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Community Acquired Pneumonia Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943167/bordetella-bronchiseptica-infection
#1
M Ducours, P Rispal, M P Danjean, Y Imbert, E Dupont, E M Traissac, S Grosleron
OBJECTIVE: To collect data of all patients admitted to hospital with a positive test to Bordetella bronchiseptica between 2001 and 2015. METHODS: We performed a retrospective monocentric study of all hospitalized patients over the past 15 years with a positive test to B. bronchiseptica. RESULTS: Nine patients were included between 2001 and 2015; two presented with infectious relapses, i.e. a total of 14 positive test samples were observed...
September 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940421/changes-in-pulmonary-artery-systolic-pressure-correlate-with-radiographic-severity-and-peripheral-oxygenation-in-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Katherina Bernadette Sreter, Ivan Budimir, Andrija Golub, Zdravko Dorosulić, Mateja Sabol Pušić, Marko Boban
PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ΔPASP) and both severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and changes in peripheral blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive adult patients hospitalized for treatment of CAP were recruited in this single-center cohort study. Doppler echocardiographic measurement of PASP was performed by 2 staff cardiologists...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933177/-community-pneumonia-fundamentals-of-diagnosing-and-treatment
#3
Vítězslav Kolek
Pneumonia is the most serious respiratory disease which causes more than 3 000 deaths per year in the Czech Republic. Community-acquired pneumonia is contracted in the ordinary life environment outside of hospitals, its development is caused by known infectious agents which mostly exhibit satisfactory sensitivity to antibiotics. Diagnosing, prevention and treatment of the disease are described including considerations of individual evaluation of the risk of complications and possible death. The strategy of administering antibiotics is discussed...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930915/microvesicle-subsets-in-sepsis-due-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-compared-to-faecal-peritonitis
#4
Hazem M S Lashin, Suchita Nadkarni, Silvia Oggero, Hefin R Jones, Julian C Knight, Charles J Hinds, Mauro Perretti
RATIONALE: Microvesicles (MV) act as a non-soluble means of inter-cellular communication, with effector roles in disease pathogenesis and potentially as biomarkers. Previously, we reported that neutrophil MV expressing alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2MG) are protective in experimental sepsis and associate with survival in a small cohort of patients with sepsis due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). OBJECTIVES: To characterise MV profiles in sepsis due to CAP or faecal peritonitis (FP) and determine their relation to outcome...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929957/-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-the-adult-patients-in-a-turkish-%C3%A3-niversity-hospital
#5
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#6
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915392/impact-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-data-from-the-infauci-study
#7
J M Pereira, J Gonçalves-Pereira, O Ribeiro, J P Baptista, F Froes, J A Paiva
Antibiotic therapy (AT) is the cornerstone of the management of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the best treatment strategy is far from being established. To evaluate the impact of different aspects of AT on the outcome of critically ill patients with CAP, we performed a post hoc analysis of all CAP patients enrolled in a prospective, observational, multicentre study. Of the 502 patients included, 76% received combination therapy, mainly a β-lactam with a macrolide (80%). AT was inappropriate in 16% of all microbiologically documented CAP (n=177)...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914846/-analysis-of-the-efficiency-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-clinical-practice
#8
O V Zhukova, O V Ruina, S V Kononova, T M Konyshkina
AIM: To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900048/community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Jennifer Franco
The most commonly ordered radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, and it is considered the gold standard for diagnosing pneumonia. For this reason, it is essential that radiologic technologists understand the disease and how it affects patients. This article discusses the anatomy of the lungs, along with the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of community-acquired pneumonia.
July 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890505/a-case-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-due-to-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-9-in-which-initial-treatment-with-single-dose-oral-azithromycin-appeared-useful
#10
Akihiro Ito, Tadashi Ishida, Hiromasa Tachibana, Yuhei Ito, Takuya Takaiwa, Hiroyuki Fujii, Toru Hashimoto, Hiroshi Nakajima, Junko Amemura-Maekawa
Legionella species are important causative pathogens for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Most cases of Legionella pneumonia are due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and CAP due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 is rare. A fourth case of CAP due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 9 is reported, and initial treatment using single-dose oral azithromycin appeared useful. Azithromycin injection or fluoroquinolone injection is usually recommended for the treatment of Legionella pneumonia, and no previous reports have shown the effectiveness of single-dose oral azithromycin...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889900/a-62-year-old-woman-with-wheezing-respiratory-failure-and-an-abnormal-ct%C3%A2-scan
#11
Peter Hountras, Hector Cajigas
A previously healthy 62-year-old woman was transferred to the ICU from the medical ward with acute bronchospastic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Four weeks before, the patient was vacationing in Arizona and acquired a mildly productive cough as well as mild dyspnea. She presented to an urgent care facility and was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. She received a 5-day course of azithromycin, with partial improvement of her symptoms. The patient returned home 1 week prior to admission, reporting worsening dyspnea, chest pressure, cough, and fever...
September 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#12
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875608/clinical-characteristics-of-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-from-children-in-jeju
#13
Yoon Joo Kim, Kyung Sue Shin, Keun Hwa Lee, Young Ree Kim, Jae Hong Choi
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the major pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMP) is important owing to the limited alternative therapies for children. We analyzed 111 M. pneumoniae obtained from 107 children admitted for lower respiratory tract infection at Jeju National University Hospital between 2010 and 2015. Macrolide resistance of M. pneumoniae was searched for using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Of 107 clinical M. pneumoniae, 11 (10...
October 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874937/antimicrobial-therapy-for-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department-the-impact-of-clinical-pharmacists-on-appropriateness
#14
Brett A Faine, Nicholas Mohr, Jenna Dietrich, Laura Meadow, Kari K Harland, Elizabeth Chrischilles
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia impacts over four million people annually and is the leading cause of infectious disease-related hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy decreases hospital length of stay and improves mortality. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of an emergency medicine (EM) clinical pharmacist improves the timing and appropriateness of empiric antimicrobial therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP)...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864030/a-fatal-outbreak-of-st11-carbapenem-resistant-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-chinese-hospital-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#15
Danxia Gu, Ning Dong, Zhiwei Zheng, Di Lin, Man Huang, Lihua Wang, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Lingbin Shu, Jiang Yu, Rong Zhang, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains often cause life-threatening community-acquired infections in young and healthy hosts, but are usually sensitive to antibiotics. In this study, we investigated a fatal outbreak of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by a new emerging hypervirulent K pneumoniae strain. METHODS: The outbreak occurred in the integrated intensive care unit of a new branch of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China)...
August 29, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844414/childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-review-of-etiology-and-antimicrobial-treatment-studies
#16
REVIEW
Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. Because of the rising antimicrobial resistance rates and adverse effects of childhood antibiotic use on the developing microbiome, rational prescribing of antibiotics for CAP is important. This review summarizes and critically reflects on the available evidence for the epidemiology, etiology and antimicrobial management of childhood CAP. Larger prospective studies on antimicrobial management derive mostly from low- or middle-income countries as they have the highest burden of CAP...
July 15, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837364/to-which-extent-can-we-decrease-antibiotic-duration-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
José Garnacho-Montero, Angel Arenzana-Seisdedos, Jan De Waele, Marin H Kollef
Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy is associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients with severe infections. Nevertheless, prolonged duration of antibiotic treatment is also potentially harmful. Development of new infections with more resistant pathogens is one of the arguments against the administration of prolonged courses of antibiotics. Areas covered: We aim to describe the optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy in the most common infections affecting critically ill patients. A literature search was performed to identify all clinical trials, observational studies, meta-analysis, and reviews about this topic from PubMed...
August 24, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822165/-methodological-quality-assessment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-china-based-on-agree-%C3%A2-tool
#18
Ying-Jie Zhi, Xing Liao, Yan-Ming Xie, De-Min Li, Wei Chen, Yao-Long Chen, Ren-Bo Chen, Ya Yuwen, Hong-Chun Zhang, Yong-Yan Wang
This study is aimed to identify and assess the methodological quality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) clinical practice guidelines (CPG) in China by using AGREE Ⅱ tool. CNKI, SinoMed, Wanfang, and VIP Chinese databases from database establishment to March 2017 were searched by manual retrieval to collect all the clinical practice guidelines prepared by various associations or organizations, then AGREE Ⅱtool was used to assess them. Data in each CPG were analyzed in terms of six domains, including scope and purpose, participants, rigor, clarity and readability, applicability and editorial independence...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814443/antibiotic-use-by-pediatric-residents-identifying-opportunities-and-strategies-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#19
Prateek J Shukla, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Geovanny F Perez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibiotic prescribing practices of pediatric residents and assess how they acquire knowledge leading to prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional electronic survey of all pediatric residents at the Children's National Medical Center and Nicklaus Children's Hospital, assessing antibiotic prescribing patterns for common pediatric infections, use of antibiograms, and factors influencing antibiotic choice. RESULTS: Eighty-five surveys (45%) were returned complete and included in the analysis...
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802543/outcomes-and-predictors-of-failure-of-non-invasive-ventilation-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department
#20
Amjad Al-Rajhi, Anwar Murad, P Z Li, Jason Shahin
OBJECTIVE: We set out to describe the use and analyze the predictors of non-invasive ventilation failure in patients with community-acquired pneumonia who receive non-invasive ventilation as first line ventilatory therapy in the emergency department. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among consecutive patients with community acquired pneumonia requiring ventilator support presenting to two tertiary care university-affiliated emergency departments...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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