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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756600/the-development-of-neural-stimulators-a-review-of-preclinical-safety-and-efficacy-studies
#1
Robert K Shepherd, Joel Villalobos, Owen Burns, David Nayagam
OBJECTIVE: Given the rapid expansion of the field of neural stimulation and the rigorous regulatory approval requirements required before these devices can be applied clinically, it is important that there is clarity around conducting preclinical safety and efficacy studies required for the development of this technology. APPROACH: The present review examines basic design principles associated with the development of a safe neural stimulator and describes the suite of preclinical safety studies that need to be considered when taking a device to clinical trial...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589380/massage-reflexology-and-other-manual-methods-for-pain-management-in-labour
#2
REVIEW
Caroline A Smith, Kate M Levett, Carmel T Collins, Hannah G Dahlen, Carolyn C Ee, Machiko Suganuma
BACKGROUND: Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour, and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined the evidence currently available on manual methods, including massage and reflexology, for pain management in labour. This review is an update of the review first published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect, safety and acceptability of massage, reflexology and other manual methods to manage pain in labour...
March 28, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489501/prenatal-transplantation-of-human-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#3
Shao-Yu Peng, Sheng-Wen S Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current medical and stem-cell therapy for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and prenatal transplantation of amniotic fluid stem cells in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: SMA is an autosomal recessive inheritance of neurodegenerative disease, which is caused of the mutation in survival motor neuron. The severe-type SMA patients usually die from the respiratory failure within 2 years after birth. Recently, researchers had found that 3-methyladenine could inhibit the autophagy and had the capacity to reduce death of the neurons...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467606/integrating-brain-and-biomechanical-models-a-new-paradigm-for-understanding-neuro-muscular-control
#4
Sebastian S James, Chris Papapavlou, Alexander Blenkinsop, Alexander J Cope, Sean R Anderson, Konstantinos Moustakas, Kevin N Gurney
To date, realistic models of how the central nervous system governs behavior have been restricted in scope to the brain, brainstem or spinal column, as if these existed as disembodied organs. Further, the model is often exercised in relation to an in vivo physiological experiment with input comprising an impulse, a periodic signal or constant activation, and output as a pattern of neural activity in one or more neural populations. Any link to behavior is inferred only indirectly via these activity patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459826/age-effects-in-postural-control-analyzed-via-a-principal-component-analysis-of-kinematic-data-and-interpreted-in-relation-to-predictions-of-the-optimal-feedback-control-theory
#5
Thomas H Haid, Aude-Clémence M Doix, Benno M Nigg, Peter A Federolf
Optimal feedback control theory suggests that control of movement is focused on movement dimensions that are important for the task's success. The current study tested the hypotheses that age effects would emerge in the control of only specific movement components and that these components would be linked to the task relevance. Fifty healthy volunteers, 25 young and 25 older adults, performed a 80s-tandem stance while their postural movements were recorded using a standard motion capture system. The postural movements were decomposed by a principal component analysis into one-dimensional movement components, PMk , whose control was assessed through two variables, Nk and σk , which characterized the tightness and the regularity of the neuro-muscular control, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457998/home-based-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-as-an-add-on-to-pulmonary-rehabilitation-does-not-provide-further-benefits-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-multicenter-randomized-trial
#6
Tristan Bonnevie, Francis-Edouard Gravier, David Debeaumont, Catherine Viacroze, Jean-François Muir, Antoine Cuvelier, Marie Netchitaïlo, Anne-Laure Roy, Jean Quieffin, Marie-Hélène Marques, Clément Médrinal, Johan Dupuis, Catherine Tardif
OBJECTIVE: To assess the additional effect of a home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) program as an add-on to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), on functional capacity in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Single-blind, multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Three PR centers. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects with severe to very severe COPD (N=73; median forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 1L (25th-75th percentile, 0...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402696/towards-5g-communication-systems-are-there-health-implications
#7
REVIEW
Agostino Di Ciaula
The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance...
April 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388926/-the-role-of-the-neurophysiological-methods-in-the-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-rehabilitation-of-sensorimotor-disturbances-associated-with-the-lesions-of-the-central-nervous-system-at-the-spinal-cord-level
#8
E V Ekusheva, V B Voitenkov, N V Skripchenko, I G Samoilova, V A Filimonov
AIM: The objective of the present study was the evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness of the differential approaches to the neurorehabilitation of the somatosensory disturbances in the patients presenting with the spinal cord lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 patients with spinal cord lesions were enrolled in the study, including 38 suffering from vascular myelopathy, 18 with the consequences of extramedullar meningioma surgery, 12 with the sequelae of acute transverse myelitis...
December 28, 2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377312/task-experience-influences-coordinative-structures-and-performance-variables-in-learning-a-slalom-ski-simulator-task
#9
A Dutt-Mazumder, K M Newell
The experiment investigated the progressions of the qualitative and quantitative changes in the movement dynamics of learning the ski-simulator as a function of prior-related task experience. The focus was the differential timescales of change in the candidate collective variable, neuromuscular synergies, joint motions, and task outcome as a function of learning over 7 days of practice. Half of the novice participants revealed in day 1 a transition of in-phase to anti-phase coupling of center of mass (CoM)-platform motion whereas the remaining novices and experienced group all produced on the first trial an anti-phase CoM-platform coupling...
May 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359227/oral-declines-and-mastication-deficiencies-cause-alteration-of-food-bolus-properties
#10
M-A Peyron, V Santé-Lhoutellier, O François, M Hennequin
In the elderly, masticatory function often presents failure in certain oral tasks due to impairment such as decline in muscular force, jaw or tongue motility, neuro-muscular coordination, tooth damage, malocclusion and saliva production. Great disparity is observed in the various and potentially cumulative oral declines that occur with ageing. Such difficulties may have an impact on food consumption and nutritional status. To obtain better understanding of the consequences of several oral deficiencies, a series of swallowable boluses were prepared in vitro with the AM2 masticator apparatus with normal and deficient programming...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332730/biomechanical-factors-associated-with-running-economy-and-performance-of-elite-kenyan-distance-runners-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Nassib Tawa, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313588/paraneoplastic-inverse-myasthenic-syndrome-as-a-presentation-of-bronchogenic-carcinoma
#12
G S Chowdhary, Malav Jhala
Tumours may produce growth factors and cytokines responsible for signs and symptoms distant to the primary or metastatic site. This may be the first sign of a malignancy and its recognition may be critical for early cancer detection. Moreover, proper diagnosis spares the patient of extensive and expensive search for an alternate cause of the neurological dysfunction. In neurological paraneoplastic syndromes like Lambert Eaton Myasthenic syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer, evidence of autoimmunity against presynaptic neuro-muscular junction by anti voltage gated calcium channel anti bodies is well documented...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222849/bone-marrow-transplantation-improves-motor-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-ataxia
#13
David Díaz, Marina Piquer-Gil, Javier Sánchez Recio, María Magdalena Martínez-Losa, José Ramón Alonso, Eduardo Weruaga, Manuel Álvarez-Dolado
Ataxias are locomotor disorders that can have an origin both neural and muscular, although both impairments are related. Unfortunately, ataxia has no cure, and the current therapies are aimed at motor re-education or muscular reinforcement. Nevertheless, cell therapy is becoming a promising approach to deal with incurable neural diseases, including neuromuscular ataxias. Here, we have used a model of ataxia, the Purkinje Cell Degeneration (PCD) mutant mouse, to study the effect of healthy (wild-type) bone marrow transplantation on the restoration of defective mobility...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209666/novel-duplication-mutation-of-the-dysf-gene-in-a-pakistani-family-with-miyoshi-myopathy
#14
Muhammad I Ullah, Arsalan Ahmad, Milena Zarkovic, Syed S Shah, Abdul Nasir, Saqib Mahmood, Wasim Ahmad, Christian A Hubner, Muhammad J Hassan
To identify the underlying gene mutation in a large consanguineous Pakistani family.  Methods: This is an observational descriptive study carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Shifa International Hospital, Quaid-i-Azam University, and Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013-2016. Genomic DNA of all recruited family members was extracted and the Trusight one sequencing panel was used to assess genes associated with a neuro-muscular phenotype...
December 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170524/quantitative-analysis-of-motor-evoked-potentials-in-the-neonatal-lamb
#15
Luc Joyeux, Marjolijn Deprez, Ahmad Khatoun, Kris Van Kuyck, Kelly Pelsmaekers, Alexander C Engels, Hongmei Wang, Marina Gabriela Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, Stephanie De Vleeschauwer, Myles Mc Laughlin, Jan Deprest
Evoking motor potentials are an objective assessment method for neuromotor function, yet this was to our knowledge never done in neonatal lambs. There is neither a method for standardized quantification of motor evoked potentials (MEPs). We first aimed to evaluate the feasibility of MEP recording in neonatal lambs and test its validity. Second we aimed to develop an algorithm for its quantification and test its reliability since manual input is required. We recorded myogenic MEPs after transcranial motor cortex stimulation in 6 lambs aged 1-2 days...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140147/sprint-running-performance-and-technique-changes-in-athletes-during-periodized-training-an-elite-training-group-case-study
#16
Ian N Bezodis, David G Kerwin, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Aki I T Salo
PURPOSE: To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. METHODS: Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106864/six-month-old-infants-with-deformational-plagiocephaly-do-not-differ-from-unaffected-infants-with-respect-to-vocal-control
#17
Kathleen Wermke, Christian Linz, Annette Hasenberg, Felix Kunz, Philipp Meyer-Marcotty, Tilmann Schweitzer
OBJECTIVES: The recommendation of a supine sleeping position led to a significant reduction of SIDS, but increased positional skull deformities (DP). Here, a quantitative analysis of babbling aims to complement previous studies of language-relevant competence based on items of the Bayley-scales that suggested the presence of developmental language delays in DP infants. Measures of fundamental frequency variability as proxies for vocal control are well suited for testing this assumption, since the laryngeal neuro-muscular system matures early and is coupled with brain function while working rapidly in coordinating the structures and mechanisms involved in infant sound production...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074396/translocation-and-dissemination-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-from-the-intestinal-tract
#18
Yukako Fujinaga, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins which induce flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. They associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs or NAPs) to form complexes of various sizes which are resistant to acidic pH and protease degradation. BoNT trafficking from the digestive tract to the target neurons is still a matter of debate. BoNTs use different strategies to pass through the intestinal barrier including passage of BoNT complexes containing hemagglutinins (HAs) via M cells, HA-dependent perturbation of E-cadherin intercellular junctions between enterocytes and paracellular passage of BoNT complexes, and transcytosis of BoNT free of NAPs through certain intestinal epithelial cells...
October 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981152/low-conversion-rate-of-ocular-to-generalized-myasthenia-gravis-in-singapore
#19
Kelvin Y Teo, Sharon L Tow, Benjamin Haaland, Tushar D Gosavi, Loo Jing-Liang, L O Yew Long, Dan Milea
INTRODUCTION: Ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) is a common condition of the neuromuscular junction that may convert to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG). Our aim in this study was to determine the conversion rate and predictive factors for generalization in OMG, in an Asian population. METHODS: The investigation consisted of a retrospective study of OMG patients with a minimum 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Among 191 patients with OMG, 155 had the minimum 2-year follow-up...
October 5, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929907/management-of-obesity-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#20
Mir Hatef Shojaei, Seyed Mohammad Alavinia, B Catharine Craven
CONTEXT: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. METHODS: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases...
November 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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