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Robert Csapo, Ramona Folie, Simona Hosp, Michael Hasler, Werner Nachbauer
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate temperature-related changes in different neuro-muscular parameters, to elucidate the reasons for the increased likeliness of injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament under cold environmental conditions. DESIGN: Repeated measures study design. METHODS: To induce peripheral cooling of the knee joint and thigh muscles, ten healthy, female subjects underwent 30 min of exposure to a cold environment...
July 18, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Marcella Reale, Talma Brenner
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene family encodes for subunits of acetylcholine gated ion channels. These receptors are expressed widely and have many functions: They mediate excitation at neuro-muscular junctions. In the central nervous system nAChRs have been implicated in memory, cognition, and addiction. And in non-excitatory cells they regulate differentiation, proliferation and inflammatory responses. The CHRNA7 gene encodes for the a7 nAChR subunit that assembles into a homomeric receptor having unusual properties...
August 29, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Øyvind Molberg, Cecilie Dobloug
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we describe recent progress in the clinical epidemiology of sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). RECENT FINDINGS: In a population-based, retrospective study from Norway, performed with a denominator population of 2.6 million; and with cases defined by the 1997 and/or 2011 European Neuro-Muscular Centre Research Diagnostic criteria, the estimated point prevalence of IBM was 3.3/100 000. Mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 5...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Ursula Werneke, Fariba Jamshidi, David M Taylor, Michael Ott
BACKGROUND: Serotonin syndrome is a toxic state, caused by serotonin (5HT) excess in the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome's main feature is neuro-muscular hyperexcitability, which in many cases is mild but in some cases can become life-threatening. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome remains challenging since it can only be made on clinical grounds. Three diagnostic criteria systems, Sternbach, Radomski and Hunter classifications, are available. Here we test the validity of four assumptions that have become widely accepted: (1) The Hunter classification performs clinically better than the Sternbach and Radomski criteria; (2) in contrast to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, the onset of serotonin syndrome is usually rapid; (3) hyperthermia is a hallmark of severe serotonin syndrome; and (4) serotonin syndrome can readily be distinguished from neuroleptic malignant syndrome on clinical grounds and on the basis of medication history...
2016: BMC Neurology
Niklas Brown, Sebastian Bichler, Meike Fiedler, Wilfried Alt
Detection of neuro-muscular fatigue in strength training is difficult, due to missing criterion measures and the complexity of fatigue. Thus, a variety of methods are used to determine fatigue. The aim of this study was to use a principal component analysis (PCA) on a multifactorial data-set based on kinematic measurements to determine fatigue. Twenty participants (strength training experienced, 60% male) executed 3 sets of 3 exercises with 50 (12 repetitions), 75 (12 repetitions) and 100%-12 RM (RM). Data were collected with a 3D accelerometer and analysed by a newly developed algorithm to evaluate parameters for each repetition...
June 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Rhian E Davies, Ian C Gilchrist
Radial artery catheterization results in local vascular injury to the artery and at times subsequent arterial occlusion, yet even in patients with abnormal collateral testing ischemic hand injury remains essentially unseen. Careful serial examinations of neuro-muscular function of the hand in patients undergoing transradial catheterization demonstrate that even in the case of radial occlusion and an abnormal collateral test, hand function is not altered after the procedure. While radial artery occlusion may not result in functional ischemic findings, the occlusion itself results in lost future opportunity for vascular access or conduit use and further understanding on how to prevent this sequalae continues to be a priority...
April 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Jinhui Zhang, Li Li, Suni Tang, Yong Zhang, Maciej Markiewski, Chengguo Xing, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lü
Herbal products containing Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract are marketed as dietary supplements for memory enhancement, pain killing, and female menopausal symptom relief. We have shown the anticancer activities of AGN supplements in mouse models. To facilitate human anticancer translational research, we characterized the tissue distribution of AGN marker pyranocoumarin compounds decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) ([Formula: see text]% in AGN) and their metabolite decursinol (DOH), assessed the safety of sub-chronic AGN dietary exposure in mice, and explored its impact on plasma aqueous metabolites and the prostate transcriptome...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Hyunglae Lee, Neville Hogan
Understanding the passive or non-passive behavior of the neuro-muscular system is important to design and control robots that physically interact with humans, since it provides quantitative information to secure coupled stability while maximizing performance. This has become more important than ever apace with the increasing demand for robotic technologies in neurorehabilitation. This paper presents a quantitative characterization of passive and non-passive behavior of the ankle of young healthy subjects, which provides a baseline for future studies in persons with neurological impairments and informs future developments of rehabilitation robots, such as exo-skeletal devices and powered prostheses...
March 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Alessandro Arosio, Gessica Sala, Virginia Rodriguez-Menendez, Denise Grana, Francesca Gerardi, Christian Lunetta, Carlo Ferrarese, Lucio Tremolizzo
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuro-muscular disease characterized by motor neuron loss. MEF2D and MEF2C are members of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 family (MEF2), a group of transcription factors playing crucial roles both in muscle and in neural development and maintenance; for this reason, a possible involvement of MEF2 in ALS context has been investigated. Since the transcriptional activity of each tissue specific MEF2 isoform is conserved in different cell types, we chose to assess our parameters in an easily accessible and widely used experimental tool such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 30 sporadic ALS patients (sALS), 9 ALS patients with mutations in SOD1 gene (SOD1+) and 30 healthy controls...
July 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Thordur Helgason, Kristin Inga Gunnlaugsdottir
Acousto-electric interaction signal (AEI signal) resulting from interaction of acoustic pressure wave and electrical current field has received recent attention in biomedical field for detection and registration of bioelectrical current. The signal is very of small value and brings about several challenges when detecting it. Several observations has been done in saline solution and on nerves and tissues under controlled condition that give optimistic indication about its utilization. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) has been introduced, that uses the AEI signal to image the current distribution...
November 28, 2014: European Journal of Translational Myology
Gregory S Anderson, Fabio Deluigi, Guido Belli, Claudio Tentoni, Michael B Gaetz
This study examined improvements in static balance and muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity following a four week progressive training program in 16 middle aged females (mean age = 46.9 ± 8.7 yrs; height 161.1 ± 6.0 cm; weight 65.4 ± 11.2 kg). Participants trained 3 times per week for 4 weeks, for 50 min per session, progressing base of support, stability, vision, resistance and torque in each of six basic exercises. Pre and post training measures of balance included feet together standing, a tandem stance and a one-leg stand (unsupported leg in the saggital plane) performed with the eyes closed, and a Stork Stand (unsupported leg in the frontal plane) with both eyes open and closed...
January 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Laxmikanth Kollipara, Stephan Buchkremer, Joachim Weis, Eva Brauers, Mareike Hoss, Stephan Rütten, Pablo Caviedes, René P Zahedi, Andreas Roos
Studying (neuro)muscular disorders is a major topic in biomedicine with a demand for suitable model systems. Continuous cell culture (in vitro) systems have several technical advantages over in vivo systems and became widely used tools for discovering physiological/pathophysiological mechanisms in muscle. In particular, myoblast cell lines are suitable model systems to study complex biochemical adaptations occurring in skeletal muscle and cellular responses to altered genetic/environmental conditions. Whereas most in vitro studies use extensively characterized murine C2C12 cells, a comprehensive description of an equivalent human cell line, not genetically manipulated for immortalization, is lacking...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Peter A Federolf
Human upright posture is maintained by postural movements, which can be quantified by "principal movements" (PMs) obtained through a principal component analysis (PCA) of kinematic marker data. The current study expands the concept of "principal movements" in analogy to Newton's mechanics by defining "principal position" (PP), "principal velocity" (PV), and "principal acceleration" (PA) and demonstrates that a linear combination of PPs and PAs determines the center of pressure (COP) variance in upright standing...
February 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Luca Randazzo, Inaki Iturrate, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Robert Leeb, Jose R Del Millan
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have been shown to be a promising tool in rehabilitation and assistive scenarios. Within these contexts, brain signals can be decoded and used as commands for a robotic device, allowing to translate user's intentions into motor actions in order to support the user's impaired neuro-muscular system. Recently, it has been suggested that slow cortical potentials (SCPs), negative deflections in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals peaking around one second before the initiation of movements, might be of interest because they offer an accurate time resolution for the provided feedback...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Akiko Kuwabara, Kiyoshi Tanaka
Calcium is associated with various functions of clinical importance. Its unique distribution;low intracellular and high extracellular concentration, is crucial for the neuro-muscular function. Calcium is also indispensable for the vascular contraction and blood coagulation. Thus, circulating calcium concentration must be strictly maintained within a narrow range, for which parathyroid hormone(PTH), vitamin D, and calcitonin contribute. Food-derived protein-bound calcium must be first released in the acidic condition...
November 2015: Clinical Calcium
Malindu Eranga Fernando, Robert George Crowther, Margaret Cunningham, Peter Anthony Lazzarini, Kunwarjit Singh Sangla, Jonathan Golledge
BACKGROUND: Foot ulceration is the main precursor to lower limb amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide. Biomechanical factors have been implicated in the development of foot ulceration; however the association of these factors to ulcer healing remains less clear. It may be hypothesised that abnormalities in temporal spatial parameters (stride to stride measurements), kinematics (joint movements), kinetics (forces on the lower limb) and plantar pressures (pressure placed on the foot during walking) contribute to foot ulcer healing...
2015: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Alexander Ullrich, Mathias A Böhme, Johannes Schöneberg, Harald Depner, Stephan J Sigrist, Frank Noé
Synaptic vesicle fusion is mediated by SNARE proteins forming in between synaptic vesicle (v-SNARE) and plasma membrane (t-SNARE), one of which is Syntaxin-1A. Although exocytosis mainly occurs at active zones, Syntaxin-1A appears to cover the entire neuronal membrane. By using STED super-resolution light microscopy and image analysis of Drosophila neuro-muscular junctions, we show that Syntaxin-1A clusters are more abundant and have an increased size at active zones. A computational particle-based model of syntaxin cluster formation and dynamics is developed...
September 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Jorge Ribeiro, Tiago Pereira, Ana Rita Caseiro, Paulo Armada-da-Silva, Isabel Pires, Justina Prada, Irina Amorim, Sandra Amado, Miguel França, Carolina Gonçalves, Maria Ascensão Lopes, José Domingos Santos, Dina Morais Silva, Stefano Geuna, Ana Lúcia Luís, Ana Colette Maurício
AIM: To study the therapeutic effect of three tube-guides with electrical conductivity associated to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on neuro-muscular regeneration after neurotmesis. METHODS: Rats with 10-mm gap nerve injury were tested using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), PVA-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and MSCs, and PVA-polypyrrole (PPy). The regenerated nerves and tibialis anterior muscles were processed for stereological studies after 20 wk. The functional recovery was assessed serially for gait biomechanical analysis, by extensor postural thrust, sciatic functional index and static sciatic functional index (SSI), and by withdrawal reflex latency (WRL)...
July 26, 2015: World Journal of Stem Cells
Mira M Wouters, Maria Vicario, Javier Santos
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by chronic complaints arising from disorganized brain-gut interactions leading to dysmotility and hypersensitivity. The two most prevalent FGIDs, affecting up to 16-26% of worldwide population, are functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Their etiopathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, however, recent observations reveal low-grade mucosal inflammation and immune activation, in association with impaired epithelial barrier function and aberrant neuronal sensitivity...
January 2016: Gut
Tobias Siebert, Kay Leichsenring, Christian Rode, Carolin Wick, Norman Stutzig, Harald Schubert, Reinhard Blickhan, Markus Böl
The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus...
2015: PloS One
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