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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268984/exploring-neuro-muscular-synergies-of-reaching-movements-with-unified-independent-component-analysis
#1
Fiorenzo Artoni, Elvira Pirondini, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestre Micera
The coordinated recruitment of group of muscles through muscles synergies is known to simplify the control of movements. However, how and to what extent such control scheme is encoded at a cortical level is poorly understood. So far, electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) have been used, separately, to investigate the cortical regions of the human brain which may be involved in activating muscle synergies. Here we aim at extending these results by looking for a hierarchical relationship between cortical and muscular sources of activity (neuro-muscular synergies) with a unified analysis of independent components (IC) simultaneously extracted from both EEG and EMG signals...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227194/exploring-neuro-muscular-synergies-of-reaching-movements-with-unified-independent-component-analysis
#2
Fiorenzo Artoni, Elvira Pirondini, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestre Micera, Fiorenzo Artoni, Elvira Pirondini, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestre Micera, Elvira Pirondini, Alessandro Panarese, Fiorenzo Artoni, Silvestro Micera
The coordinated recruitment of group of muscles through muscles synergies is known to simplify the control of movements. However, how and to what extent such control scheme is encoded at a cortical level is poorly understood. So far, electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) have been used, separately, to investigate the cortical regions of the human brain which may be involved in activating muscle synergies. Here we aim at extending these results by looking for a hierarchical relationship between cortical and muscular sources of activity (neuro-muscular synergies) with a unified analysis of independent components (IC) simultaneously extracted from both EEG and EMG signals...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078802/evaluation-of-pva-biodegradable-electric-conductive-membranes-for-nerve-regeneration-in-axonotmesis-injuries-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-animal-model
#3
Jorge Ribeiro, Ana Rita Caseiro, Tiago Pereira, Paulo Alexandre Armada-da-Silva, Isabel Pires, Justina Prada, Irina Amorim, Inês Leal Reis, Sandra Amado, José Domingos Santos, Simone Bompasso, Stefania Raimondo, Artur Severo Proença Varejão, Stefano Geuna, Ana Lúcia Luís, Ana Colette Maurício
The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10(-6) S/m, 579 ± 0.6 × 10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed...
May 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078418/absolute-quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-by-selected-reaction-monitoring-can-underscore-skeletal-muscle-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Caterina Peggion, Maria Lina Massimino, Giancarlo Biancotto, Roberto Angeletti, Carlo Reggiani, Maria Catia Sorgato, Alessandro Bertoli, Roberto Stella
Skeletal muscle fibers contain different isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) that define distinctive contractile properties. In light of the muscle capacity to adapt MyHC expression to pathophysiological conditions, a rapid and quantitative assessment of MyHC isoforms in small muscle tissue quantities would represent a valuable diagnostic tool for (neuro)muscular diseases. As past protocols did not meet these requirements, in the present study we applied a targeted proteomic approach based on selected reaction monitoring that allowed the absolute quantification of slow and fast MyHC isoforms in different mouse skeletal muscles with high reproducibility...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043056/speed-resistance-and-unexpected-accelerations-modulate-feed-forward-and-feedback-control-during-a-novel-weight-bearing-task
#5
Shih-Chiao Tseng, Keith R Cole, Michael A Shaffer, Michael A Petrie, Chu-Ling Yen, Richard K Shields
We developed a method to investigate feed-forward and feedback movement control during a weight bearing visuomotor knee tracking task. We hypothesized that a systematic increase in speed and resistance would show a linear decrease in movement accuracy, while unexpected perturbations would induce a velocity-dependent decrease in movement accuracy. We determined the effects of manipulating the speed, resistance, and unexpected events on error during a functional weight bearing task. Our long term objective is to benchmark neuromuscular control performance across various groups based on age, injury, disease, rehabilitation status, and/or training...
February 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018095/gastrointestinal-neuromuscular-apparatus-an-underestimated-target-of-gut-microbiota
#6
EDITORIAL
Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Michele Cicala, Lorenza Putignani, Carola Severi
Over the last few years, the importance of the resident intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of several gastro-intestinal diseases has been largely investigated. Growing evidence suggest that microbiota can influence gastro-intestinal motility. The current working hypothesis is that dysbiosis-driven mucosal alterations induce the production of several inflammatory/immune mediators which affect gut neuro-muscular functions. Besides these indirect mucosal-mediated effects, the present review highlights that recent evidence suggests that microbiota can directly affect enteric nerves and smooth muscle cells functions through its metabolic products or bacterial molecular components translocated from the intestinal lumen...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017945/-pathological-state-or-cause-of-sarcopenia
#7
Yasumoto Matsui
Skeletal muscle atrophy by aging(Sarcopenia)is more likely to occur in lower limbs rather than upper ones, and in the thigh rather than in the lower leg, and in the anterior side of thigh rather than posterior, faster in men than in women. It differs from disuse muscle atrophy in that it occurs slowly and gradually, hard to be recovered, or fast twitch fibers are mainly involved. Many factors or phenomena are known to contribute to proceed sarcopenia. In the aged skeletal muscle tissue, the number of satellite cells or motor neurons decrease and the function of the neuro-muscular junction declines...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896329/myasthenia-gravis-with-acute-respiratory-failure-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Hasan Huseyin Kozak, Ali Ulvi Uca, Turgut Teke, Mustafa Altas, Emine Karatas
Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is defined as a sudden malfunction in the ability of respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure develops as a result of ventilation deficiency and it is defined as an increase of PaCO2 above 45 mmHg. Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a sporadically developing auto-immune deficiency where the neuro-muscular transmission is affected and it is one of the important reasons for neurologically-induced respiratory distress. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old male patient previously undiagnosed MG, who presented with ARF...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890884/correspondence-and-challenges-as-neurologists-to-kumamoto-earthquakes-in-2016
#9
Makoto Nakajima, Nozomi Nakane, Kotaro Takamatsu, Satoshi Yamashita, Shunya Nakane, Taro Yamashita, Yukio Ando
Kumamoto Earthquakes in 2016 severely affected medical circumstances and condition of each patient with neuro-muscular diseases, in addition to having destroyed life circumstances of local residence. Number of neuro-muscular disease patients admitted to the Department of Neurology, Kumamoto University, the only university hospital in the prefecture, increased approximately twice compared to usual years. Most of the related facilities were able to admit emergency patients with neuro-muscular diseases although the hospital buildings were damaged in various degrees...
December 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836677/the-effect-of-instruction-in-analgesic-use-compared-with-neuromuscular-exercise-on-knee-joint-load-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-randomized-single-blind-controlled-trial
#10
A Holsgaard-Larsen, B Clausen, J Søndergaard, R Christensen, T P Andriacchi, E M Roos
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a neuro-muscular exercise (NEMEX) therapy program compared with instructions in optimized analgesics and anti-inflammatory drug use (PHARMA), on measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that knee joint loading during walking would be reduced by NEMEX and potentially increased by PHARMA. DESIGN: Single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing NEMEX therapy twice a week with PHARMA...
November 9, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779750/new-perspectives-on-the-development-of-muscle-contractures-following-central-motor-lesions
#11
J Pingel, E M Bartels, J B Nielsen
Muscle contractures are common in patients with central motor lesions, but the mechanisms responsible for the development of contractures are still unclear. Increased or decreased neural activation, protracted placement of a joint with the muscle in a short position and muscle atrophy have been suggested to be involved, but none of these mechanisms are sufficient to explain the development of muscle contractures alone. Here we propose that changes in tissue homeostasis in the neuromuscular-tendon-connective tissue complex is at the heart of the development of contractures, and that an integrated physiological understanding of the interaction between neural, mechanical and metabolic factors, as well as genetic and epigenetic factors, is necessary in order to unravel the mechanisms that result in muscle contractures...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639576/why-do-we-suffer-more-acl-injuries-in-the-cold-a-pilot-study-into-potential-risk-factors
#12
Robert Csapo, Ramona Folie, Simona Hosp, Michael Hasler, Werner Nachbauer
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate temperature-related changes in different neuro-muscular parameters, to elucidate the reasons for the increased likeliness of injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament under cold environmental conditions. DESIGN: Repeated measures study design. METHODS: To induce peripheral cooling of the knee joint and thigh muscles, ten healthy, female subjects underwent 30 min of exposure to a cold environment...
January 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573666/role-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-ric-3-in-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#13
Millet Treinin, Roger L Papke, Eran Nizri, Yael Ben-David, Tehila Mizrachi, Talma Brenner
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene family encodes for subunits of acetylcholine gated ion channels. These receptors are expressed widely and have many functions: They mediate excitation at neuro-muscular junctions. In the central nervous system nAChRs have been implicated in memory, cognition, and addiction. And in non-excitatory cells they regulate differentiation, proliferation and inflammatory responses. The CHRNA7 gene encodes for the a7 nAChR subunit that assembles into a homomeric receptor having unusual properties...
August 29, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541181/epidemiology-of-sporadic-inclusion-body-myositis
#14
Øyvind Molberg, Cecilie Dobloug
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we describe recent progress in the clinical epidemiology of sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). RECENT FINDINGS: In a population-based, retrospective study from Norway, performed with a denominator population of 2.6 million; and with cases defined by the 1997 and/or 2011 European Neuro-Muscular Centre Research Diagnostic criteria, the estimated point prevalence of IBM was 3.3/100 000. Mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 5...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406219/conundrums-in-neurology-diagnosing-serotonin-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-of-cases
#15
Ursula Werneke, Fariba Jamshidi, David M Taylor, Michael Ott
BACKGROUND: Serotonin syndrome is a toxic state, caused by serotonin (5HT) excess in the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome's main feature is neuro-muscular hyperexcitability, which in many cases is mild but in some cases can become life-threatening. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome remains challenging since it can only be made on clinical grounds. Three diagnostic criteria systems, Sternbach, Radomski and Hunter classifications, are available. Here we test the validity of four assumptions that have become widely accepted: (1) The Hunter classification performs clinically better than the Sternbach and Radomski criteria; (2) in contrast to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, the onset of serotonin syndrome is usually rapid; (3) hyperthermia is a hallmark of severe serotonin syndrome; and (4) serotonin syndrome can readily be distinguished from neuroleptic malignant syndrome on clinical grounds and on the basis of medication history...
July 12, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111008/fatigue-detection-in-strength-training-using-three-dimensional-accelerometry-and-principal-component-analysis
#16
Niklas Brown, Sebastian Bichler, Meike Fiedler, Wilfried Alt
Detection of neuro-muscular fatigue in strength training is difficult, due to missing criterion measures and the complexity of fatigue. Thus, a variety of methods are used to determine fatigue. The aim of this study was to use a principal component analysis (PCA) on a multifactorial data-set based on kinematic measurements to determine fatigue. Twenty participants (strength training experienced, 60% male) executed 3 sets of 3 exercises with 50 (12 repetitions), 75 (12 repetitions) and 100%-12 RM (RM). Data were collected with a 3D accelerometer and analysed by a newly developed algorithm to evaluate parameters for each repetition...
June 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085028/it-s-still-important-just-doesn-t-hurt
#17
EDITORIAL
Rhian E Davies, Ian C Gilchrist
Radial artery catheterization results in local vascular injury to the artery and at times subsequent arterial occlusion, yet even in patients with abnormal collateral testing ischemic hand injury remains essentially unseen. Careful serial examinations of neuro-muscular function of the hand in patients undergoing transradial catheterization demonstrate that even in the case of radial occlusion and an abnormal collateral test, hand function is not altered after the procedure. While radial artery occlusion may not result in functional ischemic findings, the occlusion itself results in lost future opportunity for vascular access or conduit use and further understanding on how to prevent this sequalae continues to be a priority...
April 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080944/pyranocoumarin-tissue-distribution-plasma-metabolome-and-prostate-transcriptome-impacts-of-sub-chronic-exposure-to-korean-angelica-supplement-in-mice
#18
Jinhui Zhang, Li Li, Suni Tang, Yong Zhang, Maciej Markiewski, Chengguo Xing, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lü
Herbal products containing Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract are marketed as dietary supplements for memory enhancement, pain killing, and female menopausal symptom relief. We have shown the anticancer activities of AGN supplements in mouse models. To facilitate human anticancer translational research, we characterized the tissue distribution of AGN marker pyranocoumarin compounds decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) ([Formula: see text]% in AGN) and their metabolite decursinol (DOH), assessed the safety of sub-chronic AGN dietary exposure in mice, and explored its impact on plasma aqueous metabolites and the prostate transcriptome...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26978829/energetic-passivity-of-the-human-ankle-joint
#19
Hyunglae Lee, Neville Hogan
Understanding the passive or nonpassive behavior of the neuromuscular system is important to design and control robots that physically interact with humans, since it provides quantitative information to secure coupled stability while maximizing performance. This has become more important than ever apace with the increasing demand for robotic technologies in neurorehabilitation. This paper presents a quantitative characterization of passive and nonpassive behavior of the ankle of young healthy subjects, which provides a baseline for future studies in persons with neurological impairments and information for future developments of rehabilitation robots, such as exoskeletal devices and powered prostheses...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921792/mef2d-and-mef2c-pathways-disruption-in-sporadic-and-familial-als-patients
#20
Alessandro Arosio, Gessica Sala, Virginia Rodriguez-Menendez, Denise Grana, Francesca Gerardi, Christian Lunetta, Carlo Ferrarese, Lucio Tremolizzo
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuro-muscular disease characterized by motor neuron loss. MEF2D and MEF2C are members of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 family (MEF2), a group of transcription factors playing crucial roles both in muscle and in neural development and maintenance; for this reason, a possible involvement of MEF2 in ALS context has been investigated. Since the transcriptional activity of each tissue specific MEF2 isoform is conserved in different cell types, we chose to assess our parameters in an easily accessible and widely used experimental tool such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 30 sporadic ALS patients (sALS), 9 ALS patients with mutations in SOD1 gene (SOD1+) and 30 healthy controls...
July 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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