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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438128/viral-aetiologies-of-acute-encephalitis-in-a-hospital-based-south-asian-population
#1
Janarthani Lohitharajah, Neelika Malavige, Carukshi Arambepola, Jithangi Wanigasinghe, Ranjanie Gamage, Padma Gunaratne, Pyara Ratnayake, Thashi Chang
BACKGROUND: The aetiological spectrum of acute encephalitis shows inter- and intra-geographical variations. We aimed to identify the viruses that cause infectious encephalitis in Sri Lanka, which represents a South Asian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 99 patients with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis admitted to two tertiary-care hospitals in Colombo. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum were tested for conventional and emerging encephalitogenic viruses...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426408/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-naegleria-strain-from-a-recreational-water-fountain-in-tenerife-canary-islands-spain
#2
María Reyes-Batlle, Carolina Wagner, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, Basilio Valladares, Jose E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Among the pathogenic genera included in this group Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris have been reported to be causative agents of lethal encephalitis, disseminated infections and keratitis. Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic FLA species which causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). At present there are not many available data on the distribution of Naegleria species in Spain from environmental sources...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425387/zebra-borne-neurotropic-equid-herpesvirus-1-meningoencephalitis-in-a-thomson-s-gazelle-eudorcas-thomsonii
#3
Kanako Sakaguchi, Kenneth Kim, Ingeborg Langohr, Annabel G Wise, Roger K Maes, Gordon Pirie, Tokuma Yanai, Mohie Haridy, Lorrie Gaschen, Fabio Del Piero
We describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of a case of meningoencephalitis in a Thomson's gazelle ( Eudorcas thomsonii) naturally infected with zebra-borne equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and the implications for the molecular detection of zebra-borne EHV-1. A 4-y-old female Thomson's gazelle was submitted for postmortem examination; no gross abnormalities were noted except for meningeal congestion. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear eosinophilic and amphophilic inclusion bodies and EHV-9 antigen in neurons...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423088/the-epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-the-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolated-in-a-brazilian-university-hospital
#4
Paula Augusta Dias Fogaça de Aguiar, Reginaldo Dos Santos Pedroso, Aércio Sebastião Borges, Tomaz de Aquino Moreira, Lúcio Borges de Araújo, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito Röder
Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404683/brain-eating-amoebae-predilection-sites-in-the-brain-and-disease-outcome
#5
Timothy Yu Yee Ong, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection lasting few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Here, we present a literature review of 86 case reports from 1968 to 2016 in order to explore affinity of these amoebae towards particular sites of the brain, diagnostic modalities, treatment options and the disease outcome in a comparative manner...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391498/neurological-complications-and-sequelae-of-ebola-virus-disease
#6
Bridgette Jeanne Billioux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has led to many discoveries regarding Ebola. Although neurological symptoms during EVD had been previously described, many reports since this outbreak have made clear that EVD can lead to neurological issues. This article will review the various neurological manifestations of EVD. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, many neurological symptoms have been described during acute EVD, including altered mental status, seizures, and meningoencephalitis, among others; survivors of EVD also may develop neurological sequelae, such as persistent headache and memory loss and can exhibit abnormalities on neurological exam...
May 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389055/primary-amebic-meningoencephalitis-in-children-a-report-of%C3%A2-two-fatal-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Robert C Stowe, Davut Pehlivan, Katie E Friederich, Michael A Lopez, Shannon M DiCarlo, Varina L Boerwinkle
BACKGROUND: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis is a rare, almost uniformly fatal disease of cerebral invasion by Naegleria fowleri, occurring most commonly after swimming in warm fresh water in summer months. Treatment using the experimental medication miltefosine demonstrated improved survival and favorable neurocognitive outcome in a 2013 North American patient. Little has been described regarding electrographic recordings of such patients, and little is known to compare known pediatric cases of survival...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382855/natural-infections-with-pigeon-paramyxovirus-serotype-1-pathologic-changes-in-eurasian-collared-doves-streptopelia-decaocto-and-rock-pigeons-columba-livia-in-the-united-states
#8
M Isidoro-Ayza, C L Afonso, J B Stanton, S Knowles, H S Ip, C L White, H Fenton, M G Ruder, A C Dolinski, J Lankton
Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves ( Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons ( Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367407/listeria-monocytogenes-a-rare-cause-of-endophthalmitis-a-case-report
#9
Katherine M Gaskell, Gwyn Williams, Kathie Grant, Susan Lightman, Gauri Godbole
Listeria monocytogenes is a known cause of gastroenteritis. Invasive disease can follow bacteremia causing meningoencephalitis, endocarditis and spontaneous miscarriages in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women respectively. We present the first case in England of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by L. monocytogenes following acute gastroenteritis in an immunocompetent host. A 50-year-old South Asian female presented with acute painful unilateral visual loss occurring shortly after an episode of self-limiting gastroenteritis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348785/retrospective-pcr-based-species-identification-of-leishmania-in-two-patients-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-serbia
#10
Zorica Dakić, Henrik Vedel Nielsen, Milorad Pavlović, Jasmina Poluga, Goran Stevanović, Lidija Lavadinović, Branko Milošević, Mijomir Pelemiš, Aleksandar Urošević, Snežana Jovanović, Christen Rune Stensvold
INTRODUCTION: Retrospective molecular identification of Leishmania parasites in two patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) previously treated in Serbia was carried out. DNA was isolated from unstained bone marrow smears (BMSs) kept for 11 and 8 years. Genus-specific real-time PCR was combined with conventional PCR and sequencing for detection and species identification. CASE PRESENTATION: In 2003, a 40-year-old Serbian male was admitted to the Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS) with fever, sweating, fatigue and splenomegaly, which developed over a period of 7 weeks...
October 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348761/fatal-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-in-a-norwegian-tourist-returning-from-thailand
#11
Tore Taksdal Stubhaug, Olaug Marie Reiakvam, Christen Rune Stensvold, Nils Olav Hermansen, Mona Holberg-Petersen, Ellen-Ann Antal, Knut Gaustad, Ingrid Schage Førde, Bernt Heger
INTRODUCTION: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare disease caused by the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri. Infection occurs by insufflation of water containing amoebae into the nasal cavity, and is usually associated with bathing in freshwater. Nasal irrigation is a more rarely reported route of infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A fatal case of PAM in a previously healthy Norwegian woman, acquired during a holiday trip to Thailand, is described. Clinical findings were consistent with rapidly progressing meningoencephalitis...
June 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347653/cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-i-haplotype-diversity-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-nematoda-angiostrongylidae
#12
Praphathip Eamsobhana, Sze-Looi Song, Hoi-Sen Yong, Anchana Prasartvit, Sudarat Boonyong, Anchalee Tungtrongchitr
The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a food-borne zoonotic parasite of public health importance worldwide. It is the primary etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans in many countries. It is highly endemic in Thailand especially in the northeast region. In this study, A. cantonensis adult worms recovered from the lungs of wild rats in different geographical regions/provinces in Thailand were used to determine their haplotype by means of the mitochondrial partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence...
March 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346953/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-state-of-the-art-review
#13
Mario Mastrangelo
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy usually with onset between 1 and 8 years of age. Functional neuroimaging studies recently introduced the concept of Lennox-Gastaut as "secondary network epilepsy" resulting from dysfunctions of a complex system involving both cortical and subcortical structures (default-mode network, corticoreticular connections, and thalamus). These dysfunctions are produced by different disorders including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies, meningoencephalitis, cortical malformations, neurocutaneous disorders, or tumors...
March 27, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344163/characterization-of-antibody-response-in-neuroinvasive-infection-caused-by-toscana-virus
#14
Anna Pierro, Sabrina Ficarelli, Nazli Ayhan, Silvia Morini, Luigi Raumer, Michele Bartoletti, Antonio Mastroianni, Francesca Prati, Simona Schivazappa, Patrizia Cenni, Caterina Vocale, Giada Rossini, Paolo Gaibani, Vittorio Sambri, Maria Paola Landini, Russel Edward Lewis, Remi N Charrel, Stefania Varani
OBJECTIVES: Among sandfly-borne pathogens, Toscana virus (TOSV) is a prominent cause of summer meningitis in Mediterranean Europe. Here, we assessed the kinetics of anti-TOSV antibodies over time in 41 patients diagnosed with TOSV-meningitis or meningoencephalitis in North-eastern Italy. METHODS: Acute and follow-up serum samples were collected up to 20 months after diagnosis of TOSV infection and tested for the presence of specific antibody using immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assays...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337665/effect-of-efflux-transporter-inhibition-on-the-distribution-of-fluconazole-in-the-rat-brain
#15
Wei Wang, Na Zheng, Jiatang Zhang, Xusheng Huang, Shengyuan Yu
Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) are expressed on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), preventing the entry of or the pumping out of numerous molecules. Fluconazole is widely used to treat fungal meningoencephalitis. The effect of these transporters on the distribution of fluconazole in the brain is unclear. We used microdialysis to compare the distribution of fluconazole in the rat brain with and without co-administration of probenecid, a MRP and OAT inhibitor...
March 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332648/west-nile-virus-epizootics-in-the-camargue-france-in-2015-and-reinforcement-of-surveillance-and-control-networks
#16
C Bahuon, C Marcillaud-Pitel, L Bournez, A Leblond, C Beck, J Hars, I Leparc-Goffart, G L'Ambert, M-C Paty, L Cavalerie, C Daix, P Tritz, B Durand, S Zientara, S Lecollinet
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a non-contagious disease mainly transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes from the genus Culex. The virus is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle, and can accidentally be transmitted to mammalian hosts. Among mammalian hosts, equines and humans are the most sensitive to WNV infection and can develop severe meningoencephalitis. As WNV infections are zoonotic and can be severe in humans and equines, West Nile fever is considered to be a public and animal health concern...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330482/development-of-a-model-of-saint-louis-encephalitis-infection-and-disease-in-mice
#17
Rafael Elias Marques, Juliana L Del Sarto, Rebeca P F Rocha, Giovanni F Gomes, Allysson Cramer, Milene A Rachid, Danielle G Souza, Maurício L Nogueira, Mauro M Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a genre of closely related viral pathogens which emerged in the last decades in Brazil and in the world. Saint (St.) Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a neglected flavivirus that can cause a severe neurological disease that may lead to death or sequelae. St. Louis encephalitis pathogenesis is poorly understood, which hinders the development of specific treatment or vaccine. METHODS: To address this problem, we developed a model of SLEV infection in mice to study mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of severe disease...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327808/prevalence-and-distribution-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-nematoda-angiostrongylidae-in-achatina-fulica-mollusca-gastropoda-in-baixada-santista-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#18
Laura Rocha Guerino, Iracy Lea Pecora, Marcel Sabino Miranda, Cryslaine Aguiar-Silva, Omar Dos Santos Carvalho, Roberta Lima Caldeira, Reinaldo José da Silva
INTRODUCTION: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321515/isolated-optic-neuritis-associated-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#19
Seo-Young Choi, You-Jin Choi, Jae-Hwan Choi, Kwang-Dong Choi
Mycoplasma pneumonia is a major pathogen of primary atypical pneumonia and has been known to cause various kinds of extrapulmonary manifestations involving almost all organs of the human body. Optic neuritis associated with M. pneumoniae infection has rarely been described and mostly, it combined other neurological complications including meningitis, meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and peripheral neuropathy. We report two patients who presented with isolated optic neuritis due to M. pneumoniae infection, and reviewed the literatures on five additional patients...
March 20, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320715/experimental-models-of-short-courses-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-for-induction-therapy-for-cryptococcal-meningitis
#20
Jodi Lestner, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Joanne Livermore, Sarah Whalley, Julie Schwartz, John R Perfect, Thomas Harrison, William Hope
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rapidly lethal infection in immunocompromised patients. Induction regimens are usually administered for 2-weeks. The shortest effective period of induction therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is unknown. The pharmacodynamics of LAmB were studied in murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. The concentrations of LAmB in plasma and brain of mice were measured using HPLC. Histopathological changes were determined. The penetration of LAmB into the brain was determined by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed to amphotericin B...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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