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Community Acquired Pneumonia Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345309/a-survey-of-clinicians-regarding-respiratory-physiotherapy-intervention-for-intubated-and-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-what-is-current-practice-in-australian-icus
#1
Lisa van der Lee, Anne-Marie Hill, Shane Patman
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause for intensive care unit (ICU) admission resulting in high morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of evidence regarding respiratory physiotherapy for intubated and mechanically ventilated patients with CAP, and anecdotally clinical practice is variable in this cohort. The aims of this study were to identify the degree of variability in physiotherapy practice for intubated adult patients with CAP and to explore ICU physiotherapist perceptions of current practice for this cohort and factors that influence physiotherapy treatment mode, duration, and frequency...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336384/predictors-for-individual-patient-antibiotic-treatment-effect-in-hospitalised-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#2
Antonella F Simonetti, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Valentijn A Schweitzer, Diego Viasus, Jordi Carratalà, Douwe F Postma, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of antibiotic treatment effects in non-ICU hospitalised CAP patients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of three prospective cohorts (from the Netherlands and Spain) of CAP adult patients admitted to a non-ICU having received either beta-lactam monotherapy (BL), beta-lactam + macrolide (BLM), or fluoroquinolone-based therapy (FQL) as empiric antibiotic treatment. We evaluated candidate clinical predictors of treatment effects in multiple mixed-effects models by including interactions of the predictors with empiric antibiotic choice and using 30-day mortality, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS) as outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335807/time-dependent-association-of-glucocorticoids-with-adverse-outcome-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-6-year-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Manuela Nickler, Manuel Ottiger, Christian Steuer, Alexander Kutz, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Werner Zimmerli, Robert Thomann, Claus Hoess, Christoph Henzen, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis plays a crucial role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with high cortisol being associated with disease severity and corticosteroid treatment resulting in earlier time to recovery. Our aim in the present study was to compare different glucocorticoid hormones, including cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone, regarding their association with short- and long-term adverse outcomes in a well-defined CAP cohort...
March 24, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314671/a-case-of-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-fistulas-between-multiple-systemic-arteries-and-the-right-pulmonary-artery-in-an-adult-discovered-for-occulted-dyspnoea
#4
Ji-Feng Li, Zhen-Guo Zhai, Tu-Guang Kuang, Min Liu, Zhan-Hong Ma, Yi-Dan Li, Yuan-Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be caused by a fistula between the systemic and pulmonary arteries. Here, we report a case of PH due to multiple fistulas between systemic arteries and the right pulmonary artery where the ventilation/perfusion scan showed no perfusion in the right lung. METHODS: A 32-year-old male patient was hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. After treatment with antibiotics, the pneumonia was alleviated but dyspnoea persisted...
February 22, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303986/assessing-decision-of-inpatient-or-outpatient-care-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-apt-care-study
#5
Saleem Ullah, Javaid Khan, Amanullah Khan, Irfan Hashemy
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of community-acquired pneumonia patients with disagreement between Confusion, Uraemia, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, age > 65 years recommendation and physician's decision to hospitalise or not. METHODS: This cross-sectional nation-wide, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was carried out across 10 cities of Pakistan from December 2011 to May 2012, and recruited consenting adult patients with confirmatory diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia on chest X-ray...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302496/community-acquired-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-adult-patients-a-matched-case-control-study
#6
Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres, Christian Manzardo, Albert Gabarrús, Juan Ambrosioni, Adriana Salazar, Felipe García, Adrián Ceccato, Josep Mensa, Jorge Puig de la Bella Casa, Asunción Moreno, Jose M Miró
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate whether the clinical presentations and outcomes (length-of-stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 30-day mortality) of pneumococcal pneumonia in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients on ART with a CD4+ T cell count >350 cells/mm(3) are comparable to those seen in non-HIV-infected patients, using a case-control design. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (2001-2016)...
March 13, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294379/use-of-oral-antidiabetic-agents-and-risk-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-nested-case-control-study
#7
J Gorricho, J Garjón, A Alonso, M C Celaya, L C Saiz, J Erviti, A López
AIM: To evaluate the association between use of different oral antidiabetic agents (OAD) and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Case-control study nested in a cohort of patients with T2DM and use of OAD between 2002-2013, based in a Spanish general practice research database. Cases were people diagnosed of T2DM, aged >18 years and with a validated diagnosis of CAP between 2002-2013. Ten controls were matched on age, sex and calendar year...
March 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286263/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-correlation-of-clinical-characteristics-with-underlying-cause
#8
Federica De Giacomi, Paul A Decker, Robert Vassallo, Jay H Ryu
BACKGROUND: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon disease, often indistinguishable from acute respiratory distress syndrome or community-acquired pneumonia at initial presentation. AEP can be idiopathic but identifiable causes include medications and inhalational exposures including cigarette smoke. METHODS: Using a computer-assisted search, we retrospectively identified and reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with AEP between January 1, 1998 and June 30, 2016 at our institution...
March 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283771/non-invasive-ventilation-for-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-in-older-patients
#9
Fatma Çiftci, Aydın Çiledağ, Serhat Erol, Akın Kaya
BACKGROUND: This trial was conducted to carry out an age and etiology-based analysis of the clinical efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). METHODS: This single center, prospective, cohort study included patients aged ≥65 years with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiectasis, and kyphoscoliosis, who were treated with NIV for AHRF in the intensive care unit within a 4-year period...
March 10, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276227/-usefulness-of-biomarkers-to-predict-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-infection-in-the-emergency-department
#10
REVIEW
A Julián-Jiménez, F J Candel, J González-Del Castillo
Between all patients attended in the Emergency Department (ED), 14.3% have an infectious disease diagnosis. Blood cultures (BC) are obtained in 14.6% of patients and have a profitability of 20%, whereas 1% are considered as contaminated and 1-3% of positive cultures correspond to discharge patients ("hidden bacteraemia"). The highest number of confirmed bacteraemias comes from the samples of patients with urinary tract infections, followed by community-acquired pneumonia. The suspicion and detection of bacteraemia have an important diagnostic and prognostic significance and could modify some important making-decisions (admission, BC request, administration of appropriate and early antimicrobial, etc)...
March 8, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267637/levofloxacin-versus-azithromycin-for-treating-legionella-pneumonia-a-propensity-score-analysis
#11
Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Irene Sanchez-Rodriguez, Antonella Francesca Simonetti, Joaquín Burgos, Diego Viasus, Maria Teresa Martin, Vicenç Falco, Jordi Carratalà
OBJECTIVES: Concerns have arisen regarding the equivalence of levofloxacin and some macrolides for treating community-acquired legionella pneumonia (LP). We aimed to compare the outcomes of current patients with LP treated with levofloxacin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. METHODS: Observational retrospective multicenter study of consecutive patients with LP requiring hospitalization (2000-2014) conducted in two hospitals. The primary outcome assessed was 30-day mortality...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264613/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-ceftobiprole-for-the-treatment-of-mrsa
#12
Karolyn S Horn, Larry H Danziger, Keith A Rodvold, Robert C Glowacki
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while decreasing in overall incidence, is still a prominent concern world-wide. New agents coming to market in the last 10 years allow practitioners to optimize treatment for MRSA infections. Ceftobiprole is a cephalosporin agent with MRSA activity, currently approved in selected countries for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Areas covered: Relevant literature regarding spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trials will be discussed...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251510/risk-factors-for-drug-resistant-cap-in-immunocompetent-patients
#13
REVIEW
Francisco Arancibia, Mauricio Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase in drug-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important problem all over the world. This article explores the current state of antimicrobial resistance of different bacteria that cause CAP and also assesses risk factors to identify those pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last two decades, it has been documented that there is a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria causing CAP...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251508/enterovirus-d68-associated-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-age-group
#14
REVIEW
Samantha Bosis, Susanna Esposito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. RECENT FINDINGS: EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its first isolation in 1962 in California in four children suffering from CAP and bronchiolitis, EV-D68 has been rarely detected from respiratory specimens. However, recently, EV-D68 infection has raised concerns in the international community because of outbreaks in 2014 in the USA and the increased number of children with EV-D68-associated severe respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, that have been reported in many other countries around the world...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251179/fluorocycline-tp-271-is-potent-against-complicated-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-pathogens
#15
Trudy H Grossman, Corey Fyfe, William O'Brien, Meredith Hackel, Mary Beth Minyard, Ken B Waites, Jacques Dubois, Timothy M Murphy, Andrew M Slee, William J Weiss, Joyce A Sutcliffe
TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238680/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-treated-with-a-three-day-course-of-tebipenem-pivoxil
#16
Hiroshi Sakata, Haruo Kuroki, Kazunobu Ouchi, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 3-day treatment regimen of tebipenem pivoxil for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. Tebipenem pivoxil was administered to 49 patients, and its effectiveness was evaluated in 36 patients 2-4 days after initiation of treatment. Thirty-two patients were cured 7-15 days after initiation of treatment. Body temperature was significantly lower on the day following initial administration (median 38.8 to 37.0 °C, n = 33). Leukocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels were significantly reduced by Day 2-4 of treatment (median 16,100 to 7800 white blood cells/μL, and 5...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237383/the-curious-case-of-a-cardiac-tamponade-in-the-hypertensive-patient-presenting-as-abdominal-fullness
#17
William Li, Rogin Subedi, Bhaskara Madhira
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency consisting of an accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space which is rapidly progressing and fatal. Because cardiac tamponade is ultimately a clinical diagnosis, mindful consideration for atypical presentations is essential for the reduction of mortality in the acute setting. Our patient was a 77year-old female admitted after presenting with general malaise, weakness, somnolence, altered mental status and urinary incontinence found to have CML (chronic myeloid leukemia) on confirmatory bone marrow biopsy after suspicions arose from a leukocytosis of 34,000 cells per mcL with 85% neutrophils and elevated blasts (8%)...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236797/community-acquired-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-critically-ill-patients-systematic-review
#18
Nuria Carballo, Marta De Antonio-Cuscó, Daniel Echeverría-Esnal, Sonia Luque, Esther Salas, Santiago Grau
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) having often been associated with nosocomial pneumonia, the condition of some MRSA CAP patients is severe enough to warrant their being admitted to ICU. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature on antibiotic treatment of MRSA CAP in critically-ill patients...
March 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#19
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224517/-update-guidelines-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-adult-community-acquired-pneumonia-2016-what-is-new
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Ewig, Christian Giesa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
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