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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517959/pomics-a-simulation-disease-model-for-timing-fungicide-applications-in-management-of-powdery-mildew-of-cucurbits
#1
Zaiton Sapak, Moin U Salam, Elizabeth J Minchinton, Garry P V MacManus, Daryl Joyce, Victor Joseph Galea
A weather-based simulation model, called POMICS, was constructed to predict fungicide application scheduling to manage powdery mildew of cucurbits. The model was developed on the principle that conditions favorable for Podosphaera xanthii, a causal pathogen of this crop disease, generate a number of infection cycles in a single growing season. The model consists of two components that: (i) simulate the disease progression of P. xanthii in secondary infection cycles under natural conditions and (ii) predict the disease severity with application of fungicides at any recurrent disease cycles...
May 18, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513920/moisture-induced-greening-of-the-south-asia-over-the-past-three-decades
#2
Xiaoyi Wang, Tao Wang, Dan Liu, Hui Guo, Huabing Huang, Yutong Zhao
South Asia experienced a weakening of summer monsoon circulation in the past several decades, resulting in rainfall decline in wet regions. In comparison to other tropical ecosystems, quantitative assessments of the extent and triggers of vegetation change are lacking in assessing climate-change impacts over South Asia dominated by crops. Here we use satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify spatial-temporal changes in vegetation greenness, and find a widespread annual greening trend that stands in contrast to the weakening of summer monsoon circulation particularly over the last decade...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500402/identification-and-characterization-of-a-grain-micronutrient-related-osfro2-rice-gene-ortholog-from-micronutrient-rich-little-millet-panicum-sumatrense
#3
Girish Chandel, Mahima Dubey, Saurabh Gupta, Arun H Patil, A R Rao
Minor millets are considered as nutrient-rich cereals having significant effect in improving human health. In this study, a rice ortholog of Ferric Chelate Reductase (FRO2) gene involved in plant metal uptake has been identified in iron-rich Little millet (LM) using PCR and next generation sequencing-based strategy. FRO2 gene-specific primers designed from rice genome amplified 2.7 Kb fragment in LM genotype RLM-37. Computational genomics analyses of the sequenced amplicon showed high level sequence similarity with rice OsFRO2 gene...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499040/evolving-gene-banks-improving-diverse-populations-of-crop-and-exotic-germplasm-with-optimal-contribution-selection
#4
W A Cowling, L Li, K H M Siddique, M Henryon, P Berg, R G Banks, B P Kinghorn
We simulated pre-breeding in evolving gene banks - populations of exotic and crop types undergoing optimal contribution selection for long-term genetic gain and management of population genetic diversity. The founder population was based on crosses between elite crop varieties and exotic lines of field pea (Pisum sativum) from the primary genepool, and was subjected to 30 cycles of recurrent selection for an economic index composed of four traits with low heritability: black spot resistance, flowering time and stem strength (measured on single plants), and grain yield (measured on whole plots)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494294/quantifying-the-impact-of-climate-change-on-crop-yield-and-water-footprint-of-rice-in-the-nam-oon-irrigation-project-thailand
#5
Sangam Shrestha, Ranju Chapagain, Mukand S Babel
Northeast Thailand makes a significant contribution to fragrant and high-quality rice consumed within Thailand and exported to other countries. The majority of rice is produced in rainfed conditions while irrigation water is supplied to rice growers in the dry season. This paper quantifies the potential impact of climate change on the water footprint of rice production using the DSSAT (CERES-Rice) crop growth model for the Nam Oon Irrigation Project located in Northeast Thailand. Crop phenology data was obtained from field experiments and used to set up and validate the CERES-Rice model...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487711/in-silico-identification-of-mimicking-molecules-as-defense-inducers-triggering-jasmonic-acid-mediated-immunity-against-alternaria-blight-disease-in-brassica-species
#6
Rajesh K Pathak, Mamta Baunthiyal, Rohit Shukla, Dinesh Pandey, Gohar Taj, Anil Kumar
Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola are two major phytopathogenic fungi which cause Alternaria blight, a recalcitrant disease on Brassica crops throughout the world, which is highly destructive and responsible for significant yield losses. Since no resistant source is available against Alternaria blight, therefore, efforts have been made in the present study to identify defense inducer molecules which can induce jasmonic acid (JA) mediated defense against the disease. It is believed that JA triggered defense response will prevent necrotrophic mode of colonization of Alternaria brassicae fungus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486501/characterizing-nutrient-uptake-kinetics-for-efficient-crop-production-during-solanum-lycopersicum-var-cerasiforme-alef-growth-in-a-closed-indoor-hydroponic-system
#7
Ju Yeon Lee, Arifur Rahman, Hossain Azam, Hyung Seok Kim, Man Jae Kwon
A balanced nutrient supply is essential for the healthy growth of plants in hydroponic systems. However, the commonly used electrical conductivity (EC)-based nutrient control for plant cultivation can provide amounts of nutrients that are excessive or inadequate for proper plant growth. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of major and minor nutrient uptake in a nutrient solution during the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef.) in a closed hydroponic system. The concentrations of major and minor ions in the nutrient solution were determined by various analytical methods including inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), ion specific electrodes, and/or colorimetric methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485118/relationship-between-weed-dormancy-and-herbicide-rotations-implications-in-resistance-evolution
#8
REVIEW
Henri Darmency, Nathalie Colbach, Valérie Le Corre
It was suggested that selection for late germinating seed cohorts is significantly associated to herbicide-resistance in some cropping systems. In turn, it is conceivable that rotating herbicide modes of action selects for populations with mutations for increased secondary dormancy, thus partially overcoming the delaying effect of rotation on resistance evolution. Modified seed dormancy could affect management strategies-like herbicide rotation-that are used to prevent or control herbicide-resistance. Here, we review literature for data on seed dormancy and germination dynamics of herbicide-resistant versus susceptible plants...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482309/why-does-carbon-increase-in-highly-weathered-soil-under-no-till-upon-lime-and-gypsum-use
#9
Thiago Massao Inagaki, João Carlos de Moraes Sá, Eduardo Fávero Caires, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves
Field experiments have been used to explain how soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics is affected by lime and gypsum applications, however, how SOC storage occurs is still debatable. We hypothesized that although many studies conclude that Ca-based soil amendments such as lime and gypsum may lead to SOC depletion due to the enhancement of microbial activity, the same does not occur under conservation agriculture conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on soil microbial activity and SOC stocks in a no-till field and in a laboratory incubation study simulating no-till conditions...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480508/cultivation-of-solanum-tuberosum-in-a-former-mining-district-for-a-safe-human-consumption-integrating-simulated-digestion
#10
M J Sierra, R López-Nicolás, C A González-Bermúdez, C Frontela-Saseta, R Millán
BACKGROUND: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a global crop and by far the most important non-cereal crop in the world. Therefore, it is necessary to assure its safe consumption. This is especially relevant in the case of its cultivation in abandoned mining areas, where the population tends to return to agriculture. In the present work, the objective is to evaluate the contribution to the diet of nutrients and contaminants of potato grown in soils from the Almadén area (mining district) by studying the intestinal absorption (in vitro) of the tuber taking into account the preparation methods for its consumption...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469287/using-simulation-models-to-investigate-the-cumulative-effects-of-sowing-rate-sowing-date-and-cultivar-choice-on-weed-competition
#11
Izzadora K S Andrew, Jonathan Storkey
With the increasing pressure on crop production from the evolution of herbicide resistance, farmers are increasingly adopting Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies to augment their weed control. These include measures to increase the competitiveness of the crop canopy such as increased sowing rate and the use of more competitive cultivars. While there are data on the relative impact of these non-chemical weed control methods assessed in isolation, there is uncertainty about their combined contribution, which may be hindering their adoption...
May 2017: Crop Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469286/from-oryza2000-to-oryza-v3-an-improved-simulation-model-for-rice-in-drought-and-nitrogen-deficient-environments
#12
Tao Li, Olivyn Angeles, Manuel Marcaida, Emmali Manalo, Mervin Pogs Manalili, Ando Radanielson, Samarendu Mohanty
The worldwide usage of and increasing citations for ORYZA2000 has established it as a robust and reliable ecophysiological model for predicting the growth and yield of rice in an irrigated lowland ecosystem. Because of its focus on irrigated lowlands, its computation ability is limited to the representation of the effects of the highly dynamic environments of upland, rainfed, and aerobic ecosystems on rice growth and yield. Additional modules and routines to quantify daily variations in soil temperature, carbon, nitrogen, and environmental stresses were then developed and integrated into ORYZA2000 to capture their effects on primary production, assimilate allocation, root growth, and water and nitrogen uptake...
May 1, 2017: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464416/trade-offs-for-food-production-nature-conservation-and-climate-limit-the-terrestrial-carbon-dioxide-removal-potential
#13
Lena R Boysen, Wolfgang Lucht, Dieter Gerten
Large-scale biomass plantations (BPs) are a common factor in climate mitigation scenarios as they promise double benefits: extracting carbon from the atmosphere and providing a renewable energy source. However, their terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) potentials depend on important factors such as land availability, efficiency of capturing biomass-derived carbon and the timing of operation. Land availability is restricted by the demands of future food production depending on yield increases and population growth, by requirements for nature conservation and, with respect to climate mitigation, avoiding unfavourable albedo changes...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461269/machine-learning-techniques-for-predicting-crop-photosynthetic-capacity-from-leaf-reflectance-spectra
#14
David Heckmann, Urte Schlüter, Andreas P M Weber
Harnessing natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a promising route towards yield increases, but physiological phenotyping is still too laborious for large scale genetic screens. Here, we evaluate the potential of leaf reflectance spectroscopy to predict parameters of photosynthetic capacity in Brassica oleracea and Zea mays, a C3 and a C4 crop, respectively. To this end we systematically evaluate properties of reflectance spectra and find that they are surprisingly similar over a wide range of species...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459880/ensemble-yield-simulations-using-heat-tolerant-and-later-maturing-varieties-to-adapt-to-climate-warming
#15
Yi Zhang, Yanxia Zhao
The use of modern crop varieties is a dominant method of obtaining high yields in crop production. Efforts to identify suitable varieties, with characteristics that would increase crop yield under future climate conditions, remain essential to developing sustainable agriculture and food security. This work aims to evaluate potential genotypic adaptations (i.e., using varieties with increased ability to produce desirable grain numbers under high temperatures and with enhanced thermal time requirements during the grain-filling period) to cope with the negative impacts of climate change on maize yield...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454067/assessment-of-the-swat-model-to-simulate-a-watershed-with-limited-available-data-in-the-pampas-region-argentina
#16
Martín Romagnoli, Margarita Portapila, Alfredo Rigalli, Gisela Maydana, Martín Burgués, Carlos M García
Argentina has been among the world leaders in the production and export of agricultural products since the 1990s. The Carcarañá River Lower Basin (CRLB), a cropland of the Pampas region supplied by extensive rainfall, is located in an area with few streamgauging and other hydrologic/water-quality stations. Therefore, limited hydrologic data are available resulting in limited water-resources assessment. This work explores the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to the CRLB in the Santa Fe province of the Pampas region...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454025/review-and-analysis-of-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-agro-ecosystem-models-for-simulating-c-and-n-fluxes
#17
REVIEW
Lorenzo Brilli, Luca Bechini, Marco Bindi, Marco Carozzi, Daniele Cavalli, Richard Conant, Cristopher D Dorich, Luca Doro, Fiona Ehrhardt, Roberta Farina, Roberto Ferrise, Nuala Fitton, Rosa Francaviglia, Peter Grace, Ileana Iocola, Katja Klumpp, Joël Léonard, Raphaël Martin, Raia Silvia Massad, Sylvie Recous, Giovanna Seddaiu, Joanna Sharp, Pete Smith, Ward N Smith, Jean-Francois Soussana, Gianni Bellocchi
Biogeochemical simulation models are important tools for describing and quantifying the contribution of agricultural systems to C sequestration and GHG source/sink status. The abundance of simulation tools developed over recent decades, however, creates a difficulty because predictions from different models show large variability. Discrepancies between the conclusions of different modelling studies are often ascribed to differences in the physical and biogeochemical processes incorporated in equations of C and N cycles and their interactions...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453685/phenocurve-capturing-dynamic-phenotype-environment-relationships-using-phenomics-data
#18
Yifan Yang, Lei Xu, Zheyun Feng, Jeffrey A Cruz, Linda J Savage, David M Kramer, Jin Chen
Motivation: Phenomics is essential for understanding the mechanisms that regulate or influence growth, fitness, and development. Techniques have been developed to conduct high-throughput large-scale phenotyping on animals, plants and humans, aiming to bridge the gap between genomics, gene functions and traits. Although new developments in phenotyping techniques are exciting, we are limited by the tools to analyze fully the massive phenotype data, especially the dynamic relationships between phenotypes and environments...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449949/energetic-and-environmental-assessment-of-thermochemical-and-biochemical-ways-for-producing-energy-from-agricultural-solid-residues-coffee-cut-stems-case
#19
Carlos A García, Álvaro Peña, Ramiro Betancourt, Carlos A Cardona
Forest residues are an important source of biomass. Among these, Coffee Cut-Stems (CCS) are an abundant wood waste in Colombia obtained from coffee crops renovation. However, only low quantities of these residues are used directly in combustion processes for heating and cooking in coffee farms where their energy efficiency is very low. In the present work, an energy and environmental assessment of two bioenergy production processes (ethanol fermentation and gasification) using CCS as raw material was performed...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444179/a-novel-method-for-superimposition-and-measurements-on-maxillary-digital-3d-models-studies-on-validity-and-reliability
#20
Niels Ganzer, Ingalill Feldmann, Per Liv, Lars Bondemark
Background: Serial 3D models can be used to analyze changes, but correct superimposition is crucial before measurements can be assessed. Earlier studies show that every palatal structure changes due to growth or treatment. Here, we describe a new method that uses an algorithm-based analysis to perform superimpositions and measurements in maxillary 3D models. This method can be used to identify deformations. In a second step, only unchanged areas are used for superimposition. Objectives: This study investigates the validity and reliability of this novel method...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
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