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Community Acquired Pneumonia Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790844/antibiotic-use-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-neonates-and-children-who-evidence-review
#1
Shrey Mathur, Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Johannes Van Den Anker, Mike Sharland
Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age. This review summarises the evidence for the empirical antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children and puts emphasis on publications since the release of the previous WHO Evidence Summary report published in 2014. Methods A systematic search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was conducted between 1 January 2013 and 10 November 2016...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789305/ro-positive-interstitial-lung-disease-treated-with-cyclophosphamide
#2
Nader Habib Bedwani, Natasha Jefferson, Christopher Marguerie, Jayanta Mukherjee
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a spectrum of conditions involving inflammation and/or fibrosis of the alveolar wall causing limitation in gaseous exchange. Treatment varies depending on the underlying ILD. We describe the case of a woman presenting with a productive cough who was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. While on the ward she developed type-1 respiratory failure requiring continuous positive airway pressure and intensive care unit admission. Failing to respond to targeted antimicrobials she was investigated by chest high-resolution CT and autoantibody screen to identify non-infective causes of her respiratory signs and symptoms...
May 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789175/macrolide-resistance-in-cases-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department
#3
John P Haran, Gregory A Volturo
BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians are under pressure to prescribe an antibiotic early in the treatment course of a patient with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Macrolides are recommended first-line empirical therapy for the outpatient treatment of CAP in patients without associated comorbidities; however, resistance rates to macrolides in the United States are on the rise. OBJECTIVE: This review considers macrolide use for CAP in the emergency department by reviewing the microbiologic environment in the United States and whether macrolides can overcome in vitro resistance during actual clinical use...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771255/return-of-the-tetracyclines-omadacycline-a-novel-aminomethylcycline-antimicrobial
#4
J C Cho, L M Childs-Kean, M T Zmarlicka, M P Crotty
Omadacycline is a novel aminomethylcycline antimicrobial agent that is available in both oral and intravenous formulations. The distinguishing structural characteristics of omadacycline from other tetracyclines allow for its continued antimicrobial activity in the presence of traditional tetracycline resistance mechanisms (efflux pumps and ribosomal protection proteins). Omadacycline has been found to have potent activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
March 2018: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754841/-risks-associated-with-the-use-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-during-pneumonia
#5
REVIEW
G Voiriot, M Chalumeau, J Messika, D Basille, B Philippe, J-D Ricard, C Andrejak, V Jounieaux, O Sanchez, M Fartoukh
INTRODUCTION: Outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is frequent, although this is not based on clinical recommendations and there is no scientific evidence supporting better symptom relief in comparison to acetaminophen. STATE OF THE ART: Experimental data suggest that NSAIDs alter the intrinsic functions of neutrophils, limit their locoregional recruitment, alter bacterial clearance and delay the resolution of inflammatory processes during acute bacterial pulmonary challenge...
May 10, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754466/temporal-trends-in-paediatric-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-tropical-australian-region-1992-2014
#6
Stephanie White, Hala Katf, Rob Baird, Joshua Francis
AIM: The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis has changed following the introduction of routine immunisation against common causative organisms. Indigenous children living in the Northern Territory, Australia, have high rates of bacterial infections. This study describes changes in the epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis and the distribution of the burden of disease in the Top End. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases derived from hospital medical records and laboratory data was performed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749357/-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-a-significant-but-underrated-pathogen-in-paediatric-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#7
REVIEW
Surinder Kumar
Lower respiratory tract infections are considered a common cause responsible for morbidity and mortality among children, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae is identified to be responsible for up to 40 per cent of community-acquired pneumonia in children greater than five years of age. Extrapulmonary manifestations have been reported either due to spread of infection or autoimmune mechanisms. Infection by M. pneumoniae has high incidence and clinical importance but is still an underrated disease. Most widely used serologic methods are enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG and IgA antibodies to M...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738010/evaluation-of-dynamic-thiol-disulfide-redox-state-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Ebru S Parlak, Murat Alisik, Habibe Hezer, Aysegul Karalezli, Hatice C Hasanoglu, Ozcan Erel
OBJECTIVES: To compare dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis between patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthy controls. METHODS: This prospective, case-control study was conducted in the Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Ankara Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey, between August 2016 and August 2017. In total, 50 hospitalized patients with CAP and 35 healthy individuals were enrolled. Patients with comorbidities and smokers were excluded...
May 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735504/pneumonitis-a-serious-adverse-effect-of-pd-l1-inhibitors-including-pembrolizumab
#9
Frances Rickard, Catherine Hyams, Andrew T Low
A 70-year-old man presented with breathlessness, cough and fever while receiving pembrolizumab for melanoma. A CT pulmonary angiogram demonstrated small bilateral upper lobe segmental pulmonary emboli with patchy ground-glass opacities and basal perilobular consolidation, in keeping with organising pneumonia. He was treated for community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary emboli but rapidly deteriorated, with increasing hypoxia and dyspnoea. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for support with continuous positive airway pressure and high flow nasal oxygen...
May 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733693/blood-neutrophils-are-reprogrammed-in-bronchiectasis
#10
Pallavi Bedi, Donald J Davidson, Brian J McHugh, Adriano G Rossi, Adam T Hill
Introduction Excessive neutrophilic airways inflammation is the central feature of bronchiectasis, but little is known about neutrophils in bronchiectasis. The aim of this study was to assess blood neutrophil phenotype in bronchiectasis patients both whilst stable and during exacerbations. Methods In the clinically-stable arm of this study were 8-healthy volunteers, 8-mild and 8-severe bronchiectasis. In addition, 6-severe bronchiectasis patients were compared with 6-community-acquired pneumonia patients at the start and end of an exacerbation...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720921/disulfiram-like-reaction-involving-ceftriaxone-in-a-pediatric-patient
#11
Stephen M Small, Rachel S Bacher, Sheridan A Jost
Several medications have been shown to cause disulfiram-like reactions in patients concomitantly exposed to ethanol, including specific cephalosporin antibiotics that possess a methylthiotetrazole substituent. Within the cephalosporin class, there are few reports of disulfiram-like reactions with ceftriaxone. This case report is the first to involve a pediatric patient, and it describes a mild but likely disulfiram-like reaction manifesting as facial flushing in an 8-year-old male upon receiving a ceftriaxone infusion preceded by a dose of prednisolone elixir (5% ethanol by volume) for presumed community-acquired pneumonia thought to be complicated by an asthma exacerbation...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720526/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-protease-iv-exacerbates-pneumococcal-pneumonia-and-systemic-disease
#12
Jessica L Bradshaw, Armando R Caballero, Michael A Bierdeman, Kristen V Adams, Haley R Pipkins, Aihua Tang, Richard J O'Callaghan, Larry S McDaniel
Pneumonia is a pulmonary disease affecting people of all ages and is consistently a leading cause of childhood mortality and adult hospitalizations. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major lung pathogens commonly associated with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Additionally, mixed lung infections involving these bacterial pathogens are increasing in prevalence and are frequently more severe than single infections. The cooperative interactions of these two pathogens that impact pulmonary disease severity are understudied...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699493/effects-of-age-comorbidity-and-adherence-to-current-antimicrobial-guidelines-on-mortality-in-hospitalized-elderly-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#13
Xiudi Han, Fei Zhou, Hui Li, Xiqian Xing, Liang Chen, Yimin Wang, Chunxiao Zhang, Xuedong Liu, Lijun Suo, Jinxiang Wang, Guohua Yu, Guangqiang Wang, Xuexin Yao, Hongxia Yu, Lei Wang, Meng Liu, Chunxue Xue, Bo Liu, Xiaoli Zhu, Yanli Li, Ying Xiao, Xiaojing Cui, Lijuan Li, Jay E Purdy, Bin Cao
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on the clinical characteristics predictive of mortality in patients aged ≥65 years in many countries. The impact of adherence to current antimicrobial guidelines on the mortality of hospitalized elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has never been assessed. METHODS: A total of 3131 patients aged ≥65 years were enrolled from a multi-center, retrospective, observational study initiated by the CAP-China network...
April 24, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697383/-abnormalities-of-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-during-community%C3%A2-acquired-pneumonia-nonthyroidal-illness-syndrome-and-intracellular-iodine-distribution-in-children
#14
H Pavlyshyn, V Kibar, V Furdela, N Haliyash, I Sarapuk
The aim of the study ‒ to investigate the changes of thyroid function and to reveal the relationship in between intracellular distribution of iodine in the blood with the severity of the course of pneumonia in children. We investigated 70 patients in age 6-14 years with moderate and severe CAP and 35 healthy children. The levels of free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodo-thyronine (fT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid gland ultrasound and urinary iodine were estimated. Inorganic iodine, total and organificated iodine was investigated...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692381/current-status-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
REVIEW
De-Shun Liu, Xiu-Di Han, Xue-Dong Liu
Objective: Worldwide, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection that occurs in older adults, who may have pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there have been clinical studies on the coexistence of CAP with COPD, there remain some controversial findings. This review presents the current status of COPD in CAP patients, including the disease burden, clinical characteristics, risk factors, microbial etiology, and antibiotic treatment...
May 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690685/-current-status-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-shanghai-revealed-by-a-questionnaire-analysis
#16
J Liu, J Zhang, Q J Cheng, J F Xu, Z J Jie, Y Jiao, Y Huang, J M Qu
Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among doctors in various hospitals across Shanghai, for the purpose of promoting the 2016 clinical practice guidelines for adult CAP of China. Methods: A questionnaire was designed to address the common questions in CAP management. The responses were collected via WeChat and the data were analyzed. Results: A total of 1 254 valid questionnaires were received, 46.1% from tertiary , 26.4% from secondary and 27...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680828/viral-pneumonia-etiologies-and-treatment
#17
Dima Dandachi, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas
Viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as a cause of pneumonia, in immunocompetent patients and more commonly among immunocompromised. Viral pneumonia in adults could present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), ranging from mild disease to severe disease requiring hospital admission and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, the role of viruses in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia as causative agents or as co-pathogens and the effect of virus detection on clinical outcome are being investigated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679383/shortened-courses-of-antibiotics-for-bacterial-infections-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Alexandra M Hanretty, Jason C Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Commonly prescribed durations of therapy for many, if not most, bacterial infections are not evidence-based. Misunderstandings by clinicians and patients alike influence perspectives on antibiotic use, including duration of therapy and its role in antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that shorter durations of antibiotic therapy are as efficacious as longer durations for many infections. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English language articles using PubMed were identified for inclusion...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678761/a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-atypical-pneumonia
#19
Sebastian Kersting, Valentina Rausch, Frank F Bier, Markus von Nickisch-Rosenegk
Pneumonia is one of the most common and potentially lethal infectious conditions worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the pathogen most frequently associated with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia, while Legionella pneumophila is the major cause for local outbreaks of legionellosis. Both pathogens can be difficult to diagnose since signs and symptoms are nonspecific and do not differ from other causes of pneumonia. Therefore, a rapid diagnosis within a clinically relevant time is essential for a fast onset of the proper treatment...
April 17, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676433/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-long-term-risk-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-older-adults
#20
Jan Zirk-Sadowski, Jane A Masoli, Joao Delgado, Willie Hamilton, W David Strain, William Henley, David Melzer, Alessandro Ble
OBJECTIVES: To estimate associations between long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and pneumonia incidence in older adults in primary care. DESIGN: Longitudinal analyses of electronic medical records. SETTING: England PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 and older in primary care receiving PPIs for 1 year or longer (N=75,050) and age- and sex-matched controls (N=75,050). MEASUREMENTS: Net hazard ratios for pneumonia incidence in Year 2 of treatment were estimated using the prior event rate ratio (PERR), which adjusts for pneumonia incidence differences before initiation of treatment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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