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Anatomy pathology

G F Gebhart, Klaus Bielefeldt
Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Jianping Gong
Surgical or local anatomy consists of two components conventionally, organs and their blood supply. In fact, they are enveloped by the fascia membrane and serous membrane. This is the third component in surgical or local anatomy, which is omitted by surgeons for many years. The omitted reasons are failed recognition and unknown function. Re-understanding of the third component in surgical or local anatomy will make some changes in the local anatomy, tumor pathology, oncology surgery and operations. Firstly, the third component makes surgical anatomy developed from organ anatomy, blood vessel anatomy to membrane anatomy, which consists of the mesentery in broad sense and its bed, both include serous membrane and fascia membrane...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Andréa Farias de Melo Leite, Américo Mota, Francisco Abaeté Chagas-Neto, Sara Reis Teixeira, Jorge Elias Junior, Valdair Francisco Muglia
Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings...
July 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
Hythem Omar, Vikram Saini, Vibhor Wadhwa, George Liu, Avneesh Chhabra
The spring (plantar calcaneonavicular) ligament complex connects the calcaneus and navicular bone of the foot and serves as the primary static stabilizer of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. In this article, we describe the normal anatomy of the spring ligament complex, illustrate 3T magnetic resonance imaging appearances in its normal and abnormal states, and discuss the pathological associations with relevant case examples.
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Tijana R Djukic, Swapna Karthik, Igor Saveljic, Valentin Djonov, Nenad Filipovic
Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Dattatraya Muzumdar, Manoj Patil, Atul Goel, Sangeeta Ravat, Nina Sawant, Urvashi Shah
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the commonest indications for epilepsy surgery. Presurgical evaluation for drug resistant epilepsy and identification of appropriate candidates for surgery is essential for optimal seizure freedom. The anatomy of mesial temporal lobe is complex and needs to be understood in the context of the advanced imaging, ictal and interictal Video_EEG monitoring, neuropsychology and psychiatric considerations. The completeness of disconnection of epileptogenic neural networks is paramount and is correlated with the extent of resection of the mesial temporal structures...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Umut Yilmaz
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: The posterior fossa is the location of some specific vascular pathologies and vascular anatomical variants that are important for radiologists to know and recognize. Vascular malformations that are also found in the supratentorial region have some divergent characteristics in the posterior fossa. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Knowledge of the vascular anatomy of the posterior fossa and its variants is important for an understanding of vascular pathologies...
October 21, 2016: Der Radiologe
Ryan C Shelstad, Justin G Reeves, Katsuhiro Yamanaka, T Brett Reece
We review the operative techniques of aortic arch replacement. Aortic arch replacement presents several formidable challenges, as it requires arresting the circulation to the body and replacement of the brachiocephalic vessels with special consideration for protecting the central nervous system. Perfusion strategies, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and operative graft selection are key elements in aortic arch replacement surgery. Standard approaches include the island technique, the branched graft technique, and the "Spielvogel" trifurcated graft technique-each having its own advantages...
October 7, 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
S Chawla, J Bowman, M Gandhi, B Panizza
BACKGROUND: The skull base is a highly complex anatomical region that provides passage for important nerves and vessels as they course into and out of the cranial cavity. Key to the management of pathology in this region is a thorough understanding of the anatomy, with its variations, and the relationship of various neurovascular structures to the pathology in question. Targeted high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging on high field strength magnets can enable the skull base surgeon to understand this intricate relationship and deal with the pathology from a position of relative advantage...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Ronald H Silverman
The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Ceren Kizmazoglu, Joung H Lee, Burak Sade
BACKGROUND: This paper describes a case of 4th ventricular mass, whose management had to be modified due to a rare variation of the occipital sinus (OS). CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: 32 year-old female presented with persistent headache and nausea. MRI showed a 4th ventricular mass and hydrocephalus. Venous sinus anatomy appeared unusual, thus an MRV was performed. MRV revealed the OS as the main drainage pathway for the whole brain, providing the only drainage between the superior sagittal sinus and the jugular veins through the marginal sinus (MS)...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Christian Güldner, Isabell Diogo, Eva Bernd, Stephanie Dräger, Magis Mandapathil, Afshin Teymoortash, Hesham Negm, Thomas Wilhelm
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, syn. digital volume tomography = DVT) was introduced into ENT imaging more than 10 years ago. The main focus was on imaging of the paranasal sinuses and traumatology of the mid face. In recent years, it has also been used in imaging of chronic ear diseases (especially in visualizing middle and inner ear implants), but an exact description of the advantages and limitations of visualizing precise anatomy in a relevant number of patients is still missing. The data sets of CBCT imaging of the middle and inner ear of 204 patients were analyzed regarding the visualization of 18 different anatomic structures...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Christoph F Dietrich, Rudolf Horn, Susanne Morf, Liliana Chiorean, Yi Dong, Xin-Wu Cui, Nathan S S Atkinson, Christian Jenssen
Central venous access has traditionally been performed on the basis of designated anatomical landmarks. However, due to patients' individual anatomy and vessel pathology and depending on individual operators' skill, this landmark approach is associated with a significant failure rate and complication risk. There is substantial evidence demonstrating significant improvement in effectiveness and safety of vascular access by realtime ultrasound (US)-guidance, as compared to the anatomical landmark-guided approach...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Radhe Sharan, Brij Mohan, Harkomal Kaur, Anju Bala
BACKGROUND: Fiberoptic intubation is a technique commonly used for difficult airways. Conscious sedation is desirable to make this procedure tolerable, and it is essential that patients are cooperative, relaxed, and comfortable especially when difficult airway anatomy or pathology is encountered. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of propofol versus midazolam in oral fiberoptic endotracheal intubation in terms of hemodynamic changes, level of sedation, ease of intubation, and patient comfort and complications...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
V Kocaba, O Damour, C Auxenfans, C Burillon
Limbal stem cell deficiency is predominantly caused by severe eye burns resulting in a decreased or a complete ablation of the regenerative potential of these stem cells. The inability to reconstruct the corneal epithelium further leads conjunctivalization of the gimbal-epithelial barrier. These abnormalities collectively result in the progressive opacification of the cornea responsible for blindness that is driven by chronic corneal ulceration and neovascularization. The underlying pathology of the cornea affects the homeostasis of the neighboring conjunctiva, eyelids, and tear film...
October 11, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Robert Fenstermaker, Ajay Abad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews sellar and parasellar anatomy and the appearance of normal bone and soft tissue components on both CT and MRI. Pituitary gland structure and function are discussed with respect to hormone secretion, along with clinical syndromes caused by perturbations in hormone levels. Syndromes and specific diseases in the sellar and parasellar regions are discussed along with characteristic clinical features and imaging findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Bone and calcifications are best visualized with CT scans, while soft tissues are better defined using MRI...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Hong-Hao Yu, Heng Zhao, Yu-Bo Qing, Wei-Rong Pan, Bao-Yu Jia, Hong-Ye Zhao, Xing-Xu Huang, Hong-Jiang Wei
Dystrophinopathy, including Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscle dystrophy (BMD) is an incurable X-linked hereditary muscle dystrophy caused by a mutation in the DMD gene in coding dystrophin. Advances in further understanding DMD/BMD for therapy are expected. Studies on mdx mice and dogs with muscle dystrophy provide limited insight into DMD disease mechanisms and therapeutic testing because of the different pathological manifestations. Miniature pigs share similar physiology and anatomy with humans and are thus an excellent animal model of human disease...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Heather A Richbourg, Matthew J Martin, Emma R Schachner, Margaret A McNulty
Rodent models are used for a variety of orthopedic research applications; however, anatomy references include mostly artistic representations. Advanced imaging techniques, including micro-computed tomography (microCT), can provide more accurate representations of subtle anatomical characteristics. A recent microCT atlas of laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) anatomy depicts the central and tarsal bone III (T3) as a single bone, differing from previous references. Fusion of tarsal bones is generally characterized as pathological secondary to mutations associated with growth factors, and normal variation has not been documented in the mouse tarsus...
October 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Mustafa Özbayrak, Servet Tatlı
Knowing the normal anatomy, variations, congenital and acquired pathologies of the portal venous system are important, especially when planning liver surgery and percutaneous interventional procedures. The portal venous system pathologies can be congenital such as agenesis of portal vein (PV) or can be involved by other hepatic disorders such as cirrhosis and malignancies. In this article, we present normal anatomy, variations, and acquired pathologies involving the portal venous system as showed on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 12, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
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