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Community Acquired Pneumonia Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802543/outcomes-and-predictors-of-failure-of-non-invasive-ventilation-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department
#1
Amjad Al-Rajhi, Anwar Murad, P Z Li, Jason Shahin
OBJECTIVE: We set out to describe the use and analyze the predictors of non-invasive ventilation failure in patients with community-acquired pneumonia who receive non-invasive ventilation as first line ventilatory therapy in the emergency department. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among consecutive patients with community acquired pneumonia requiring ventilator support presenting to two tertiary care university-affiliated emergency departments...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800526/identification-and-determination-of-related-substances-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-medicinal-product-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detection-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Izabela Karpiuk, Katarzyna Michalska, Katarzyna Bus, Monika Kiljan, Stefan Tyski
Ceftaroline fosamil, the prodrug of ceftaroline, is an advanced-generation cephalosporin antibacterial agent approved for treatment in the European Union in 2012. The drug is dedicated to curing complicated skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia. The developed analytical method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by diode array detector (DAD) set at 243nm was used to identify and determine degradation products of ceftaroline fosamil. The elaborated method demonstrated good selectivity and linearity [r>0...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799307/guiding-principles-for-the-use-of-fluroquinolones-in-out-patient-community-settings-of-india-panel-consensus
#3
Agam Vora, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is looming large especially in context of antibiotic resistance that is confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. A reflection to this trend has been the rising phenomenon of MICs as shown the respiratory pathogens towards conventional antibiotics including macrolides or β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Respiratory fluoroquinolones offer broad yet potent cover of respiratory pathogens leading to their obvious choice for empirical therapy for clinical persisters or high risk cases with prior history of antibiotics not-withstanding the clinical concerns in tropical countries...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797486/diagnosis-and-management-of-coccidioidomycosis
#4
REVIEW
Luke M Gabe, Joshua Malo, Kenneth S Knox
Coccidioidomycosis is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia within its traditional endemic zone in the Southwestern United States and portions of Mexico and Central and South America. Its incidence has increased dramatically within the endemic region; its presence outside of the region, facilitated by a mobile society, is also now substantial. Although only a fraction of the incident disease progresses beyond subclinical illness, this proportion is large in absolute terms and causes substantial disease burden...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792379/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-lytic-antibiotic-therapy-are-we-adding-insult-to-injury-during-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-sepsis
#5
Lauren April Brown, Andrea M Mitchell, Tim J Mitchell
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), otherwise known as 'the pneumococcus', is a fascinating microbe that continues to pose a significant problem to public health. Currently there are no specific National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) or British Thoracic Society (BTS) clinical guidelines referring to the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infection. NICE clinical guidelines suggest the use of lytic β-lactam antibiotic regimens for the management of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis; infections for which S...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781877/serotypes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-italy
#6
Marta Di Pasquale, Stefano Aliberti, Chara Azzari, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Francesco Blasi, Marco Mantero
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remain an important public health problem. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of community-acquired pneumonia that is attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; secondary objectives were the description of community-acquired pneumonia attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae according to socio-demographic and clinical variables, the clinical evolution of community-acquired pneumonia and the description of the serotype distribution of vaccine-preventable disease and antibiotic resistance rate of pneumococcal infections...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777158/pneumonia-with-bacterial-and-viral-coinfection
#7
Kelly Cawcutt, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the epidemiology of pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of coinfection along with the current state of treatment and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: We give particular emphasis to the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral coinfection including specific highlighting on influenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus. Updates on the current state of diagnosis and management are included...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776532/etiology-and-outcome-of-moderate-to-massive-hemoptysis-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-of-north-india
#8
Ashish Bhalla, Ashok Kumar Pannu, Vikas Suri
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology of hemoptysis in patients presenting to emergency department of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. METHOD: Prospectively 110 patients presenting to the emergency department with history of hemoptysis were screened for a period of one and half years. Out of these, 64 patients having true hemoptysis were enrolled in the study. The patients were clinically evaluated with detailed history...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762839/new-treatment-options-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#9
Bela Kocsis, Dora Szabo
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerabation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are among the most frequent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). They represent an increased morbidity and mortality rate in adults. Areas covered: This review describes recent advances regarding solithromycin, zabofloxacin and delafoxacin antibacterial agents that have been recently developed for treatment of CAP and in AECOPD. All of them have been introduced into phase III clinical trials. We will be summarising chemical structures, pharmacokinetics, antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of these agents...
August 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756639/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-2016-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-chinese-thoracic-society-chinese-medical-association
#11
REVIEW
Bin Cao, Yi Huang, Dan-Yang She, Qi-Jian Cheng, Fan Hong, Xin-Lun Tian, Jin-Fu Xu, Jing Zhang, Yu Chen, Ning Shen, Hui Wang, Mei Jiang, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Yi Shi, Bei He, Li-Xian He, You-Ning Liu, Jie-Ming Qu
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults is an infectious disease with high morbidity in China and the rest of the world. With the changing pattern in the etiological profile of CAP and advances in medical techniques in diagnosis and treatment over time, Chinese Thoracic Society of Chinese Medical Association updated its CAP guideline in 2016 to address the standard management of CAP in Chinese adults. Extensive and comprehensive literature search was made to collect the data and evidence for experts to review and evaluate the level of evidence...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756034/efficacy-of-corticosteroid-treatment-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis
#12
Wei-Fang Wu, Qiang Fang, Guo-Jun He
BACKGROUND: The benefits and adverse effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have not been well assessed. The aim of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy in patients with severe CAP. METHODS: The following databases were searched: PubMed, the Cochrane database, Embase, Wanfang, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the WeiPu (VIP) database in Chinese...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751488/guideline-recommendations-and-antimicrobial-resistance-the-need-for-a-change
#13
Christelle Elias, Lorenzo Moja, Dominik Mertz, Mark Loeb, Gilles Forte, Nicola Magrini
OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial resistance has become a global burden for which inappropriate antimicrobial use is an important contributing factor. Any decisions on the selection of antibiotics use should consider their effects on antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which antibiotic prescribing guidelines have considered resistance patterns when making recommendations for five highly prevalent infectious syndromes. DESIGN: We used Medline searches complemented with extensive use of Web engine to identify guidelines on empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infections, acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis and pharyngitis...
July 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738364/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#14
Jordi Almirall, Mateu Serra-Prat, Ignasi Bolíbar, Valentina Balasso
We performed a systematic review of the literature to establish conclusive evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies) the primary outcome of which was to assess risk factors for CAP in both hospitalized and ambulatory adult patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were selected. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale specific for cohort and case-control designs was used for quality assessment. Twenty-nine studies (20 case-control, 8 cohort, and 1 cross-sectional) were selected, with 44...
July 25, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737025/-influence-of-initial-protocolized-treatment-with-steroids-in-length-of-stay-and-costs-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
J Gómez Gómez, J L Gómez Torres, A Hernández Torres, J A García Córdoba, M Canteras Jordana
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of steroid treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), both in length of stay and economical cost of admission at a clinical university hospital. METHODS: Prospective study of admitted patients with the diagnosis of CAP, both in Internal Medicine and Infectious diseases department. The study was conducted from January to march 2015; patients receiving steroids from diagnosis to end of antibiotic treatment were classified as group I; otherwise, they were considered in group II...
July 24, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732822/atypical-coverage-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-after-outpatient-beta-lactam-monotherapy
#16
Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Ewoudt M W van de Garde, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Douwe F Postma, Marc J M Bonten
INTRODUCTION: In adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after >48 h of outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy, coverage of atypical pathogens is recommended based on expert opinion. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of a large study of CAP treatment we included patients who received beta-lactam monotherapy for >48 h before hospitalization. Length of hospital stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, and number of treatment escalations were compared for those that continued beta-lactam monotherapy and those that received atypical coverage at admission...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728317/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-hepatitis-without-lung-involvement
#17
Han Taek Jeong, Jae Young Oh, Jung Eun Song, Byung Seok Kim, Chang Hyeong Lee
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a major cause of community acquired respiratory infections. And it also causes a number of extrapulmonary manifestations including cardiovascular, dermatological, musculoskeletal, and hematological systems. But, acute hepatitis without lung involvement is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of 32-year-old man who presented with fever, chilling, myalgia, and headache. Biochemical analysis showed severely impaired liver function and leukopenia. Laboratory tests and liver biopsy demonstrated a hepatocellular pattern of M...
July 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723778/thoracic-splenosis-mimicking-a-pleuropneumonia-a-case-report
#18
Aurélie Baldolli, Solène Coeuret, Vincent Le Pennec, Denis Agostini, Renaud Verdon
RATIONALE: Splenosis is the development of one or more heterotopic splenic tissue autoimplants following rupture of the spleen and remains mostly asymptomatic. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 50-year old post-traumatic splenectomized man admitted for a left side community acquired pneumonia resistant to antibiotics. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of intrathoracic ectopic spleen was suspected because of the history of spleen trauma with diaphragm rupture and the absence of Howell-Jolly bodies...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711429/-appropriateness-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-hospital-emergency-department
#19
Borja Croche Santander, Elena Campos Alonso, Adela Sánchez Carrión, Laura Marcos Fuentes, Isabel Diaz Flores, Juan Carlos Vargas, Bárbara Fernández Domínguez, Cristóbal Toro Ibañez
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics represent one of the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents in children. It has been estimated that 30-50% of antibiotic prescriptions for this population are inappropriate. In this scenario, analysis of prescription data provides an invaluable source of information as a basis for implementing strategies for improvement in this field. OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in a paediatric population at an emergency department...
July 12, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710027/admission-lactate-predicts-poor-prognosis-independently-of-the-crb-curb-65-scores-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Frederik S Frenzen, Ulrike Kutschan, Nils Meiswinkel, Bernhard Schulte-Hubbert, Santiago Ewig, Martin Kolditz
OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with a high risk of respiratory failure or septic organ dysfunction. Lactate is an established early marker of prognosis and sepsis severity, but few data exist in patients with CAP. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult CAP patients without treatment restrictions or direct ICU admission. Lactate was measured as point of care test within the capillary admission blood gas analysis and its prognostic value was compared to the CRB/CURB-65 criteria by multivariate and ROC curve analysis...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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