and dermal protection...
November 2014: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25000536/emerging-chitin-and-chitosan-nanofibrous-materials-for-biomedical-applications
#20
REVIEW
Fuyuan Ding, Hongbing Deng, Yumin Du, Xiaowen Shi, Qun Wang
Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers...
August 21, 2014: Nanoscale
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