Read by QxMD icon Read

Community Acquired Pneumonia Treatment

M A Tazón-Varela, H Alonso-Valle, P Muñoz-Cacho, J Gallo-Terán, X Piris-García, L A Pérez-Mier
INTRODUCTION: Knowing the most common microorganisms in our environment can help us to make proper empirical treatment decisions. The aim is to identify those microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, descriptive and prospective study was conducted, including patients over 14 years with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during a 383 consecutive day period. A record was made of sociodemographic variables, personal history, prognostic severity scales, progress, and pathogenic agents...
October 20, 2016: Semergen
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Wei-Ju Lee, Eng-Yen Huang, Chih-Min Tsai, Kuang-Che Kuo, Yi-Chuan Huang, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection, but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Diego Viasus, Oscar Ramos, Leidy Ramos, Antonella F Simonetti, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia is a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of resistance to the antimicrobials such as β-lactams or macrolides which have habitually been used against the causative pathogens. Solithromycin, a next-generation macrolide, is the first fluoroketolide with activity against most of the frequently isolated bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia, including typical and atypical bacteria as well as macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
October 18, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Sang-Min Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kyuseok Kim, You Hwan Jo, Jungyoup Lee, Joonghee Kim, Ji Eun Hwang, Young Sang Ko, Chulmin Ha, Sujin Jang, Hyunmi Park
OBJECTIVE: Red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, little is known about the effect of changes in RDW during treatment on mortality. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association between RDW changes and mortality in hospitalized patients with CAP. METHODS: Retrospective analyses were performed using medical records of patients hospitalized for CAP from April 2008 to February 2014...
September 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Michelle K Haas, Kristen Dalton, Bryan C Knepper, Sarah A Stella, Lilia Cervantes, Connie S Price, William J Burman, Philip S Mehler, Timothy C Jenkins
Background.  Syndrome-specific interventions are a recommended approach to antibiotic stewardship, but additional data are needed to understand their potential impact. We implemented an intervention to improve the management of inpatient community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and evaluated its effects on antibiotic and resource utilization. Methods.  A stakeholder group developed and implemented a clinical practice guideline and order set for inpatient, non-intensive care unit CAP recommending a short course (5 days) of a fluoroquinolone-sparing antibiotic regimen in uncomplicated cases...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Tiemei Zhao, Liang-An Chen, Ping Wang, Guizhen Tian, Feng Ye, Huili Zhu, Bei He, Baiying Zhang, Changzhou Shao, Zhijun Jie, Xiwen Gao, Dongxia Wang, Weidong Song, Zhijie Pan, Jin Chen, Xingyi Zhang, Zhancheng Gao, Ping Chen, Youning Liu
BACKGROUND: To compare 5-day regimen of levofloxacin 750 mg IV daily with 7-14-day conventional regimen of levofloxacin 500 mg intravenous to oral (IV/PO) daily for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Chinese population. METHODS: This was a non-inferiority study to assess the difference of clinical efficacy at the end of treatment (EOT) between two regimens. Adult CAP patients with CURB-65 score 0-2 were enrolled from 17 hospitals in China from November 2012 to July 2014...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl
Pleuromutilins are antibiotics that selectively inhibit bacterial translation and are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring tricyclic diterpenoid pleuromutilin, which received its name from the pleuromutilin-producing fungus Pleurotus mutilus Tiamulin and valnemulin are two established derivatives in veterinary medicine for oral and intramuscular administration. As these early pleuromutilin drugs were developed at a time when companies focused on major antibacterial classes, such as the β-lactams, and resistance was not regarded as an issue, interest in antibiotic research including pleuromutilins was limited...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Abrar K Thabit, Jared L Crandon, David P Nicolau
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens has contributed to infection-related morbidity and mortality. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to define the pharmacodynamic profile of delafloxacin against CAP pathogens using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Five S. pneumoniae, 2 methicillin-susceptible S...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Christopher Henry, Carl Boethel, Laurel A Copeland, Shekhar Ghamande, Alejandro C Arroliga, Heath D White
RATIONALE: Legionella pneumophila is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia in south central United States and regular testing may not be cost-effective in areas of low incidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of Legionella in central Texas and determine the costeffectiveness of Legionella urinary antigen testing. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with pneumonia between January 2001 and December 2013...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Haiying Sun, Lillian Ting, Surendra Machineni, Jens Praestgaard, Andreas Kuemmell, Daniel S Stein, Gangadhar Sunkara, Steven J Kovacs, Stephen Villano, S Ken Tanaka
Omadacycline is a first in class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with microbiological activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, and atypical bacteria that is being developed for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). The bioavailability of a Phase 3 tablet formulation relative to intravenous (IV) administration (and of other oral formulations relative to the Phase 3 tablet) was investigated in an open-label, randomized, four-period, crossover study in healthy subjects age 18-50 years...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
J M Prins, T van der Poll
Better use of current antibiotics is warranted to curb increasing antimicrobial resistance rates. Procalcitonin guidance can safely reduce antibiotic usage when used to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in adult patients with a respiratory tract infection. However, the claimed reductions in antibiotic usage are mainly achieved in patients with acute bronchitis and exacerbations of COPD, conditions for which guidelines already discourage antibiotic treatment. Sequential procalcitonin measurements can also reduce the treatment duration of community-acquired pneumonia from 10-12 to 5-7 days, which is, however, already the recommended treatment duration for in- and outpatients under the current Dutch guidelines...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Tadashi Ishida, Akihiro Ito, Yasuyoshi Washio, Akio Yamazaki, Maki Noyama, Fumiaki Tokioka, Machiko Arita
RATIONALE: The new acronym, PES pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), was recently proposed to identify drug-resistant pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia and to validate the role of PES pathogens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of immunocompetent patients with pneumonia between March 2009 and June 2015 was conducted...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Vaishali Gaikwad, Tejash Gohel, Shrijeet Panickar, Vijay Chincholkar, Santosh Mangalkar
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, especially pneumonia, surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and continues to be a major cause of community-acquired infections. The emergence of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides has made the treatment of staphylococcal infection a global challenge...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Tessa R Davis, Hannah R Evans, Jennifer Murtas, Aimee Weisman, J Lynn Francis, Ahmed Khan
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of blood cultures in children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. The primary outcome was the number of positive blood culture results, and secondary outcomes included the effect of positive blood culture results on management, and the identification of other clinical/biochemical variables that could predict blood culture results or the course of illness. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was carried out on all children admitted to Gosford Hospital during the 2-year period from July 2013 to June 2015...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Katrin Straubhaar, Philipp Schuetz, Claudine Angela Blum, Nicole Nigro, Briel Matthias, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Beat Mueller, Step Study Group
PRINCIPLES: In-hospital care of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) varies across hospitals. Understanding of the underlying factors is the basis for tailored quality improvements. Using data from a randomised controlled Swiss-wide multicentre trial, we compared length of stay (LOS) and other patient outcomes according to (A) the use of a procalcitonin (PCT)-based antibiotic stewardship protocol, (B) institution type (university vs non-university), and (C) historical time period in relation to the introduction of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement (2012)...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal, Annemarie Berger, Maximilian Christopeit, Marcus Hentrich, Claus Peter Heussel, Jana Kalkreuth, Michael Klein, Matthias Kochanek, Olaf Penack, Elke Hauf, Christina Rieger, Gerda Silling, Maria Vehreschild, Thomas Weber, Hans-Heinrich Wolf, Nicola Lehners, Enrico Schalk, Karin Mayer
BACKGROUND: Community acquired viruses (CRVs) may cause severe disease in cancer patients. Thus, efforts should be made to diagnose CRV rapidly and manage CRV infections accordingly. METHODS: A panel of 18 clinicians from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology have convened to assess the available literature and provide recommendations on the management of CRV infections including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus and adenovirus...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"