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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161699/patterns-of-detection-of-fetal-posterior-fossa-anomalies-analysis-of-81-cases-in-the-second-half-of-gestation
#1
Stéphanie Friszer, Ferdinand Dhombres, Eléonore Blondiaux, Marie-Laure Moutard, Catherine Garel, Jean-Marie Jouannic
OBJECTIVE: To establish which characteristics of fetal ultrasound screening lead to the diagnosis of posterior fossa (PF) anomalies. METHODS: A total of 81 fetuses with PF anomalies diagnosed after dedicated neuroimaging between July 1, 2007, and January 1, 2013, were included. The ultrasound characteristics of the fetal cerebellum categorized according to an anatomical approach to the PF, associated fetal anomalies, gestational age at diagnosis, and the potential benefits from systematic measurement of the transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) were analyzed...
November 21, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157540/dental-anatomy-and-nomenclature-for-the-radiologist
#2
REVIEW
Mohammed Abbas Husain
Head and neck imaging studies frequently encompass the oral cavity and human dentition. Given the relatively wide prevalence of dental disease, the likelihood of detecting incidental dental pathology is high. This article provides an overview of dental terminology, anatomy, restorations, and associated computed tomography imaging artifacts necessary to more effectively interpret and communicate findings related to teeth.
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145401/anatomically-specific-intratubular-and-interstitial-biominerals-in-the-human-renal-medullo-papillary-complex
#3
Ling Chen, Ryan S Hsi, Feifei Yang, Benjamin A Sherer, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
Limited information exists on the anatomically-specific early stage events leading to clinically detectable mineral aggregates in the renal papilla. In this study, quantitative multiscale correlative maps of structural, elemental and biochemical properties of whole medullo-papillary complexes from human kidneys were developed. Correlative maps of properties specific to the uriniferous and vascular tubules using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and immunolocalization of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) along with their association with anatomy specific biominerals were obtained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138215/physiology-undergraduate-degree-requirements-in-the-u-s
#4
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
Course-level learning objectives and core concepts for undergraduate physiology teaching exist. The next step is to consider how these resources fit into generalizable program-level guidelines for Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees in Physiology. In the absence of program-level guidelines for Physiology degree programs, we compiled a selective internal report to review degree requirements from 18 peer BS programs entitled "Physiology" in the United States (U.S.). There was a range of zero to three required semesters of math, physics, physics laboratory, general biology, biology laboratory, general chemistry, chemistry laboratory, organic chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory, biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory, anatomy, anatomy laboratory, core systems physiology, and physiology laboratory...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137087/isolated-tear-of-the-cord-like-middle-glenohumeral-ligament-in-buford-complex-a-case-report
#5
Byung-Ill Lee, Yong Beom Kim, Sung Hun Won, Shu Chiang Hwang, Sung-Woo Choi, Jae-Hwi Nho, Dong-Il Chun
RATIONALE: We describe a rare case of the isolated tear in the cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) in Buford complex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature about the isolated tear of cord-like MGHL in Buford complex. The present report describes in detail our experience with the diagnosis of isolated tear of the cord-like MGHL in Buford complex and management. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 50-year-old female patient visited our hospital with pain and stiffness in the right shoulder that lasted for 9 months...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136140/inaccurate-aortic-stent-graft-deployment-in-the-distal-landing-zone-incidence-reasons-and-consequences
#6
Mikolaj Berezowski, Julia Morlock, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Marek Jasinski, Tomasz Plonek, Matthias Siepe, Martin Czerny, Bartosz Rylski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of stent graft deployment in the distal landing zone (LZ) during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Currently, TEVAR focuses on accurate stent graft deployment in the proximal LZ. Data on landing in the distal LZ are lacking. METHODS: Of 195 TEVAR patients (2005-16) with a non-dissected aortic pathology, 59 [median age 73 years (first quartile 68; third quartile 77), 20 women] patients had a distal LZ shorter than 40 mm...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127999/high-resolution-isotropic-three-dimensional-mr-imaging-of-the-extraforaminal-segments-of-the-cranial-nerves
#7
REVIEW
Jessica Wen, Naman S Desai, Dean Jeffery, Nafi Aygun, Ari Blitz
High-resolution isotropic 3-dimensional (D) MR imaging with and without contrast is now routinely used for imaging evaluation of cranial nerve anatomy and pathologic conditions. The anatomic details of the extraforaminal segments are well-visualized on these techniques. A wide range of pathologic entities may cause enhancement or displacement of the nerve, which is now visible to an extent not available on standard 2D imaging. This article highlights the anatomy of extraforaminal segments of the cranial nerves and uses select cases to illustrate the utility and power of these sequences, with a focus on constructive interference in steady-state...
February 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122764/mr-imaging-of-the-superior-cervical-ganglion-and-inferior-ganglion-of-the-vagus-nerve-structures-that-can-mimic-pathologic-retropharyngeal-lymph-nodes
#8
H Yokota, H Mukai, S Hattori, K Yamada, Y Anzai, T Uno
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve can mimic pathologic retropharyngeal lymph nodes. We studied the cross-sectional anatomy of the superior cervical ganglion and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve to evaluate how they can be differentiated from the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study consists of 2 parts. Cohort 1 concerned the signal intensity of routine neck MR imaging with 2D sequences, apparent diffusion coefficient, and contrast enhancement of the superior cervical ganglion compared with lymph nodes with or without metastasis in 30 patients...
November 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121375/management-of-benign-middle-ear-tumors-a-series-of-7-cases
#9
Z Jason Qian, Amy M Coffey, Kathleen M O'Toole, Anil K Lalwani
Benign middle ear tumors represent a rare group of neoplasms that vary widely in their pathology, anatomy, and clinical findings. These factors have made it difficult to establish guidelines for the resection of such tumors. Here we present 7 unique cases of these rare and diverse tumors and draw from our experience to recommend optimal surgical management. Based on our experience, a postauricular incision is necessary in nearly all cases. Mastoidectomy is required for tumors that extend into the mastoid cavity...
October 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119039/osirix-software-as-a-preoperative-planning-tool-in-cranial-neurosurgery-a-step-by-step-guide-for-neurosurgical-residents
#10
REVIEW
Toma Spiriev, Vladimir Nakov, Lili Laleva, Christo Tzekov
Background: OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) is an open-source Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer that is gaining more and more attention in the neurosurgical community because of its user-friendly interface, powerful three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering capabilities, and various options for data integration. This paper presents in detail the use of OsiriX software as a preoperative planning tool in cranial neurosurgery. Methods: In January 2013, OsiriX software was introduced into our clinical practice as a preoperative planning tool...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118545/imaging-modalities-for-an-uncommon-inguinal-scrotal-pathology-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Koo Hao Chun, Fam Xeng Inn, Erica Yee Hing, Goh Eng Hong
Inguinal scrotal swelling is a common presentation to surgical clinic with various differential diagnoses. In most circumstances, a good clinical assessment is sufficient to identify the diagnosis. Imaging is necessary when diagnostic difficulty was encountered. The choice of imaging study could affect the management and outcome. A 60-year-old male presented with an enlarging right inguinal scrotal swelling for 5 years. Clinical examination showed a swelling extended from the right inguinal region down to the right scrotum, firm, not reducible, and not separable from the right testis...
October 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114336/physical-exam-and-evaluation-of-the-unstable-shoulder
#12
María Valencia Mora, Miguel Ángel Ruiz Ibán, Jorge Diaz Heredia, Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Gómez, Raquel Ruiz Diaz, Mikel Aramberri, Carlos Cobiella
Background: The clinical evaluation of the patient with shoulder instability can be challenging. The pathological spectrum ranges from the straightforward "recurrent anterior dislocation" patient to the overhead athlete with a painful shoulder but not clear instability episodes. Advances in shoulder arthroscopy and imaging have helped in understanding the anatomy and physiopathology of the symptoms. The aim of this general article is to summarize the main examination manoeuvres that could be included in an overall approach to a patient with a suspicion of instability...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111383/disturbed-glutathione-antioxidative-defense-is-associated-with-structural-brain-changes-in-neuroleptic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#13
K Langbein, J Hesse, A Gussew, B Milleit, S Lavoie, G P Amminger, C Gaser, G Wagner, J R Reichenbach, U-C Hipler, D Winter, S Smesny
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are reported in schizophrenia and are thought to be associated with disturbed neurodevelopment, brain structural alterations, glutamatergic imbalance, negative symptomatology, and cognitive impairment. To test some of these assumptions we investigated the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system (AODS) and brain structural abnormalities in drug-naïve individuals with first acute episode of psychosis (FEP). METHOD: The study involved 27 drug-naïve FEP patients and 31 healthy controls (HC)...
October 18, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108502/colonic-adventitial-fibromuscular-dysplasia-a-nonspecific-arteriopathy-associated-with-hirschsprung-disease-and-other-obstructive-disorders
#14
Ameet I Thaker, Raj P Kapur
Background Smooth muscle differentiation ("adventitial fibromuscular dysplasia," AFD) was purported as specific to arteries in the transition zone of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) patients. We investigated AFD in an HSCR population and controls and consider the pathogenesis and significance of the vascular pathology. Design Vascular histology in sections from colonic HSCR resections (n = 55) was compared with age- and site-matched controls with (n = 19) and without (n = 28) non-HSCR obstructive conditions...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105367/early-experience-with-a-patient-specific-virtual-surgical-simulation-for-rehearsal-of-endoscopic-skull-base-surgery
#15
Tae-Bin Won, Peter Hwang, Jae Hyun Lim, Sung-Woo Cho, Sun Ha Paek, Steven Losorelli, Yona Vaisbuch, Sonny Chan, Kenneth Salisbury, Nikolas H Blevins
BACKGROUND: With the help of contemporary computer technology it is possible to create a virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training. This article describes a patient-specific virtual rhinologic surgical simulation platform that supports rehearsal of endoscopic skull-base surgery. We also share our early experience with select cases. METHODS: A rhinologic VSE was developed, featuring a highly efficient direct 3-dimensional (3D) volume renderer with simultaneous stereoscopic feedback during surgical manipulation of the virtual anatomy, as well as high-fidelity haptic feedback...
November 3, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104737/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-which-information-is-useful-for-the-arrhythmologist
#16
REVIEW
Elia De Maria, Annachiara Aldrovandi, Ambra Borghi, Letizia Modonesi, Stefano Cappelli
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a non-invasive, non-ionizing, diagnostic technique that uses magnetic fields, radio waves and field gradients to generate images with high spatial and temporal resolution. After administration of contrast media (e.g., gadolinium chelate), it is also possible to acquire late images, which make possible the identification and quantification of myocardial areas with scar/fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement, LGE). CMR is currently a useful instrument in clinical cardiovascular practice for the assessment of several pathological conditions, including ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies and congenital heart disease...
October 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102282/sleep-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pivotal-role-for-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#17
REVIEW
Jan Van Erum, Debby Van Dam, Peter Paul De Deyn
Alzheimer's disease (AD), which accounts for most of the dementia cases, is, aside from cognitive deterioration, often characterized by the presence of non-cognitive symptoms. Society is desperately in need for interventions that alleviate the economic and social burden related to AD. Circadian dysrhythmia, one of these symptoms in particular, immensely decreases the self-care ability of AD patients and is one of the main reasons of caregiver exhaustion. Studies suggest that these circadian disturbances form the root of sleep-wake problems, diagnosed in more than half of AD patients...
July 28, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101974/the-collateral-ligament-of-the-digits-of-the-hand-anatomy-physiology-biomechanics-injury-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Leo M Rozmaryn
Ligament injuries are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen in clinical practice and ligaments are the most frequently injured structures in a joint. Ligaments play an important role in balancing joint mobility and joint stability. Disruption of joint ligaments severely impairs joint function. Over the past 10 years, a new appreciation of a neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of joint ligaments and its biofeedback loops to surrounding muscles and tendons has emerged to explain the relationship between primary and secondary restraints that allow normal joint motion yet prevent pathological motion...
November 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101462/the-validity-of-arterial-measurements-in-a-south-african-embalmed-body-population
#19
Marelize Schoeman, Albert van Schoor, Farhana Suleman, Liebie Louw, Peet du Toit
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the normal arterial diameter at a given anatomical point is the first step toward quantifying the severity of cardiovascular diseases. According to several studies, parameters such as weight, height, age and sex can explain morphometric variations in arterial anatomy that are observed in a population. Before the development of a reference database against which to compare the diameters of arteries in a variety of pathological conditions, the compatibility between embalmed body measurements and computed tomography (CT) measurements must first be established...
November 3, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100830/should-virtual-mirroring-be-used-in-the-preoperative-planning-of-an-orbital-reconstruction
#20
Jesper Jansen, Leander Dubois, Ruud Schreurs, Peter J J Gooris, Thomas J J Maal, Ludo F Beenen, Alfred G Becking
PURPOSE: Mirroring has been used as a diagnostic tool in orbital wall fractures for many years, but limited research is available proving the assumed symmetry of orbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate volume and contour differences between orbital cavities in healthy humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the left and right orbital cavities of a consecutive sample of patients' computed tomograms were measured. Inclusion criteria were patients with no sign of orbital or sinus pathology or fracture...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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