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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337665/effect-of-efflux-transporter-inhibition-on-the-distribution-of-fluconazole-in-the-rat-brain
#1
Wei Wang, Na Zheng, Jiatang Zhang, Xusheng Huang, Shengyuan Yu
Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) are expressed on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), preventing the entry of or the pumping out of numerous molecules. Fluconazole is widely used to treat fungal meningoencephalitis. The effect of these transporters on the distribution of fluconazole in the brain is unclear. We used microdialysis to compare the distribution of fluconazole in the rat brain with and without co-administration of probenecid, a MRP and OAT inhibitor...
March 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332648/west-nile-virus-epizootics-in-the-camargue-france-in-2015-and-reinforcement-of-surveillance-and-control-networks
#2
C Bahuon, C Marcillaud-Pitel, L Bournez, A Leblond, C Beck, J Hars, I Leparc-Goffart, G L'Ambert, M-C Paty, L Cavalerie, C Daix, P Tritz, B Durand, S Zientara, S Lecollinet
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a non-contagious disease mainly transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes from the genus Culex. The virus is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle, and can accidentally be transmitted to mammalian hosts. Among mammalian hosts, equines and humans are the most sensitive to WNV infection and can develop severe meningoencephalitis. As WNV infections are zoonotic and can be severe in humans and equines, West Nile fever is considered to be a public and animal health concern...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330482/development-of-a-model-of-saint-louis-encephalitis-infection-and-disease-in-mice
#3
Rafael Elias Marques, Juliana L Del Sarto, Rebeca P F Rocha, Giovanni F Gomes, Allysson Cramer, Milene A Rachid, Danielle G Souza, Maurício L Nogueira, Mauro M Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a genre of closely related viral pathogens which emerged in the last decades in Brazil and in the world. Saint (St.) Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a neglected flavivirus that can cause a severe neurological disease that may lead to death or sequelae. St. Louis encephalitis pathogenesis is poorly understood, which hinders the development of specific treatment or vaccine. METHODS: To address this problem, we developed a model of SLEV infection in mice to study mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of severe disease...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327808/prevalence-and-distribution-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-nematoda-angiostrongylidae-in-achatina-fulica-mollusca-gastropoda-in-baixada-santista-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#4
Laura Rocha Guerino, Iracy Lea Pecora, Marcel Sabino Miranda, Cryslaine Aguiar-Silva, Omar Dos Santos Carvalho, Roberta Lima Caldeira, Reinaldo José da Silva
INTRODUCTION: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321515/isolated-optic-neuritis-associated-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#5
Seo-Young Choi, You-Jin Choi, Jae-Hwan Choi, Kwang-Dong Choi
Mycoplasma pneumonia is a major pathogen of primary atypical pneumonia and has been known to cause various kinds of extrapulmonary manifestations involving almost all organs of the human body. Optic neuritis associated with M. pneumoniae infection has rarely been described and mostly, it combined other neurological complications including meningitis, meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and peripheral neuropathy. We report two patients who presented with isolated optic neuritis due to M. pneumoniae infection, and reviewed the literatures on five additional patients...
March 20, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320715/experimental-models-of-short-courses-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-for-induction-therapy-for-cryptococcal-meningitis
#6
Jodi Lestner, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Joanne Livermore, Sarah Whalley, Julie Schwartz, John R Perfect, Thomas Harrison, William Hope
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rapidly lethal infection in immunocompromised patients. Induction regimens are usually administered for 2-weeks. The shortest effective period of induction therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is unknown. The pharmacodynamics of LAmB were studied in murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. The concentrations of LAmB in plasma and brain of mice were measured using HPLC. Histopathological changes were determined. The penetration of LAmB into the brain was determined by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed to amphotericin B...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304004/x-linked-agammaglobulinemia-first-case-with-bruton-tyrosine-kinase-mutation-from-pakistan
#7
Samreen Kulsom Zaidi, Sonia Qureshi, Farah Naz Qamar
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency with more than 600 mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (Bkt) gene which are responsible for early-onset agammaglobulinemia and repeated infections. Herein we present a case of a 3-year-old boy with history of repeated diarrhoea and an episode of meningoencephalitis with hemiplegia. The workup showed extremely low levels of immunoglobulin with low CD+19 cells. Genetic analysis showed Btk mutation 18 c.1883delCp.T628fs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a case of XLA confirmed by molecular technique from Pakistan...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290675/development-of-untargeted-metabolomics-methods-for-the-rapid-detection-of-pathogenic-naegleria-fowleri
#8
Zhihao Yu, Haylea C Miller, Geoffrey J Puzon, Brian H Clowers
Despite comparatively low levels of infection, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) induced by Naegleria fowleri is extremely lethal with mortality rates above 95%. As a thermophile, this organism is often found in moderate to warm climates and has the potential to colonize drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). Current detection approaches require days to obtain results whereas swift corrective action can maximize the benefit of public health. Presently, there is little information regarding the underlying in situ metabolism for this amoeba but the potential exists to exploit differentially expressed metabolic signatures as a rapid detection technique...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287358/intractable-neck-pain-in-an-oncologic-palliative-care-setting-is-cancer-always-the-answer
#9
Valentina Delfine, Enos Bernasconi, Donata Bardelli, Vito Spataro, Tanja Fusi-Schmidhauser
Refractory pain is a common manifestation in an oncologic palliative care setting and represents a major challenge for health care professionals involved in care provision. The underlying neoplasm and its dissemination are the foremost pathophysiologic mechanism for the development of pain in patients with advanced cancer. Nonetheless, other etiologies such as trauma and infections need to be considered by clinicians in this particular care setting. The authors present the case of a patient with a recent diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, suffering from intractable neck pain, progressive worsening of her general conditions, and the onset of a generalized seizure...
March 2017: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283819/neurological-complications-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-syndrome
#10
D P Kidd
In this review of the neurological complications of Behçet's syndrome, the clinical features and epidemiology of the systemic disease are summarised before a discussion of the neurological syndromes which may develop is made. Neurological involvement occurs in 9% of cases, and is equally prevalent in each geographical area. Vascular complications occur in 14%, in whom thrombosis of the venous sinuses or cerebral veins occurs, and intracranial hypertension, venous infarction and parenchymal haemorrhage may develop...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282373/murine-models-of-scrub-typhus-associated-with-host-control-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#11
Nicole L Mendell, Donald H Bouyer, David H Walker
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, a febrile illness of substantial incidence and mortality, is caused by infection with the obligately intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is estimated that there are more than one million cases annually transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites in the Asia-Pacific region. The antigenic and genetic diversity of the multiple strains of O. tsutsugamushi hinders the advancement of laboratory diagnosis, development of long-lasting vaccine-induced protection, and interpretation of clinical infection...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273384/computational-prediction-of-usutu-virus-e-protein-b-cell-and-t-cell-epitopes-for-potential-vaccine-development
#12
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Johan Lennerstrand
Usutu virus (family Flaviviridae), once confined to Africa, has emerged in Europe a decade ago. The virus has been spreading throughout Europe at a greater pace mostly affecting avian species. While most bird species remain asymptomatic carriers of this virus, few bird species are highly susceptible. Lately, Usutu virus (USUV) infections in humans were reported sporadically with severe neuroinvasive symptoms like meningoencephalitis. Since so much is unknown about this virus, which potentially may cause severe diseases in humans, there is a need for more studies of this virus...
March 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270580/microevolution-of-serial-clinical-isolates-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-and-c-%C3%A2-gattii
#13
Yuan Chen, Rhys A Farrer, Charles Giamberardino, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Alexander Jones, Timothy Yang, Jennifer L Tenor, Omar Wagih, Marelize Van Wyk, Nelesh P Govender, Thomas G Mitchell, Anastasia P Litvintseva, Christina A Cuomo, John R Perfect
The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus are a major cause of mortality owing to severe infections in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals. Although antifungal treatment is usually effective, many patients relapse after treatment, and in such cases, comparative analyses of the genomes of incident and relapse isolates may reveal evidence of determinative, microevolutionary changes within the host. Here, we analyzed serial isolates cultured from cerebrospinal fluid specimens of 18 South African patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis...
March 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270191/isolation-and-molecular-characterisation-of-halicephalobus-gingivalis-in-the-brain-of-a-horse-in-piedmont-italy
#14
Maria Domenica Pintore, Francesco Cerutti, Antonio D'Angelo, Cristiano Corona, Paola Gazzuola, Loretta Masoero, Corrado Colombo, Roberto Bona, Carlo Cantile, Simone Peletto, Cristina Casalone, Barbara Iulini
BACKGROUND: A fatal case of meningoencephalitis was reported in a 13-year-old Koninklijk Warmbloed Paard Nederland stallion, suspected of West Nile virus (WNV) infection, in the Piedmont region of Italy. Clinical signs included right head tilt and circling, depression alternated with excitability, fever and lateral strabismus. Combined treatment consisting of dimethylsulfoxide, dexamethasone, sulphonamides and sedative was administered, but because of the poor conditions the horse was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy...
March 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267216/neurological-manifestations-in-dogs-naturally-infected-by-leishmania-infantum-descriptions-of-10-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
A P Giannuzzi, M Ricciardi, A De Simone, F Gernone
In order to evaluate possible nervous system involvement in canine leishmaniasis, retrospective evaluation of all medical records of leishmaniotic dogs exhibiting neurological signs referred to our hospital over a 5-year period was performed. The records of 10 dogs were reviewed. Depending on the neuroanatomical localisation, the dogs underwent advanced diagnostic imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electrodiagnostic testing and histopathologic evaluations. The final neurological diagnosis was: meningoencephalitis (n=2), brain haemorrhagic stroke (n=1), haemorrhagic choroiditis (n=1), meningomyelitis (n=2), ischaemic myelopathy (n=1), polymyositis (n=2) and peripheral neuropathy (n=1)...
March 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264683/cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-hiv-aids-when-to-start-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
EDITORIAL
Carlos Franco-Paredes, Daniel B Chastain, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Luis A Marcos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262035/lesions-of-the-posterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#17
Youming Long, Linzhan Wu, Rong Zhong, Xiaoming Ouyang, Junyan Liang, Cong Gao, Xiaohui Chen, Wei Qiu, Yanyu Chang, Zhanhang Wang, Jinlong Ye
Posterior limb of the internal capsule lesions (PLICL) are one of the MRI features of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, there is no evidence that such lesions are pathogenically related to NMOSD. We retrospectively analyzed features of PLICL in NMOSD, and other central nervous system inflammatory disorders, in 561 patients. We also examined the pathological samples of six patients. Of the 561 patients investigated, PLICL were found in 65 patients (11.6%). Lesions were bilateral in 26 cases (40%) and unilateral in 39 cases (60%)...
March 6, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259480/do-all-children-who-present-with-a-complex-febrile-seizure-need-a-lumbar-puncture
#18
Romain Guedj, Hélène Chappuy, Luigi Titomanlio, Loic De Pontual, Sandra Biscardi, Gisèle Nissack-Obiketeki, Béatrice Pellegrino, Oussama Charara, François Angoulvant, Julien Denis, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Solène Loschi, Pierre Louis Leger, Ricardo Carbajal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We assess the prevalences of bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis (HSV-ME) in children with a complex febrile seizure and determine these prevalences in the subgroup of children with a clinical examination result not suggestive of meningitis or encephalitis. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 7 pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in the region of Paris, France. Visits of patients aged 6 months to 5 years for a complex febrile seizure from January 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259231/zika-virus-meningoencephalitis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#19
Pedro V Schwartzmann, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Luciano Neder, Fernando C Vilar, Sílvia M Ayub-Ferreira, Marília F Romeiro, Osvaldo M Takayanagui, Antonio C Dos Santos, André Schmidt, Luiz T M Figueiredo, Ross Arena, Marcus V Simões
The World Health Organization considers the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas a global public health emergency. The neurologic complications due to ZIKV infection comprise microcephaly, meningoencephalitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We describe a fatal case of an adult patient receiving an immunosuppressive regimen following heart transplant. The patient was admitted with acute neurologic impairment and experienced progressive hemodynamic instability and mental deterioration that finally culminated in death...
March 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246518/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-mumps-meningoencephalitis-with-bilateral-hippocampal-lesions-without-preceding-acute-parotitis-a-case-report
#20
Ah Reum Woo, Ha Young Lee, Myung Kwan Lim, Young Hye Kang, Soon Gu Cho, Seong Hye Choi, Ji Hyeon Baek
Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.
March 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
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