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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742869/ultrasound-non-invasive-measurement-of-intracranial-pressure-in-neurointensive-care-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Chiara Robba, Danilo Cardim, Tamara Tajsic, Justine Pietersen, Michael Bulman, Joseph Donnelly, Andrea Lavinio, Arun Gupta, David K Menon, Peter J A Hutchinson, Marek Czosnyka
BACKGROUND: The invasive nature of the current methods for monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has prevented their use in many clinical situations. Several attempts have been made to develop methods to monitor ICP non-invasively. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between ultrasound-based non-invasive ICP (nICP) and invasive ICP measurement in neurocritical care patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a prospective, single-cohort observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary neurocritical care unit...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742817/temporal-profile-of-intracranial-pressure-and-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-and-association-with-fatal-outcome-an-observational-study
#2
Hadie Adams, Joseph Donnelly, Marek Czosnyka, Angelos G Kolias, Adel Helmy, David K Menon, Peter Smielewski, Peter J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Both intracranial pressure (ICP) and the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity represent the dysregulation of pathways directly involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathogenesis and have been used to inform clinical management. However, how these parameters evolve over time following injury and whether this evolution has any prognostic importance have not been studied. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed the temporal profile of ICP and pressure reactivity index (PRx), examined their relation to TBI-specific mortality, and determined if the prognostic relevance of these parameters was affected by their temporal profile using mixed models for repeated measures of ICP and PRx for the first 240 hours from the time of injury...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742798/cerebrovascular-pressure-reactivity-monitoring-using-wavelet-analysis-in-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-a-retrospective-study
#3
Xiuyun Liu, Joseph Donnelly, Marek Czosnyka, Marcel J H Aries, Ken Brady, Danilo Cardim, Chiara Robba, Manuel Cabeleira, Dong-Joo Kim, Christina Haubrich, Peter J Hutchinson, Peter Smielewski
BACKGROUND: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), the ability of cerebral vessels to appropriately react to changes in arterial blood pressure (pressure reactivity) is impaired, leaving patients vulnerable to cerebral hypo- or hyperperfusion. Although, the traditional pressure reactivity index (PRx) has demonstrated that impaired pressure reactivity is associated with poor patient outcome, PRx is sometimes erratic and may not be reliable in various clinical circumstances. Here, we introduce a more robust transform-based wavelet pressure reactivity index (wPRx) and compare its performance with the widely used traditional PRx across 3 areas: its stability and reliability in time, its ability to give an optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) recommendation, and its relationship with patient outcome...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742513/kallistatin-double-edged-role-in-angiogenesis-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#4
Julie Chao, Pengfei Li, Lee Chao
Kallistatin via its two structural elements - an active site and a heparin-binding domain - displays double-edged function in angiogenesis, apoptosis and oxidative stress. First, kallistatin has both anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic effects. Kallistatin treatment attenuates angiogenesis and tumor growth in cancer-bearing mice. Kallistatin via its heparinbinding site inhibits angiogenesis by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- induced growth, migration and adhesion of endothelial cells. Conversely, kallistatin via the active site promotes neovascularization by stimulating VEGF levels in endothelial progenitor cells...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741438/bilateral-arteriovenous-shunts-as-a-method-for-evaluating-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts-in-large-animal-models
#6
Chin Siang Ong, Takuma Fukunishi, Rui Han Liu, Kevin Nelson, Huaitao Zhang, Elizabeth Wieczorek, McKenna Palmieri, Yukie Ueyama, Erin Ferris, Gail E Geist, Bradley L Youngblood, Jed Johnson, Narutoshi Hibino
There remains a need for large animal models to evaluate tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) under arterial pressure to provide preclinical data for future potential human clinical trials. We present a comprehensive method for the interrogation of TEVGs, using an ovine bilateral arteriovenous shunt implantation model. Our results demonstrate that this method can be performed safely without complications, specifically acute heart failure, steal syndrome, and hypoxic brain injury and is a viable experimental paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739552/an-assessment-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-non-diabetic-obese-children-and-adolescents
#7
Bediz Özen, Hakan Öztürk, Gönül Çatlı, Bumin Dündar
OBJECTIVE: Obesity affects almost all systems in the body and can also cause injury to the retinal nerve fibers due to a chronic inflammatory processAim: To determine changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in non-diabetic children and adolescents using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate the relation between this change and metabolic risk factors and pubertal stage. METHODS: Thirty eight obese and 40 healthy children and adolescents aged 10-18 years were included...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739379/ultrasound-induced-bubble-clusters-in-tissue-mimicking-agar%C3%A2-phantoms
#8
Pooya Movahed, Wayne Kreider, Adam D Maxwell, Barbrina Dunmire, Jonathan B Freund
Therapeutic ultrasound can drive bubble activity that damages soft tissues. To study the potential mechanisms of such injury, transparent agar tissue-mimicking phantoms were subjected to multiple pressure wave bursts of the kind being considered specifically for burst wave lithotripsy. A high-speed camera recorded bubble activity during each pulse. Various agar concentrations were used to alter the phantom's mechanical properties, especially its stiffness, which was varied by a factor of 3.5. However, the maximum observed bubble radius was insensitive to stiffness...
July 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738936/favorable-outcomes-in-blunt-chest-injury-with-noninvasive-bi-level-positive-airway-pressure-ventilation
#9
Pascal Udekwu, Sahill Patel, Meagan Farrell, Rhonda Vincent
Recent clinical research in patients with blunt chest injury has focused on the benefits of surgical fixation of rib fractures. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been demonstrated to prevent the need for intubation and ventilation in posttraumatic respiratory failure. The preemptive use of NIV in patients with rib fractures has not been extensively studied. Our study evaluated the outcomes of patients with ≥3 rib fractures and hospitalized for ≥ 4 days. Seventy-one patients treated with NIV were compared with 270 patients without NIV...
July 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738420/variation-in-the-three-dimensional-histomorphometry-of-the-normal-human-optic-nerve-head-with-age-and-race-lamina-cribrosa-and-peripapillary-scleral-thickness-and-position
#10
Christopher A Girkin, Massimo A Fazio, Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Claude F Burgoyne, Brandon Smith, Lan Wang, J Crawford Downs
Purpose: This study quantified the thickness and depth of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and peripapillary scleral thickness in high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent reconstructions of the optic nerve head (ONH) in eyes from donors of African (AD) and European descent (ED). Methods: A total of 64 eyes (45 ED, 19 AD) from 51 normal donors were obtained within 6 hours of death and fixed at 10 mm Hg of pressure. The optic nerve head was trephined from the globe and digitally reconstructed at 1...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737594/identifying-risk-for-acute-kidney-injury-in-infants-and-children-following-cardiac-arrest
#11
Tara M Neumayr, Jeff Gill, Julie C Fitzgerald, Avihu Z Gazit, Jose A Pineda, Robert A Berg, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler, Allan Doctor
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to identify risk factors for acute kidney injury in children surviving cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a public access dataset. SETTING: Fifteen children's hospitals associated with the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. PATIENTS: Two hundred ninety-six subjects between 1 day and 18 years old who experienced in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between July 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737081/hypotension-of-%C3%A2-110-mmhg-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-south-african-patients-after-trauma
#12
D L Clarke, P Brysiewicz, B Sartorius, J L Bruce, G L Laing
INTRODUCTION: This study used data from a prospectively maintained trauma database to assess the level of systolic blood pressure at which mortality rates for trauma begin to increase and to compare systolic blood pressure with base deficit as a predictor of outcome. METHODOLOGY: The Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service maintains a prospective digital trauma registry. All trauma patients admitted to the service for the period January 2012-January 2015 were included...
March 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736791/control-of-standing-balance-at-leaning-postures-with-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Musa L Audu, Brooke M Odle, Ronald J Triolo
This study systematically explored the potential of applying feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for stabilizing various erect and leaning standing postures after spinal cord injury (SCI). Perturbations ranging from 2 to 6% body weight were applied to two subjects with motor complete thoracic level SCI who were proficient at standing with implanted multichannel neural stimulators to activate the ankle, knee, hip and trunk muscles. The subjects stood with four different postures: erect, forward, forward-right and forward-left...
July 24, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736528/linking-ventilator-injury-induced-leak-across-the-blood-gas-barrier-to-derangements-in-murine-lung-function
#14
Bradford J Smith, Elizabeth Bartolak-Suki, Bela Suki, Gregory S Roy, Katharine L Hamlington, Chantel M Charlebois, Jason H T Bates
Mechanical ventilation is vital to the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, but it frequently leads to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in the development of VILI is an essential prerequisite for improving lung-protective ventilation strategies. The goal of this study was to relate the amount and nature of material accumulated in the airspaces to biomarkers of injury and the derecruitment behavior of the lung in VILI. Forty-nine BALB/c mice were mechanically ventilated with combinations of tidal volume and end-expiratory pressures to produce varying degrees of overdistension and atelectasis while lung function was periodically assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736080/the-effect-of-ankle-foot-orthosis-alignment-on-walking-in-individuals-treated-for-traumatic-lower-extremity-injuries
#15
Starr E Brown, Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Jason M Wilken
Limb salvage surgeries are performed to treat a variety of lower limb pathologies and traumatic injuries. Individuals who have undergone limb salvage surgeries may require an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) to compensate for limb impairments and restore walking ability. Understanding the effects of AFO design parameters on gait biomechanics is important to refine AFO prescription criteria. In this study sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data, muscle activity and alignment preference were examined as individuals treated for traumatic lower extremity injuries (N=12) walked over level ground with Plantarflexed (PF), Neutral, and Dorsiflexed (DF) aligned AFOs...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736046/the-optical-imaging-of-tarantula-hair-corneal-injury-one-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Yuedong Hu, Yuanyuan Xu
INTRODUCTION: Tarantulas belonging to the Theraphosidae family are more and more popular as family pets. Ocular injuries caused by tarantulas are reported in several articles. We hereby report the first known case of ocular injury caused by a tarantula in China. CASE: A 22-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with one-week history of red and irritated left eye after she grabbed her molting Chilean Rose Tarantula. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 on both eyes...
July 20, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736024/effects-of-sildenafil-and-tadalafil-on-edema-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-an-experimental-model-of-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
J R Guerra-Mora, E Perales-Caldera, D Aguilar-León, C Nava-Sanchez, A Díaz-Cruz, N E Díaz-Martínez, P Santillán-Doherty, G Torres-Villalobos, C C Bravo-Reyna
BACKGROUND: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is characterized by formation of reactive oxygen species and cellular swelling leading to pulmonary edema and primary graft dysfunction. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors could ameliorate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury by interfering in many molecular pathways. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the effects of sildenafil and tadalafil on edema and reactive oxygen species formation in an ex vivo nonhuman animal model of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734719/coronoid-reconstruction-using-osteochondral-grafts-a-biomechanical-study
#18
Enrico Bellato, Youngbok Kim, James S Fitzsimmons, Lawrence J Berglund, Alexander W Hooke, Daniel R Bachman, Shawn W O'Driscoll
HYPOTHESIS: The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that coronoid deficiency in the setting of posteromedial rotatory instability (PMRI) must be reconstructed to restore articular contact pressures to normal and to compare 3 different osteochondral grafts for this purpose. METHODS: After creation of a anteromedial fracture, six cadaveric elbows were tested under gravity varus stress using a custom-made machine designed to simulate muscle loads and to passively flex the elbow...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734670/population-health-and-regional-variations-of-disease-burden-in-japan-1990-2015-a-systematic-subnational-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#19
Shuhei Nomura, Haruka Sakamoto, Scott Glenn, Yusuke Tsugawa, Sarah K Abe, Md M Rahman, Jonathan C Brown, Satoshi Ezoe, Christina Fitzmaurice, Tsuyoshi Inokuchi, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Yosuke Kita, Naoki Kondo, Stephen S Lim, Satoshi Maruyama, Hiroaki Miyata, Meghan D Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi, Tomoko Onoda, Erika Ota, Yuji Otake, Gregory A Roth, Eiko Saito, Takahiro Tabuchi, Yohsuke Takasaki, Tadayuki Tanimura, Manami Uechi, Theo Vos, Haidong Wang, Manami Inoue, Christopher J L Murray, Kenji Shibuya
BACKGROUND: Japan has entered the era of super-ageing and advanced health transition, which is increasingly putting pressure on the sustainability of its health system. The level and pace of this health transition might vary across regions within Japan and concern is growing about increasing regional variations in disease burden. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive, comparable framework. We used data from GBD 2015 with the aim to quantify the burden of disease and injuries, and to attribute risk factors in Japan at a subnational, prefecture-level...
July 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733922/effect-of-collagen-fibre-orientation-on-intervertebral-disc-torsion-mechanics
#20
Bo Yang, Grace D O'Connell
The intervertebral disc is a complex fibro-cartilaginous material, consisting of a pressurized nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, which has an angle-ply structure. Disc injury and degeneration are noted by significant changes in tissue structure and function, which significantly alters stress distribution and disc joint stiffness. Differences in fibre orientation are thought to contribute to changes in disc torsion mechanics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibre orientation on internal disc mechanics under compression combined with axial rotation...
July 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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