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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774952/plant-roots-redesign-the-rhizosphere-to-alter-the-three-dimensional-physical-architecture-and-water-dynamics
#1
Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771923/invasion-complexity-at-large-spatial-scales-is-an-emergent-property-of-interactions-among-landscape-characteristics-and-invader-traits
#2
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Adam S Davis, Nicholas R Jordan, James D Forester
Invasion potential should be part of the evaluation of candidate species for any species introduction. However, estimating invasion risks remains a challenging problem, particularly in complex landscapes. Certain plant traits are generally considered to increase invasive potential and there is an understanding that landscapes influence invasions dynamics, but little research has been done to explore how those drivers of invasions interact. We evaluate the relative roles of, and potential interactions between, plant invasiveness traits and landscape characteristics on invasions with a case study using a model parameterized for the potentially invasive biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758911/a-hybrid-land-water-environment-model-for-identification-of-ecological-effect-and-risk-under-uncertain-meteorological-precipitation-in-an-agroforestry-ecosystem
#3
Xueting Zeng, Tienan Li, Cong Chen, Zhenjiang Si, Guohe Huang, Ping Guo, Xiaowen Zhuang
In this study, a hybrid land-water-environment (LWE) model is developed for identifying ecological effect and risk under uncertain precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem. A simulation-based fuzzy-stochastic programming with risk analysis (SFSR) method is used into LWE model to reflect the meteorological impacts; meanwhile, it also can quantify artificial fuzziness (e.g., risk attitude of policymaker) and natural vagueness (e.g., ecological function) in decision-making. The developed LWE model with SFSR method is applied to a practical agroforestry ecosystem in China...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758909/water-resources-conservation-and-nitrogen-pollution-reduction-under-global-food-trade-and-agricultural-intensification
#4
Wenfeng Liu, Hong Yang, Yu Liu, Matti Kummu, Arjen Y Hoekstra, Junguo Liu, Rainer Schulin
Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We simulated baseline conditions for the year 2000 and explored the impacts of an agricultural intensification scenario, in which low-input countries increase N and irrigation inputs to a greater extent than high-input countries...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751421/impacts-of-climate-change-on-tn-load-and-its-control-in-a-river-basin-with-complex-pollution-sources
#5
Xiaoying Yang, Rachel Warren, Yi He, Jinyin Ye, Qiaoling Li, Guoqing Wang
It is increasingly recognized that climate change could affect the quality of water through complex natural and anthropogenic mechanisms. Previous studies on climate change and water quality have mostly focused on assessing its impact on pollutant loads from agricultural runoff. A sub-daily SWAT model was developed to simulate the discharge, transport, and transformation of nitrogen from all known anthropogenic sources including industries, municipal sewage treatment plants, concentrated and scattered feedlot operations, rural households, and crop production in the Upper Huai River Basin...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740702/evaluation-of-different-gridded-rainfall-datasets-for-rainfed-wheat-yield-prediction-in-an-arid-environment
#6
A Lashkari, N Salehnia, S Asadi, P Paymard, H Zare, M Bannayan
The accuracy of daily output of satellite and reanalysis data is quite crucial for crop yield prediction. This study has evaluated the performance of APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation), PERSIANN (Rainfall Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks), TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), and AgMERRA (The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) precipitation products to apply as input data for CSM-CERES-Wheat crop growth simulation model to predict rainfed wheat yield...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734643/effect-of-vegetative-filter-strip-pesticide-residue-degradation-assumptions-for-environmental-exposure-assessments
#7
Rafael Muñoz-Carpena, Garey A Fox, Amy Ritter, Oscar Perez-Ovilla, Ismael Rodea-Palomares
Understanding and simulating the fate and transport of pesticides from a field to adjacent receiving water bodies is critical for estimating long-term environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) in regulatory higher-tier environmental exposure assessments (EEA). The potential of field mitigation practices like vegetative filter strips (VFS) to reduce pesticide pollution is receiving increasing attention. Previous research has proposed a modeling framework that links the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US-EPA) PRZM/EXAMS higher-tier EEA with a process-based VFS model (VFSMOD)...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734596/untangling-the-effects-of-shallow-groundwater-and-deficit-irrigation-on-irrigation-water-productivity-in-arid-region-new-conceptual-model
#8
Jingyuan Xue, Zailin Huo, Fengxin Wang, Shaozhong Kang, Guanhua Huang
Water scarcity and salt stress are two main limitations for agricultural production. Groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg ) with upward salt movement plays an important role in crop water use and water productivity in arid regions, and it can compensate the impact of deficit irrigation on crop production. Thus, comprehensive impacts of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on crop water use results in an improvement of irrigation water productivity (IWP). However, it is difficult to quantify the effects of groundwater and deficit irrigation on IWP...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728626/simulation-of-crop-growth-time-to-maturity-and-yield-by-an-improved-sigmoidal-model
#9
Jun-He Liu, Yan Yan, Abid Ali, Ming-Fu Yu, Qi-Jie Xu, Pei-Jian Shi, Lei Chen
Models that accurately estimate maximum crop biomass to obtain a reliable forecast of yield are useful in crop improvement programs and aiding establishment of government policies, including those addressing issues of food security. Here, we present a new sigmoidal growth model (NSG) and compare its performance with the beta sigmoidal growth model (BSG) for capturing the growth trajectories of eight crop species. Results indicated that both the NSG and the BSG fitted all the growth datasets well (R2  > 0...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726243/-influences-of-municipal-sludge-applied-in-slope-vegetation-restoration-on-surface-water-environment
#10
Chen Guang Zhen, Ping Sheng Leng, Li Juan Liu, De Quan Dou, Zeng Hui Hu
The application of municipal sludge in ecological restoration has a good prospect for avoiding the food chain of grain crops, but its influences on surface water environmental are unclear. The municipal sludge and construction waste were mixed with 1:1 (V/V) as growth media, which were covered over simulation coal gangue slopes. Eight native woody species were sowed in the mixed media. The plant growth and coverage, as well as conductivity, pH, the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) of surface and underground runoff of the slopes in the growing season were investigated...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726241/-simulation-for-balanced-effect-of-soil-and-water-resources-on-cultivated-land-in-naoli-river-basin-northeast-china-under-the-rcps-climate-scene
#11
Hao Zhou, Guo Ping Lei, Xue Xin Yang, Yu Hui Zhao, Ji Xin Zhang
Under the scenarios of climate change, balancing the land and water resources is one of the key problems needed to be solved in land development. To reveal the water dynamics of the cultivated land in Naoli River Basin, we simulated the future scenarios by using the future land use simulation model based on Landsat Satellite images, the DEM data and the meteorological data. Results showed that the growth rate of cultivated land gradually decreased. It showed different changing characteristics in different time periods, which led to different balancing effect between land and water resources...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725160/describing-the-physiological-responses-of-different-rice-genotypes-to-salt-stress-using-sigmoid-and-piecewise-linear-functions
#12
Ando M Radanielson, Olivyn Angeles, Tao Li, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Donald S Gaydon
Rice is the staple food for almost half of the world population. In South and South East Asia, about 40% of rice production is from deltaic regions that are vulnerable to salt stress. A quantitative approach was developed for characterizing genotypic variability in biomass production, leaf transpiration rate and leaf net photosynthesis responses to salinity during the vegetative stage, with the aim of developing efficient screening protocols to accelerate breeding varieties adapted to salt-affected areas. Three varieties were evaluated in pots under greenhouse conditions and in the field, with average soil salinity ranging from 2 to 12 dS m-1 ...
May 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720992/tools-for-genetic-studies-in-experimental-populations-of-polyploids
#13
REVIEW
Peter M Bourke, Roeland E Voorrips, Richard G F Visser, Chris Maliepaard
Polyploid organisms carry more than two copies of each chromosome, a condition rarely tolerated in animals but which occurs relatively frequently in the plant kingdom. One of the principal challenges faced by polyploid organisms is to evolve stable meiotic mechanisms to faithfully transmit genetic information to the next generation upon which the study of inheritance is based. In this review we look at the tools available to the research community to better understand polyploid inheritance, many of which have only recently been developed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720682/meteorological-controls-on-local-and-regional-volcanic-ash-dispersal
#14
Alexandros P Poulidis, Jeremy C Phillips, Ian A Renfrew, Jenni Barclay, Andrew Hogg, Susanna F Jenkins, Richard Robertson, David M Pyle
Volcanic ash has the capacity to impact human health, livestock, crops and infrastructure, including international air traffic. For recent major eruptions, information on the volcanic ash plume has been combined with relatively coarse-resolution meteorological model output to provide simulations of regional ash dispersal, with reasonable success on the scale of hundreds of kilometres. However, to predict and mitigate these impacts locally, significant improvements in modelling capability are required. Here, we present results from a dynamic meteorological-ash-dispersion model configured with sufficient resolution to represent local topographic and convectively-forced flows...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720454/data-driven-dynamical-model-indicates-that-the-heat-shock-response-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-is-tailored-to-handle-natural-temperature-variation
#15
Stefano Magni, Antonella Succurro, Alexander Skupin, Oliver Ebenhöh
Global warming exposes plants to severe heat stress, with consequent crop yield reduction. Organisms exposed to high temperature stresses typically protect themselves with a heat shock response (HSR), where accumulation of unfolded proteins initiates the synthesis of heat shock proteins through the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. While the molecular mechanisms are qualitatively well characterized, our quantitative understanding of the underlying dynamics is still very limited. Here, we study the dynamics of HSR in the photosynthetic model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a data-driven mathematical model of HSR...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712823/comparative-terrestrial-feed-and-land-use-of-an-aquaculture-dominant-world
#16
Halley E Froehlich, Claire A Runge, Rebecca R Gentry, Steven D Gaines, Benjamin S Halpern
Reducing food production pressures on the environment while feeding an ever-growing human population is one of the grand challenges facing humanity. The magnitude of environmental impacts from food production, largely around land use, has motivated evaluation of the environmental and health benefits of shifting diets, typically away from meat toward other sources, including seafood. However, total global catch of wild seafood has remained relatively unchanged for the last two decades, suggesting increased demand for seafood will mostly have to rely on aquaculture (i...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710672/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-of-greywater-on-site-reuse
#17
Kuang-Wei Shi, Cheng-Wen Wang, Sunny C Jiang
Recycle domestic greywater for on-site non-potable uses can lessen the demand on potable water and the burden on wastewater treatment plants. However, lack of studies to assess health risk associated with such practices has hindered their popularity. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was conducted to estimate the public health risks for two greywater reuse scenarios: toilet flushing and food-crop irrigation. Household greywater quality from three sources (bathroom, laundry and kitchen) was analyzed. Mathematical exposure rates of different scenarios were established based on human behavior using Monte-Carlo simulation...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710647/impact-of-two-centuries-of-intensive-agriculture-on-soil-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-cycling-in-the-uk
#18
Shibu E Muhammed, Kevin Coleman, Lianhai Wu, Victoria A Bell, Jessica A C Davies, John N Quinton, Edward J Carnell, Samuel J Tomlinson, Anthony J Dore, Ulrike Dragosits, Pamela S Naden, Margaret J Glendining, Edward Tipping, Andrew P Whitmore
This paper describes an agricultural model (Roth-CNP) that estimates carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools, pool changes, their balance and the nutrient fluxes exported from arable and grassland systems in the UK during 1800-2010. The Roth-CNP model was developed as part of an Integrated Model (IM) to simulate C, N and P cycling for the whole of UK, by loosely coupling terrestrial, hydrological and hydro-chemical models. The model was calibrated and tested using long term experiment (LTE) data from Broadbalk (1843) and Park Grass (1856) at Rothamsted...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709836/current-and-future-hot-spots-and-hot-moments-of-nitrous-oxide-emission-in-a-cold-climate-river-basin
#19
Narayan Kumar Shrestha, Junye Wang
An ecosystem in a cold climate river basin is vulnerable to the effects of climate change affecting permafrost thaw and glacier retreat. We currently lack sufficient data and information if and how hydrological processes such as glacier retreat, snowmelt and freezing-thawing affect sediment and nutrient runoff and transport, as well as N2 O emissions in cold climate river basins. As such, we have implemented well-established, semi-empirical equations of nitrification and denitrification within the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which correlate the emissions with water, sediment and nutrients...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708627/effect-of-humic-acids-on-intestinal-viscosity-leaky-gut-and-ammonia-excretion-in-a-24-hr-feed-restriction-model-to-induce-intestinal-permeability-in-broiler-chickens
#20
Jesús A Maguey-Gonzalez, Matias A Michel, Mikayla F A Baxter, Guillermo Tellez, Philip A Moore, Bruno Solis-Cruz, Daniel Hernández-Patlan, Rubén Merino-Guzman, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Juan D Latorre, Billy M Hargis, Sergio Gomez-Rosales, Guillermo Tellez-Isaias
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of humic acids (HA) on intestinal viscosity, leaky gut and ammonia excretion in a 24 hr feed restriction (FR) model to induce intestinal permeability in chickens. One-day-old male Cobb-Vantress broilers were randomly allocated to one of two groups (n = 25 chickens), with or without 0.2% of isolated HA from worm-compost, and placed in brooder batteries. Chicks had ad libitum access to water and feed for 14 days. Intestinal permeability was induced by 24 hr FR starting at 14 days...
April 30, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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