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Laser ablation

Yingxiong Zhang, Wenshun Wu, Huilian Hao, Wenzhong Shen
Colloidal silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) with different sizes were successfully prepared by femtosecond laser ablation under different laser ablation time (LAT). The mean size decreases from 4.23 to 1.42 nm with increasing LAT from 30 to 120 min. In combination with structural characterization, temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and PL excitation spectra, we attribute room temperature blue emissions peaked at 405 and 430 nm to the radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs via the oxygen deficient centers related to Si-C-H2 and Si-O-Si bonds of colloidal Si NCs prepared in 1-octene, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jin-Young So, Chan-Ho Lee, Ji-Eun Kim, Hyun-Jee Kim, Joonha Jun, Won-Gyu Bae
We present a simple method of fabricating a hierarchically nanostructured CuO⁻Cu current collector by using laser ablation and metal mold imprinting to maximize the surface area. The laser ablation of the Cu current collector created the CuO nanostructure on the Cu-collector surface. The microstructure was transferred by subsequent imprinting of the microstructure metal mold on the Cu collector. Then, the laser-ablation nanostructure was formed. Consequently, a hierarchical structure is generated. The laser-ablated hierarchical CuO⁻Cu current collector exhibited an improved capacity while maintaining a cyclability that is similar to those of conventional graphite batteries...
June 15, 2018: Materials
Akira Muto, Koichi Kawakami
To identify the role of a subpopulation of neurons in behavior, it is essential to test the consequences of blocking its activity in living animals. Laser ablation of neurons is an effective method for this purpose when neurons are selectively labeled with fluorescent probes. In the present study, protocols for laser ablating a subpopulation of neurons using a two-photon microscope and testing of its functional and behavioral consequences are described. In this study, prey capture behavior in zebrafish larvae is used as a study model...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Elisabeth Datz, Carmen Schönberger, Florian Zeman, Michael Koller, Mark Berneburg, Michael Landthaler, Sigrid Karrer, Ulrich Hohenleutner, Silvia Hohenleutner
BACKGROUND: Fractional ablative resurfacing is frequently used for treating atrophic and acne scars as well as for the early improvement of scars after surgery. No evidence-based clinical data on improving the appearance of skin grafts by fractional CO2 -laser resurfacing have been available so far. OBJECTIVES: The primary outcome parameter was the adaptation of the skin graft to the surrounding skin 2, 6, and 12 months after the second laser treatment. Secondary outcome parameters were melanin variation, skin roughness, resizing of the skin graft, and patient satisfaction with cosmetic results...
June 17, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Alexander Gallagher
Interventional endoscopy and interventional radiology have led to the development of minimally invasive techniques for management of kidney and ureteral diseases in the dog and cat including idiopathic renal hematuria, ureteral obstruction, and ectopic ureters. Sclerotherapy is a renal-sparing chemical cauterization technique used in cases of idiopathic renal hematuria. Diagnosis of ureteral obstruction is challenging in some cases based on ultrasound alone and antegrade pyelography should be considered. Treatment options for obstructions include nephrostomy tubes, ureteral stents, and subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices...
June 14, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Jacquelyn MacDonell, Niravkumar Patel, Gregory Fischer, E Clif Burdette, Jiang Qian, Vaibhav Chumbalkar, Goutam Ghoshal, Tamas Heffter, Emery Williams, Matthew Gounis, Robert King, Juliette Thibodeau, Gene Bogdanov, Olivia W Brooks, Erin Langan, Roy Hwang, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Ablative lesions are current treatments for epilepsy and brain tumors. Interstitial magnetic resonance (MR) guided focused ultrasound (iMRgFUS) may be an alternate ablation technique which limits thermal tissue charring as compared to laser therapy (LITT) and can produce larger ablation patterns nearer the surface than transcranial MR guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS). OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with interstitial focused ultrasound (iFUS) ablations in swine, using MR-guided robotically assisted (MRgRA) delivery...
June 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Claudia Sosa-Montes de Oca, Gert J de Lange, Francisca Martínez-Ruiz, Francisco J Rodríguez-Tovar
A high-resolution analysis of the distribution of major and trace elements across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (KPgB) in the distal section of Agost (SE Spain) was performed. The KPgB sediments were drilled to recover a 22 cm-long core; the lower 5 cm corresponding to the uppermost Maastrichtian and the upper 17 cm to the lowermost Danian. The unconsolidated sediments were resin-embedded under O2 -free conditions, cut and polished. Laser Ablation-Inductivity Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses were conducted at 10 µm increments and a laser-beam of 80 µm...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Daniele Faccio, Andreas Velten
Cameras capable of capturing videos at a trillion frames per second allow to freeze light in motion, a very counterintuitive capability when related to our everyday experience in which light appears to travel instantaneously. By combining this capability with computational imaging techniques, new imaging opportunities emerge such as three dimensional imaging of scenes that are hidden behind a corner, the study of relativistic distortion effects, imaging through diffusive media and imaging of ultrafast optical processes such as laser ablation, supercontinuum and plasma generation...
June 14, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Réka Lukács, Marcel Guillong, Axel K Schmitt, Kata Molnár, Olivier Bachmann, Szabolcs Harangi
This article provides laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb and U-Th zircon dates for crystals separated from Late Pleistocene dacitic lava dome rocks of the Ciomadul Volcanic Dome Complex (Eastern Carpathians, Romania). The analyses were performed on unpolished zircon prism faces (termed rim analyses) and on crystal interiors exposed through mechanical grinding an polishing (interior analyses). 206 Pb/238 U ages are corrected for Th-disequilibrium based on published and calculated distribution coefficients for U and Th using average whole-rock and individually analyzed zircon compositions...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Jennifer Zuccaro, Inga Muser, Manni Singh, Janelle Yu, Charis Kelly, Joel Fish
Treatment with laser therapy has the potential to greatly improve hypertrophic scarring in individuals who have sustained burn injuries. More specifically, recent research has demonstrated the success of using pulsed dye laser therapy to help reduce redness and postburn pruritus and using ablative fractional CO2 laser therapy to improve scar texture and thickness. This study describes our early experience using laser therapy in our pediatric burn program and details our specific treatment approach when using each laser individually and in combination during the same procedure...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
M Oujja, J G Izquierdo, L Bañares, R de Nalda, M Castillejo
Femtosecond laser ablation of solids is known to produce ejection of material to a large extent composed of particles of nanometer dimensions for a broad variety of targets. This work explores the ultrashort laser ablation of metal targets (Ag, Cu, Al, Mn) through non-conventional diagnostics based on the nonlinear response of the transient medium created upon ablation. The full temporal mapping of the nonlinear response constitutes a useful flag that signals the abundance of clusters and nanoparticles in the plume...
June 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Donagh A Healy, Shiori Kimura, David Power, Abubaker Elhaj, Yasser Abdeldaim, Keith S Cross, Gerard T McGreal, Paul E Burke, Tony Moloney, Brian J Manning, Eamon G Kavanagh
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the incidence of thrombotic events following great saphenous vein (GSV) endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA). METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and conference abstracts were searched. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials and case series that included at least 100 patients who underwent GSV EVTA (laser ablation or radiofrequency ablation [RFA]) with duplex ultrasound (DUS) within 30 days...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Jennifer-Christin Müller, Josef Lichtmannegger, Hans Zischka, Michael Sperling, Uwe Karst
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare genetic disorder of the copper metabolism leading to systemic copper accumulation, predominantly in the liver. The therapeutic approach in WD patients is the generation of a negative copper balance and the maintenance of copper homeostasis, currently by the use of copper chelators such as D-penicillamine (D-PA). However, in circumstances of delayed diagnosis, poor treatment compliance, or treatment failure, mortality is almost certain without hepatic transplantation. Moreover, even after years of D-PA treatment, high liver copper levels are present in WD patients...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Sebastian Siebelmann, Mario Matthaei, Ludwig M Heindl, Björn O Bachmann, Claus Cursiefen
BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of corneal dystrophies develops rapidly as the use of lamellar corneal grafting techniques continue. While penetrating keratoplasty was the gold standard for treating a variety of dystrophies a few years ago, the affected layers of the cornea can, nowadays, be selectively replaced or ablated using laser technology. Of particular importance for these methods is optical coherence tomography, which has recently been integrated into surgical microscopes (MI-OCT)...
June 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Joanna Dong, Gary Goldenberg
Cutaneous field cancerization arises due to UV-induced carcinogenesis of a "field" of subclinically transformed skin and actinic keratoses (AKs) with a tendency to progress and recur. Commonly used treatment methods for multiple AKs include imiquimod, fluorouracil, ingenol mebutate, and photodynamic therapy; however, new options in field-directed therapy with superior efficacy, cosmesis, and convenience may appeal to patients. Ablative and nonablative lasers may fulfill these advantages and have been investigated as monotherapies and combination therapies for field cancerization...
May 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Bridget E McIlwee, Tina S Alster
BACKGROUND: Cosmetic tattoos such as eyeliner, brow liner, and lip liner have become increasingly popular in the United States and throughout the world. For a variety of reasons, patients frequently regret their tattoos and request their removal; however, removal is often complicated by the aesthetically sensitive location of these specialized tattoos and the fact that they often contain white metallic compounds that darken on pigment-specific laser irradiation. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical use, effectiveness, and safety of an ablative laser technique for cosmetic tattoos...
June 8, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Cristian Donos, Joshua Breier, Elliott Friedman, Patrick Rollo, Jessica Johnson, Lauren Moss, Stephen Thompson, Melissa Thomas, Omotola Hope, Jeremy Slater, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVES: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive surgical technique for focal epilepsy. A major appeal of LITT is that it may result in fewer cognitive deficits, especially when targeting dominant hemisphere mesial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy. To evaluate this, as well as to determine seizure outcomes following LITT, we evaluated the relationships between ablation volumes and surgical or cognitive outcomes in 43 consecutive patients undergoing LITT for MTL epilepsy...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsia
Daipayan Guha, Victor X D Yang
Optical technologies may be applied to multiple facets of spinal surgery from diagnostics to intraoperative image guidance to therapeutics. In diagnostics, the current standard remains cross-sectional static imaging. Optical surface scanning tools may have an important role; however, significant work is required to clearly correlate surface metrics to radiographic and clinically relevant spinal anatomy and alignment. In the realm of intraoperative image guidance, optical tracking is widely developed as the current standard of instrument tracking, however remains compromised by line-of-sight issues and more globally cumbersome registration workflows...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Marcio Luiz Dos Santos, Carla Dos Santos Riccardi, Edson de Almeida Filho, Antonio C Guastaldi
Ti-15Mo alloy samples were irradiated by pulsed Yb: YAG laser beam under air and atmospheric pressure. Calcium phosphate coatings were deposited on the irradiated surfaces by the sol-gel method. The sol was prepared from the precursors Ca (NO3 )2 .4H2 O and H3 PO4 . The modified surfaces were submitted to heat treatment conditions at 350 and 600 °C. The results showed that the two conditions established have a sufficient energy to promote ablation on the laser beam irradiated surfaces. Likewise, it has been demonstrated the processes of fusion and fast solidification from the laser beam irradiation, under ambient atmosphere, inducing the formation of stoichiometric TiO2 and non-stoichiometric titanium oxides, including Ti3 O5 , TiO, Ti3 O and Ti6 O with different oxide percentages depending on the fluency used...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Ruijing Liang, Lanlan Liu, Huamei He, Zhikuan Chen, Zhiqun Han, Zhenyu Luo, Zhihao Wu, Mingbing Zheng, Yifan Ma, Lintao Cai
Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) is an aggressive disease among women worldwide, characterized by high mortality and poor prognosis despite systemic therapy with radiation and chemotherapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important strategy to eliminate the primary tumor, however its therapeutic efficacy against metastases and recurrence is still limited. Here, we employed a template method to develop the core-shell gold nanocage@manganese dioxide (AuNC@MnO2 , AM) nanoparticles as tumor microenvironment responsive oxygen producers and near-infrared (NIR)-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generators for oxygen-boosted immunogenic PDT against mTNBC...
May 31, 2018: Biomaterials
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