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Surgery pathology

Matthew D Hale, Matthew Nankivell, Gordon G Hutchins, Sally P Stenning, Ruth E Langley, Wolfram Mueller, Nicholas P West, Alexander I Wright, Darren Treanor, Lindsay C Hewitt, William H Allum, David Cunningham, Jeremy D Hayden, Heike I Grabsch
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for UK patients with locally advanced resectable oesophageal carcinoma (OeC). However, not all patients benefit from multimodal treatment and there is a clinical need for biomarkers which can identify chemotherapy responders. This study investigated whether the proportion of tumour cells per tumour area (PoT) measured in the pre-treatment biopsy predicts chemotherapy benefit for OeC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PoT was quantified using digitized haematoxylin/eosin stained pre-treatment biopsy slides from 281 OeC patients from the UK MRC OE02 trial (141 treated by surgery alone (S); 140 treated by 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin followed by surgery (CS))...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Bingwen Zou, Jing Pang, Yongmei Liu, Yong Xu, Lu Li, Lin Zhou, Jiang Zhu, Meijuan Huang, Jin Wang, Li Ren, Youlin Gong, You Lu, Longqi Chen, Feng Peng
BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy of postoperative chemoradiation (POCRT) and surgery alone (SA) in patients with stage II-III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: We analyzed the records of 265 patients with stage II-III ESCC who had undergone transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy; 105 patients received POCRT, while 160 had SA. RESULTS: The median disease-free survival (DFS) of the whole cohort was 22 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 19...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Jun-Tao Tan, Yang Yang, Nai-Qun Mao, De-Sen Liu, Ding-Ming Huang, Hong Pan, Tong Xie, Qi Pan, Li Yang, Jian-Hong Zhong, Chuan-Tian Zuo
This study aims to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) on perioperative immune function during surgery to treat resectable locally advanced esophageal cancer. Records were retrospectively analyzed for 220 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer, of whom 112 received surgery alone and 98 received neoadjuvant NCRT plus surgery. The two groups were compared in terms of proportions of CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and natural kill (NK) cells, as well as the ratio of CD4(+) to CD8(+) cells...
October 21, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Martijn H G M van der Pas, Charlotte L Deijen, Gabor S A Abis, Elly S M de Lange-de Klerk, Eva Haglind, Alois Fürst, Antonio M Lacy, Miguel A Cuesta, Hendrik J Bonjer
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery offers patients with rectal cancer short-term benefits and similar survival rates as open surgery. However, selecting patients who are suitable candidates for laparoscopic surgery is essential to prevent intra-operative conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery. Clinical and pathological variables were studied among patients who had converted laparoscopic surgeries within the COLOR II trial to improve patient selection for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery...
October 20, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Ryan C Shelstad, Justin G Reeves, Katsuhiro Yamanaka, T Brett Reece
We review the operative techniques of aortic arch replacement. Aortic arch replacement presents several formidable challenges, as it requires arresting the circulation to the body and replacement of the brachiocephalic vessels with special consideration for protecting the central nervous system. Perfusion strategies, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and operative graft selection are key elements in aortic arch replacement surgery. Standard approaches include the island technique, the branched graft technique, and the "Spielvogel" trifurcated graft technique-each having its own advantages...
October 7, 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Keiju Aokage, Junji Yoshida, Tomoyuki Hishida, Masahiro Tsuboi, Hisashi Saji, Morihito Okada, Kenji Suzuki, Syunichi Watanabe, Hisao Asamura
Since 'radical lobectomy' was reported by Cahan in 1960, the standard surgical care for lung cancer has been lobectomy, in which units of the lobe are excised with their specific regional hilar and mediastinal lymphatics. However, pulmonary function-preserving limited resection for lung cancer has gradually become more prevalent in the late 20th century. In 1995, Ginsberg et al. conducted a randomized controlled trial in which limited resection (segmentectomy and wide-wedge resection) and lobectomy for stage I lung cancer were compared and reported that limited resection should not be applied to healthy patients with clinical stage IA lung cancer...
October 20, 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Matthew Kurien, David S Sanders, Anders Ekbom, Carolina Ciacci, Jonas F Ludvigsson
BACKGROUND: The detection of celiac disease (CD) is suboptimal. AIMS: We hypothesized that misdiagnosis is leading to diagnostic delays, and examine this assertion by determining if patients have increased risk of abdominal surgery before CD diagnosis. METHODS: Through biopsy reports from Sweden's 28 pathology departments we identified all individuals with CD (Marsh stage 3; n=29,096). Using hospital-based data on inpatient and outpatient surgery recorded in the Swedish Patient Register, we compared abdominal surgery (appendectomy, laparotomy, biliary tract surgery, and uterine surgery) with that in 144,522 controls matched for age, sex, county and calendar year...
September 26, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Hasan A Zaidi, David J Cote, Ian F Dunn, Edward R Laws
Despite formal pathological criteria, not all atypical pituitary adenomas display clinically aggressive behavior. We set out to determine which factors predict a clinically aggressive phenotype among a cohort of atypical pituitary adenomas. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from April 2008 to July 2015. Of 569 pituitary adenomas, 47 (8.3%) patients were surgically treated for atypical adenomas as defined by the WHO criteria. Clinically aggressive adenomas were defined as occurring in those patients who necessitated additional therapeutic intervention after the index (first) surgery, including additional surgery, medical therapy, or radiosurgery...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jin-Young Park, Hyun-Yul Yoo, Seok Won Chung, Seung-Jun Lee, Na Ra Kim, Se-Young Ki, Kyung-Soo Oh
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of valgus extension overload syndrome (VEOS) in adolescent athletes. We evaluated posteromedial compartment pathology, including combined lesions, and reported the surgical outcomes in adolescent baseball players. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 13 male adolescent baseball players (mean age, 15.4 years) who underwent arthroscopic olecranon tip resection (n = 9) or staged operations (arthroscopic olecranon tip resection, followed by medial collateral ligament reconstruction 2 weeks later; n = 4)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
A-S Dillies, V Gras-Champel, S Fraitag-Spinner, F Al Saïf, E Carmi
BACKGROUND: Imiquimod is a local immune-response modifier that works by stimulating innate and acquired immunity. It is frequently used to treat superficial basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer. Marked local inflammatory reaction is common during treatment. We report a case of the rare condition, multiple eruptive milia, during topical imiquimod therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 67-year-old male patient presented infiltrating basal cell carcinoma above the left eyebrow...
October 17, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Hideki Ujiie, Tatsuya Kato, Hsin-Pei Hu, Suhaib Hasan, Priya Patel, Hironobu Wada, Daiyoon Lee, Kosuke Fujino, David M Hwang, Marcelo Cypel, Marc de Perrot, Andrew Pierre, Gail Darling, Thomas K Waddell, Shaf Keshavjee, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: Localization of small, nonvisible and nonpalpable nodules is challenging during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. We evaluated the feasibility of using a new ultrasound thoracoscope to localize nodules in resected ex vivo human lungs. METHODS: The tumor was localized and measured in its greatest dimension with a prototype ultrasound thoracoscope (XLTF-UC180; Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) at different frequencies (5.0 to 12.0 MHz) and different lung specimen states (deflated, semiinflated)...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Atsushi Hata, Hidemi Suzuki, Takahiro Nakajima, Kazuhisa Tanaka, Taiki Fujiwara, Hironobu Wada, Takekazu Iwata, Shigetoshi Yoshida, Ichiro Yoshino
BACKGROUND: Lung carcinoma is often associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD), and the prognosis of lung cancer accompanied by ILD is unfavorable. In this study, cases of patients with primary lung cancer with or without ILD were reviewed to analyze surgical outcome, with special interest in the conformity of clinical and pathologic stages, pathologic findings of pleural invasion, malignant pleurisy first detected at the time of thoracotomy, and survival. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed for 1,264 primary lung cancer patients who underwent surgery from 2004 to 2015...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
P Han, X R Niu, X Y Du, Z C Chen, Y Xu, Y Cheng, Y Gao, Q Zhang, M Xu
Cochlear implant (CI) is an artificial electronic device which can provide a sense of sound to a patient with severe or profound hearing loss. Pathological changes have been observed after CI surgery, which might influence the effectiveness of the CI procedure. In this review, we divided the postoperative pathological changes of the temporal bone into two categories according to different stages: immediate trauma and delayed side effects. Immediate trauma might arise from traumatic insertion of the electrode during CI surgery, which included trauma at cochleostomy site, lateral wall trauma, basilar membrane injury, osseous lamina fracture and modiolar injury...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Young Gyung Shin, Eun-Kyung Kim, Min Jung Kim, Jung Hyun Yoon, Hee Jung Moon
Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the clinical and pathological characteristics of pure mucinous breast carcinoma (PMBC) according to internal echogenicity on ultrasonography (US). Methods: Thirty-three patients with PMBC diagnosed at surgery were included in this study. Cases of PMBC were classified according to internal echogenicity on US. The imaging features on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinicohistopathological characteristics were compared between the hypoechogenic and the isoechogenic to hyperechogenic groups...
August 29, 2016: Ultrasonography
Ruijie Liu, Hadi Khalil, Suh-Chin J Lin, Michelle A Sargent, Allen J York, Jeffery D Molkentin
Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in development, proliferation and apoptosis regulation. Here we identified NLK as a gene product induced in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure overload or myocardial infarction injury, suggesting a potential regulatory role with pathological stimulation to this organ. To examine the potential functional consequences of increased NLK levels, cardiac-specific transgenic mice with inducible expression of this gene product were generated, as well as cardiac-specific Nlk gene-deleted mice...
2016: PloS One
C Andres Benatti, Natalie A Afshari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review updates the mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of Descemet membrane detachment after cataract surgery, particularly during cataract surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of new imaging techniques like the anterior segment optical coherence tomography and a better comprehension of the clinical and pathological aspects of detachment, has improved the diagnosis and treatment of this complication to the extent that the first algorithms and protocols have been proposed...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
C-F Hsieh, P Alberton, E Loffredo-Verde, E Volkmer, M Pietschmann, P E Müller, M Schieker, D Docheva
Tendon's natural healing potential is extremely low and inefficient, with significant dysfunction and disability due to hypocellularity and hypovascularity of tendon tissues. The application of stem cells can aid in significantly enhanced repair of tendon rupture; therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the potential of using periodontal ligament cells (PDL), usually obtained from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, as a novel cell source for cell-based therapy for tendon injuries in a clinically relevant rat full-size Achilles tendon defect...
October 20, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Matthew D Hall, Timothy E Schultheiss, David D Smith, Marwan G Fakih, Jeffrey Y C Wong, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) increases pathological complete response (pCR) rates compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with stage II-III rectal cancer. Limited evidence addresses whether radiotherapy dose escalation further improves pCR rates. Our purpose is to measure the effects of radiotherapy dose and other factors on post-therapy pathologic tumor (ypT) and nodal stage in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by mesorectal excision...
October 20, 2016: Acta Oncologica
Sylwia Szotek, Joanna Dawidowicz, Brian Eyden, Natalia Matysiak, Aleksander Czogalla, Grzegorz Dudzik, Anna Leśniewicz, Krzysztof Maksymowicz
Fascia lata is an important element of the fascial system, which forms the continuum of connective tissue throughout the body. This deep fascia envelops the entire thigh and hip area and its main function is to transmit mechanical forces generated by the musculoskeletal system of the lower extremities. Fascia lata is also known as a useful and easily harvested graft material. Despite its crucial role in lower extremity biomechanics and wide-ranging applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, both the structure of fascia lata and particularly the cells populating this tissue are relatively unexplored and therefore poorly understood...
October 20, 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
A J Sutton, R S Vohra, M Hollyman, P J Marriott, A Buja, D Alderson, S Pasquali, E A Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of cholecystectomy for patients admitted with acute gallbladder pathology is unclear. Some studies have shown that emergency cholecystectomy during the index admission can reduce length of hospital stay with similar rates of conversion to open surgery, complications and mortality compared with a 'delayed' operation following discharge. Others have reported that cholecystectomy during the index acute admission results in higher morbidity, extended length of stay and increased costs...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
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