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Anatomy pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315694/incorporation-of-autopsy-case-based-learning-into-phd-graduate-education-a-novel-approach-to-bridging-the-bench-to-bedside-gap
#1
Erin G Brooks, Joanne M Thornton, Erik A Ranheim, Zsuzsanna Fabry
Given the current rapid expansion of biological knowledge and the challenges of translating that knowledge into clinical practice, finding effective methods of teaching graduate students clinical medicine concepts has become even more critical. The utility of autopsy in medical student and resident education has been well-established. Multiple studies have reported it to be a helpful means of teaching anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical problem-solving skills, and medical diagnostic techniques. While various models of training Ph...
March 15, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314818/allometric-analysis-detects-brain-size-independent-effects-of-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-on-human-cerebellar-organization
#2
Catherine Mankiw, Min Tae M Park, P K Reardon, Ari M Fish, Liv S Clasen, Deanna Greenstein, Jay N Giedd, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty, Armin Raznahan
The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex-biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences - including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation - lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (i) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (ii) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare X-/Y-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (iii) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach which considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300678/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-internal-jugular-veins-in-multiple-sclerosis-inter-observer-agreement-and-comparison-with-doppler-ultrasound-examination
#3
S J Laukontaus, J Pekkola, J Numminen, T Kagayama, M Lepäntalo, M Färkkilä, S Atula, P Tienari, M Venermo
OBJECTIVES: Doppler ultrasound (US) has been widely used to evaluate the cervical venous system of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients according to the hypothesis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) with contradictory results. Venous anatomy and pathology can be examined with less operator-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: To assess the inter-observer agreement in measuring internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in MR-images and to explore the agreement between US and MRI in the detection of calibres of ≤ 0...
March 11, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296953/a-numerical-investigation-of-intrathecal-isobaric-drug-dispersion-within-the-cervical-subarachnoid-space
#4
Per Thomas Haga, Giulia Pizzichelli, Mikael Mortensen, Miroslav Kuchta, Soroush Heidari Pahlavian, Edoardo Sinibaldi, Bryn A Martin, Kent-Andre Mardal
Intrathecal drug and gene vector delivery is a procedure to release a solute within the cerebrospinal fluid. This procedure is currently used in clinical practice and shows promise for treatment of several central nervous system pathologies. However, intrathecal delivery protocols and systems are not yet optimized. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of injection parameters on solute distribution within the cervical subarachnoid space using a numerical platform. We developed a numerical model based on a patient-specific three dimensional geometry of the cervical subarachnoid space with idealized dorsal and ventral nerve roots and denticulate ligament anatomy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295386/an-integrated-segmentation-and-shape-based-classification-scheme-for-distinguishing-adenocarcinomas-from-granulomas-on-lung-ct
#5
Mehdi Alilou, Niha Beig, Mahdi Orooji, Anant Madabhushi, Prabhakar Rajiah, Michael Yang, Robert Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Sagar Rakshit, Niyoti Reddy, Frank Jacono
PURPOSE: Distinguishing between benign granulmoas and adenocarcinomas is confounded by their similar visual appearance on routine CT scans. Unfortunately, owing to the inability to discriminate these lesions radigraphically, many patients with benign granulomas are subjected to unnecessary surgical wedge resections and biopsies for pathologic confirmation of cancer presence or absence. This suggests the need for improved computerized characterization of these nodules in order to distinguish between these two classes of lesions on CT scans...
March 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294592/comparison-of-two-cone-beam-computed-tomography-systems-in-the-visualization-of-endodontic-structures
#6
Sabrina Strobel, Evelyn Lenhart, Johann P Woelber, Jonathan Fleiner, Christian Hannig, Karl-Thomas Wrbas
An important part of endodontic diagnosis and treatment is the adequate visualization of root canal anatomy. The objective of the present study was to compare two different three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems, Scanora 3D and 3D Accuitomo 170, with respect to their visualization of endodontic canal systems and potential pathological alterations. Seventy extracted human teeth were investigated with regard to the radiographic detection of number of root canals, lateral canals, root canal fillings and posts, vertical root fractures, and the occurrence of image artifacts...
2017: Swiss Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292311/sonography-of-the-distal-urethra-in-lambs
#7
Ammar AlLugami, Kerstin von Pückler, Axel Wehrend, Marlene Sickinger
Sonography is a convenient, non-invasive diagnostic modality in small ruminants, often used in reproductive management, internal medicine, and surgery. Pregnancy diagnostics and imaging anatomy and pathology of organs, such as neoplasia, are major applications. Urolithiasis is one of the most common causes of death in male sheep and goats, for which sonography is the diagnostic modality of choice. Although ultrasound-imaging techniques for kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder in small ruminants have been described previously, this study focuses on reporting the imaging technique of the extra-pelvic portion of the urethra, as nearly all the cases of obstructive urolithiasis result from urinary stones in this part...
March 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290240/popliteal-cyst-before-william-baker-first-report-in-the-galenic-corpus
#8
Marios Papadakis, Andreas Manios, Constantinos Trompoukis
INTRODUCTION: A popliteal cyst, also known as Baker cyst, is a benign fluctuant swelling of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa in the popliteal fossa at the back of the knee. The cyst is named after William Morrant Baker, who is considered to have first described this fluid collection with new sac formation outside of the knee-joint in 1877. We herein present a short description contained in the Galenic Corpus that appears to match to what we now call the Baker cyst. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Α thorough survey of Kühn's Galenic Corpus was performed...
April 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288887/transapical-endovascular-repair-of-thoracic-aortic-pathology
#9
Takashi Murakami, Shinsuke Nishimura, Mitsuharu Hosono, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Etsuji Sohgawa, Yukimasa Sakai, Toshihiko Shibata
BACKGROUND: Alternative access for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been explored for patients with unsuitable femoral and iliac access, but few cases of transapical access have been described. We report our experience with transapical access for various aortic pathologies. METHODS: We reviewed six cases undergoing transapical access for endovascular repair of thoracic aortic pathology between December 2013 and August 2015. Five patients had an aortic arch aneurysm and 1 patient presented with Stanford type A subacute aortic dissection...
March 10, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279769/lumbar-facet-tropism-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Fernando Alonso, Christina M Kirkpatrick, William Jeong, Christian Fisahn, Sameera Usman, Tarush Rustagi, Marios Loukas, Jens R Chapman, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Scattered reports exist in the medical literature regarding facet tropism. However, this finding has had mixed conclusions regarding its origin and impact on the normal spine. Herein, we review the anatomy, embryology, biomechanics, and pathology related to lumbar facet tropism. Facet tropism is most commonly found at L4-L5 vertebral segments and there is some evidence that this condition may lead to facet degenerative spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disc disease, and other degenerative conditions.
March 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276991/evaluation-of-common-elbow-pathologies-a-focus-on-physical-examination
#11
Joseph Laratta, Jon-Michael Caldwell, Joseph Lombardi, William Levine, Christopher Ahmad
Elbow tendinopathy accounts for the majority of elbow pathology in patients presenting to upper extremity and sports medicine surgeons. With increased participation in overhead sports in an aging population, the incidence of elbow injuries has risen. A comprehensive knowledge of elbow anatomy and biomechanical function of the elbow complex is prerequisite in the assessment of patients with elbow injuries; however, a thorough understanding of alternative and confounding pathologies is essential for accurate diagnosis...
February 22, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276096/central-control-of-micturition-in-women-brain-bladder-pathways-in-continence-and-urgency-urinary-incontinence
#12
REVIEW
Nisha G Arya, Steven J Weissbart
Urinary incontinence disproportionately affects women. Anatomical textbooks typically describe continence mechanisms in women in the context of the pelvic floor support of the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincters. However, the urinary bladder and urethral sphincters are under the central control of the brain through a complex network of neurons that allow storage of urine followed by voiding when socially appropriate. Recent studies suggest that the most common type of urinary incontinence in women, urgency urinary incontinence, involves significant dysfunction of the central control of micturition...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275722/differential-contribution-of-app-metabolites-to-early-cognitive-deficits-in-a-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Valentine Hamm, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Karine Herbeaux, Carole Strittmatter, Chantal Mathis, Romain Goutagny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology commonly characterized by a progressive and irreversible deterioration of cognitive functions, especially memory. Although the etiology of AD remains unknown, a consensus has emerged on the amyloid hypothesis, which posits that increased production of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) peptide induces neuronal network dysfunctions and cognitive deficits. However, the relative failures of Aβ-centric therapeutics suggest that the amyloid hypothesis is incomplete and/or that the treatments were given too late in the course of AD, when neuronal damages were already too extensive...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272291/review-of-sympathetic-blocks-anatomy-sonoanatomy-evidence-and-techniques
#14
Samir Baig, Jee Youn Moon, Hariharan Shankar
The autonomic nervous system is composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is implicated in situations involving emergent action by the body and additionally plays a role in mediating pain states and pathologies in the body. Painful conditions thought to have a sympathetically mediated component may respond to blockade of the corresponding sympathetic fibers. The paravertebral sympathetic chain has been targeted for various painful conditions. Although initially injected using landmark-based techniques, fluoroscopy and more recently ultrasound imaging have allowed greater visualization and facilitated injections of these structures...
March 8, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269801/managing-formaldehyde-indoor-pollution-in-anatomy-pathology-departments
#15
Gabriele d'Ettorre, Mario Criscuolo, Mauro Mazzotta
BACKGROUND: Nearly eleven years have passed since the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified Formaldehyde (FA) as a known human carcinogen (group 1), yet the safety of anatomy pathology workers who are currently exposed to FA is still a matter of concern. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature to discover which topics have been focused on and what the latest developments are in managing FA indoor pollution in anatomy pathology departments...
February 27, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269195/mechanical-performances-of-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-strategies-with-main-aortic-and-chimney-grafts
#16
Wei-Ling Chen, Bing-Feng Huang, Ming-Long Yeh, Chung-Dann Kan
The use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) strategies for the treatment of complex aortic pathologies is a major area of investigation in modern surgery. EVAR strategies using fenestrated or branched devices provide alternatives to open surgery for patients with aortic pathologies with visceral branch involvement, but their applications have some major limitations. To extend endovascular repair to patients whose anatomy is unfit for branched or fenestrated stent grafts or open repair, parallel graft techniques using chimney grafts (CGs) have been proposed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268514/mitral-valve-annulus-localization-in-3d-echocardiography
#17
Abhishek Tiwari, Kedar A Patwardhan
The Mitral Valve is a structure on the left side of the human heart that regulates the flow of oxygenated blood into the Left Ventricle and also helps maintain the pressure within the Left Ventricle when the blood gets pumped to the rest of the body from the Left Ventricle. Pathology of the Mitral Valve often manifests through structural changes in the anatomy. Assessment of Mitral Valve pathology as well as determination of specific interventions require quantification of various structures of the Mitral Valve and one of these structures of interest is the Mitral Valve annulus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266009/a-detailed-musculoskeletal-study-of-a-fetus-with-anencephaly-and-spina-bifida-craniorachischisis-and-comparison-with-other-cases-of-human-congenital-malformations
#18
Malak A Alghamdi, Janine M Ziermann, Lydia Gregg, Rui Diogo
Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. about craniorachischisis. Here we provide a detailed report on the musculoskeletal structures of a fetus with craniorachischisis, as well as comparisons with the few descriptions for anencephaly and with musculoskeletal anomalies found in other congenital malformations. We focused in particular on the comparison with trisomies 13, 18, and 21 because neural tube defects have been associated with such chromosomal defects...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260490/myosin-light-chain-kinase-mylk1-anatomy-interactions-functions-and-regulation
#19
REVIEW
A Y Khapchaev, V P Shirinsky
This review discusses and summarizes the results of molecular and cellular investigations of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, MYLK1), the key regulator of cell motility. The structure and regulation of a complex mylk1 gene and the domain organization of its products is presented. The interactions of the mylk1 gene protein products with other proteins and posttranslational modifications of the mylk1 gene protein products are reviewed, which altogether might determine the role and place of MLCK in physiological and pathological reactions of cells and entire organisms...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259914/dynamics-of-mmp%C3%A2-9-mmp%C3%A2-2-and-timp%C3%A2-1-in-a-rat-model-of-brain-injury-combined-with-traumatic-heterotopic-ossification
#20
Wei-Zhe Shi, Jin-Yong Ju, Hai-Jun Xiao, Feng Xue, Jiang Wu, Ming-Mang Pan, Wei-Feng Ni
The present study aimed to detect early changes in the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase‑1 (TIMP‑1) in a rat model of brain injury combined with traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO). A total of 132 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were used to establish the experimental and control groups. Anatomy and sample collection were conducted on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining were performed for local tissues...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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