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cardiovascular outcome

Kunal N Karmali, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Joep van der Leeuw, David C Goff, Salim Yusuf, Alberto Zanchetti, Paul Glasziou, Rodney Jackson, Mark Woodward, Anthony Rodgers, Bruce C Neal, Eivind Berge, Koon Teo, Barry R Davis, John Chalmers, Carl Pepine, Kazem Rahimi, Johan Sundström
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC) from 1995 to 2013...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Chandra L Jackson, Symielle A Gaston, Rui Liu, Kenneth Mukamal, Eric B Rimm
In the United States, racial minorities generally experience poorer cardiovascular health compared to whites, and differences in alcohol consumption and sleep could contribute to these disparities. With a nationally representative sample of 187,950 adults in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004 to 2015, we examined the relationship between alcohol-drinking patterns and sleep duration/quality by race and sex. Using Poisson regression models with robust variance, we estimated sex-specific prevalence ratios for each sleep duration/quality category among blacks compared to whites within categories of alcohol-drinking pattern, adjusting for socioeconomic status and other potential confounders...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marcin Kubik, Alicja Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Ewa Lewicka, Ludmiła Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, Grzegorz Raczak
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a unique inherited cardiomyopathy, characterized by an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events such as heart failure, arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death. Although in comparison to dilated cardiomyopathy, the number of clinical studies concerning LVNC is still small, it is quickly increasing, which reflects a huge effort of the cardiovascular society to develop data to improve understanding of this cardiomyopathy. However, the predictors of adverse outcomes in LVNC are not well established...
March 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Lisa B VanWagner, Samantha Montag, Lihui Zhao, Norrina B Allen, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Arighno Das, Anton I Skaro, Samuel Hohmann, John J Friedewald, Josh Levitsky
BACKGROUND: In the general population, even mild renal disease is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) complications. Whether this is true in liver transplant recipients (LTR) is unknown. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 671 LTR (2002-2012) from a large urban tertiary care center and 37,322 LTR using Vizient hospitalization data linked to the United Network for Organ Sharing. The MDRD4 equation estimated GFR (eGFR). Outcomes were 1-year CV complications (death/hospitalization from myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, pulmonary embolism or stroke) and mortality...
March 20, 2018: Transplantation
Yan Wang, Shun Qiao, De-Wu Han, Xin-Ren Rong, Yi-Xiao Wang, Jing-Jing Xue, Jing Yang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and other obesity-related diseases are characterized by insulin resistance (IR) as a common pathophysiological change and are closely related to cardiovascular disease, which seriously threaten human health. Telmisartan belongs to a group of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and it can partially activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Animal experiments have confirmed that telmisartan can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve IR...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Floriana Caccamo, Simone Saltini, Enrico Carella, Roberto Carlon, Cristina Marogna, Vito Sava
Research on heart disease have found a strong and consistent evidence of association between some psychosocial risk factors, including depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, lack of social support and outcome of disease. Depression increases the risk of cardiac death and is highly predictive of reduced adherence to recommended treatments; anxiety appears to be linked to adverse cardiac outcomes. It was demonstrated that Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) leads to substantial improvements and positive outcomes because combines the prescription of physical activity with the modification of risk factors and aims to reduce symptoms related to the disease and the risk of new cardiovascular events...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Brandon K Martinez, C Michael White
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of inflammatory suppression in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with a focus on the interleukin-1β blocker canakinumab. DATA SOURCES: An Ovid MEDLINE literature search (1946 to February 2018) was performed using search terms inflammation, ASCVD, atherosclerosis, C-reactive protein, canakinumab. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language studies assessing the impact of pharmacological agents, including canakinumab, on inflammation as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and the association with reducing ASCVD events were evaluated...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes were distributed to: (1) Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members; (2) Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) Asia-Pacific members; and (3) divers who had received any PADI non-leadership certification within the previous four years...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Johan Spetz, Javid Moslehi, Kristopher Sarosiek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of malignancies, yet the cardiovascular (CV) toxicity that can result from chest radiotherapy impairs the long-term health of cancer survivors and can be a limiting factor for its use. Despite over 100 years of successful clinical use, the mechanisms by which high-energy photons damage critical components within cells of the heart's myocardium, pericardium, vasculature, and valves remain unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies exploring the acute and chronic effects of radiation therapy on cardiac and vascular tissue have provided new insights into the development and progression of heart disease, including the identification and understanding of age- and complication-associated risk factors...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Stanislav Lazarev, Vishal Gupta, Zahra Ghiassi-Nejad, Brett Miles, Bethann Scarborough, Krzysztof J Misiukiewicz, Batya Reckson, Ren-Dih Sheu, Richard L Bakst
Purpose: Factors related to premature discontinuation of curative radiation therapy (PDCRT) are understudied. This study aimed to examine causes and clinical outcomes of PDCRT at our institution by investigating the most common anatomical site associated with PDCRT. Methods and materials: Among the 161 patients with PDCRT of various anatomic sites at our institution between 2010 and 2017, 36% received radiation to the head and neck region. Pertinent demographic, clinical, and treatment-related data on these 58 patients were collected...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Satoru Ueno, Yasuhide Kitagawa, Mizuki Onozawa, Shiro Hinotsu, Hideyuki Akaza, Atsushi Mizokami, Mikio Namiki
Background: This prospective observational study elucidated the usefulness of hormonal therapy for localized prostate cancer. Background factors and the health-related quality of life in patients who initially underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) or primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) for localized prostate cancer are summarized. Materials and methods: Patients aged 67-76 years with clinical stage T1c or T2 localized prostate cancer treated with PADT or RP, a prostate-specific antigen concentration of <20 ng/mL, and Gleason score of ≤7 were included...
March 2018: Prostate International
Dandan Zhao, Shaoqian Zhao, Xiao Wang, Mingbo Su, Wen Liu, Qinyun Ma, Jie Hong, Weiqiong Gu, Jingya Li, Ruixin Liu, Guang Ning, Jiqiu Wang, Yifei Zhang
The clinical application of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors (DPP4i) increasing active glucagon-like peptide-1 (AGLP-1) levels has been linked to pancreatitis, pancreatic tumors, and cardiovascular events. However, DPP4 mutations in humans or the long-term outcomes of high glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level exposure have not been reported. A trio family with a proband showing an extremely high AGLP-1 level [defined here as hyperglipemia (hyper-glucagon-like peptide-1-emia)] were conducted whole-exome sequencing for potential pathogenic genetic defects...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
M Angelyn Bethel, John J V McMurray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Circulation
Nicholas S Roetker, James S Pankow, Jan Bressler, Alanna C Morrison, Eric Boerwinkle
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation-based patterns of biological aging, known as epigenetic age acceleration, are predictive of all-cause mortality, but little is known about their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We estimated 2 versions of epigenetic age acceleration (Horvath and Hannum) using whole-blood samples from 2543 blacks. Linear and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively, were used to assess the association of age acceleration with carotid intima-media thickness (cross-sectionally) and incident cardiovascular events, including CVD mortality, myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and heart failure, during a median 21-year follow-up...
March 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
Jaideep Patel, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Maren T Scheuner, Steven Shea, Roger S Blumenthal, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha, John W McEvoy
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether family history of coronary heart disease (FH) definitions differ in their association with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants who provided FH data from July 17, 2000, through February 24, 2004, were identified. Definitions of FH were any, premature, and Familial Risk Assessment (FRA). Outcomes included coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, peripheral artery disease, angina, and congestive heart failure...
March 16, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Henry Chubb, Rashed Karim, Sébastien Roujol, Marta Nuñez-Garcia, Steven E Williams, John Whitaker, James Harrison, Constantine Butakoff, Oscar Camara, Amedeo Chiribiri, Tobias Schaeffter, Matthew Wright, Mark O'Neill, Reza Razavi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has been used to visualise post-ablation atrial scar (PAAS), generally employing a three-dimensional (3D) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. However the reproducibility of PAAS imaging has not been determined. This cross-over study is the first to investigate the reproducibility of the technique, crucial for both future research design and clinical implementation. METHODS: Forty subjects undergoing first time ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) had detailed CMR assessment of PAAS...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Ming Hu, Zhenhui Zhang, Bin Liu, Shuangwei Zhang, Renjie Chai, Xiaohua Chen, Tianyu Kong, Fangcheng Zhang, Jingzhi Zhang, Shiming Liu, Ningning Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major outcome and compensatory response of the cardiovascular system to hemodynamic and additional stress responses that ultimately lead to heart failure. Auranofin (Aur) has been used for treating rheumatic arthritis for several decades. Aur is a 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinase inhibitor, and inhibition of the proteasome is speculated to reverse cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of the deubiquitinases, especially 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases, in the regulation of cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Deirdre M J Walsh, Kieran Moran, Veronique Cornelissen, Roselien Buys, Jomme Claes, Paolo Zampognaro, Fabio Melillo, Nicos Maglaveras, Ioanna Chouvarda, Andreas Triantafyllidis, Dimitris Filos, Catherine B Woods
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of premature death worldwide. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of all phases of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Uptake of traditional CR remains suboptimal, as attendance at formal hospital-based CR programs is low, with community-based CR rates and individual long-term exercise maintenance even lower. Home-based CR programs have been shown to be equally effective in clinical and health-related quality of life outcomes and yet are not readily available...
March 15, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
George A Karpouzas, Joel Estis, Panteha Rezaeian, John Todd, Matthew J Budoff
Objectives: Patients with RA display greater occult coronary atherosclerosis burden and experience higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with controls. We here explored whether pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), a biomarker of myocardial injury, correlated with plaque burden and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in RA. Methods: We evaluated 150 patients with 64-slice coronary CT angiography. Coronary artery calcium, number of segments with plaque (segment involvement score), stenotic severity and plaque burden were assessed...
March 14, 2018: Rheumatology
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