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Anatomy pathology

Da Li, Yu-Ming Jiao, Liang Wang, Fu-Xin Lin, Jun Wu, Xian-Zeng Tong, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao
OBJECTIVE Surgical management of brainstem lesions is challenging due to the highly compact, eloquent anatomy of the brainstem. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs). METHODS A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed by using stratified blocked randomization. The primary eligibility criterion of the study was being a surgical candidate for brainstem CMs (with informed consent)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
John J Elias, Kerwyn C Jones, S Cyrus Rezvanifar, Joseph N Gabra, Melanie A Morscher, Andrew J Cosgarea
BACKGROUND: Continued patellar instability can occur following medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Computational simulation of function was used to investigate the influence of the lateral position of the tibial tuberosity, trochlear dysplasia and patella alta on lateral patellar tracking following MPFL reconstruction. METHODS: Multibody dynamic simulation models were developed to represent nine knees being treated for recurrent patellar instability...
March 12, 2018: Knee
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Rolf Quam, Nohemi Sala, Morgane Bardey, James C Ohman, Antoine Balzeau
The La Ferrassie 1 (LF1) skeleton, discovered over a century ago, is one of the most important Neandertal individuals both for its completeness and due to the role it has played historically in the interpretation of Neandertal anatomy and lifeways. Here we present new skeletal remains from this individual, which include a complete right middle ear ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes), three vertebral fragments, and two costal remains. Additionally, the study of the skeleton has allowed us to identify new pathological lesions, including a congenital variant in the atlas, a greenstick fracture of the left clavicle, and a lesion in a mid-thoracic rib of unknown etiology...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Alberto Zanatta, Luca Bezzi, Nicola Carrara, Cicero Moraes, Gaetano Thiene, Fabio Zampieri
Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
David T Fernandes Cabral, Georgios A Zenonos, Maximiliano Nuñez, Pinar Celtikci, Carl Snyderman, Eric Wang, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has been proposed as a potential alternative for ventral brainstem lesions. The surgical anatomy, feasibility, and limitations of the EEA for intrinsic brainstem lesions are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical planning, anatomy, and technique of an intrinsic pontine glioma operated via EEA. METHODS: Six-human brainstems were prepared for white matter microdissection...
March 12, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Joseph Tracey, Danny Arora, Christopher E Gross, Selene G Parekh
BACKGROUND: Third generation total talar prostheses (TTPs) are viable options for talar avascular necrosis (AVN) in the absence of neighboring joint pathology. The use of modern three-dimensional (3D) printing allows the production of custom implants that exactly mimic the patient's anatomy. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of 3D printing in reproducing a synthetic talus and, in doing so, restoring more normal anatomical relationships. We hypothesize that this mode of replication will restore and maintain normal radiographic alignment of the ankle, subtalar, and forefoot joints in the setting of talar AVN...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Emily Simonds, Charlotte Wilson, Joe Iwanaga, Tyler Laws, Gary Holley, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Medical imaging techniques have led to great advances in clinical anatomy and forensic pathology. New and emerging technologies allow healthcare professionals to view and understand the human body from different perspectives. This gives way to new and improved interventions, treatment plans, and an overall understanding of the human body. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of the various medical imaging equipment used in cadaveric studies along with their individual strengths and limitations.
January 7, 2018: Curēus
Konstantinos Natsis, Maria Piagkou, Nikolaos Lazaridis, Trifon Totlis, Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, Jannis Constantinidis
PURPOSE: The current study investigated the incidence, morphology and morphometry of the ossified ligaments expanding between petrous bone and posterior clinoid processes and in between the anterior, middle and posterior clinoid processes. Side symmetry, gender dimorphism and age influence were also studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 123 adult Greek dry skulls were observed. RESULTS: A caroticoclinoid bar (CCB) was found in 60.2%. Partial CCBs appeared more commonly (36...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Sathasivam Sureshkumar, Narayan Vignesh, J Venkatachalam, Chellappa Vijayakumar, Sundaramurthi Sudharsanan
Background The color Doppler, a better investigation to identify the perforators objectively has replaced the clinical examination for the same. However, this has led to a significant number of negative explorations and cosmetic disfigurement. Objective To compare the efficacy of the clinical tests combined with the color Doppler versus color Doppler alone to identify the perforator incompetence during the surgery for primary varicose veins of the lower limb. Methods This was a prospective analytical study, including 61 lower limb varicose vein patients who belonged to the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) class four-six, planned for the surgical treatment for perforator incompetence, excluding those requiring additional vascular or nonvascular procedure, recurrent varicose veins and those who had injection sclerotherapy prior to the surgery...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Henya Sandhaus, Philip G Chen
Introduction: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a complex procedure used by otorhinolaryngologists to treat a host of nasal sinus pathologies. Due to the involved nasal anatomy and the nature of the procedure, teaching residents to use an endoscope is challenging. Simulation labs have been helpful but intraoperative instruction can still present difficulty in communication between resident and attending physicians during the teaching process. The purpose of this is to hypothesize a method of teaching intraoperatively that can be used supplemental to or independently of virtual reality teaching...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
Anubha Saha, Sanchita Roy
INTRODUCTION: Papillary muscle plays an important role in stabilizing the position of the tricuspid valve. Several pathologies can result in anatomical and functional abnormalities of the papillary muscles. The aim of the study is to deliberate the morphometry of papillary muscles in tricuspid valve and to analyze with the eminent research works previously done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 52 formalin-fixed adult apparently normal cadaveric hearts belonging to either sex obtained from the Department of Anatomy...
February 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Ena Nielsen, Lindsay M Andras, David L Skaggs
BACKGROUND: In adults, a relative "safe zone" for lateral approaches to the elbow has been well described in efforts to reduce iatrogenic injury, typically a minimum of 6 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. To avoid iatrogenic injury to the radial nerve intraoperatively, we investigated the distance of the nerve from the distal humeral physis in children. METHODS: All patients who had axial and coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imagings of the humerus and elbow between 2005 and 2015 were eligible...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Daniele Marchioni, Angelo Musumeci, Cristoforo Fabbris, Stefano De Rossi, Davide Soloperto
BACKGROUND: The clivus is a region characterized by complex anatomy, with vascular and neural structures that are located in close proximity. Different pathologies can affect this area, and traditional surgical approaches were open approaches. Recently, the endoscopic transnasal technique has been introduced, and currently represents a good alternative for the surgical management of these lesions. This is a preliminary report on patients treated endoscopically for clival lesions by the authors' Skull Base Team...
March 8, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Ali Mohtashami, Andrew Kiat, Jane Cross, Robert Simon, Austin Curtin
INTRODUCTION: Abernethy malformations are extremely rare congenital anomalous portosystemic shunts. We report the case of a patient with a rare variant Abernethy malformation between the superior mesenteric vein and left renal vein, associated with a massive jejunal diverticulum. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 37-year-old Caucasian female presented to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain and proceeded to laparotomy for a presumed small bowel obstruction...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Nobuyuki Tanaka, Dagmara Kaczynska, Shigeaki Kanatani, Cecilia Sahlgren, Przemysław Mitura, Andrzej Stepulak, Ayako Miyakawa, Peter Wiklund, Per Uhlén
BACKGROUND: Cancers are heterogeneous and contain various types of irregular structures that can go undetected when examining them with standard two-dimensional microscopes. Studies of intricate networks of vasculature systems, e.g., the tumour lymphatic microvessels, benefit largely from three-dimensional imaging data analysis. METHODS: The new DIPCO (Diagnosing Immunolabeled Paraffin-Embedded Cleared Organs) imaging platform uses three-dimensional light-sheet microscopy and whole-mount immunolabelling of cleared samples to study proteins and micro-anatomies deep inside of tumours...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Alia Zehani, Sarra Aloui, Ines Chelly, Slim Haouet, Nidhameddine Kchir
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal tract are a heterogeneous group of tumors which have different malignant potential and evolution. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set up a new classification of gastrointestinal NETs in 2010. However, it does not evaluate the risk of malignancy for each tumor. AIM: To evaluate the prognostic impact of the WHO classification in 2010 by reclassifying the tumor according to new recommendations and to identify histoprognostic factors to better predict changes...
June 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Fei-Fei Zhang, Wei Peng, John A Sweeney, Zhi-Yun Jia, Qi-Yong Gong
Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world, but little is known about its pathology. Currently, the diagnosis of depression is made based on clinical manifestations, with little objective evidence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to investigate the pathological changes in brain anatomy associated with this disorder. MRI can identify structural alterations in depressive patients in vivo, which could make considerable contributions to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Numerous studies that focused on gray and white matter have found significant brain region alterations in major depressive disorder patients, such as in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, temporal lobe, thalamus, striatum, and amygdala...
March 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Paolo Fais, Maria Carla Mazzotti, Gabriella Teti, Rafael Boscolo-Berto, Susi Pelotti, Mirella Falconi
Estimating the post mortem interval (PMI) is still a crucial step in Forensic Pathology. Although several methods are available for assessing the PMI, a precise estimation is still quite unreliable and can be inaccurate. The present study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical distribution and mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) in post mortem gingival tissues to establish a correlation between the presence of HIF-1α and the time since death, with the final goal of achieving a more accurate PMI estimation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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