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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108286/the-impact-of-zika-virus-in-the-brain
#1
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
The recent outbreak of ZIKV in Brazil called the attention of the world because the effects of viral infection in the brain under development in fetuses. Consequences of vertical infection comprise brain malformation, especially microcephaly, eye and musculoskeletal abnormalities, among others. In adults, outcomes of infection include meningoencephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Recent data specific suggest that neural progenitor cells are the main targets of ZIKV infection, causing massive cellular death, which in turns, causes impairment in the neurogenesis process...
January 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105556/chikungunya-infection-presenting-as-mild-encephalitis-with-a-reversible-lesion-in-the-splenium-a-case-report
#2
Kadam Nagpal, Puneet Agarwal, Amit Kumar, Rajashekhar Reddi
Chikungunya fever is an Aedes mosquito-transmitted infection caused by chikungunya virus, an RNA virus in the family Togaviridae. The disease is characteristically manifested as fever, arthralgia, and/or rash. Various neurological manifestations like meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and myeloneuropathy have been mentioned in various reports. We present a rare case of chikungunya fever presenting with mild encephalitis with a reversible lesion of the splenium (MERS), which showed complete clinical and radiological recovery...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103325/assessing-fifty-years-of-general-health-surveillance-of-roe-deer-in-switzerland-a-retrospective-analysis-of-necropsy-reports
#3
Mirjam Pewsner, Francesco Carlo Origgi, Joachim Frey, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis
General wildlife health surveillance is a valuable source of information on the causes of mortality, disease susceptibility and pathology of the investigated hosts and it is considered to be an essential component of early warning systems. However, the representativeness of data from such surveillance programs is known to be limited by numerous biases. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus) is the most abundant ungulate and a major game species all over Europe. Yet, internationally available literature on roe deer pathology is scarce...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086988/computed-tomographic-findings-and-treatment-of-a-bull-with-pituitary-gland-abscess
#4
Ueli Braun, Alexandra Malbon, Manon Kochan, Barbara Riond, Fredi Janett, Cornelia Iten, Matthias Dennler
BACKGROUND: In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. CASE REPORT: The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis...
January 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058206/zika-virus-disease-for-neurologists
#5
REVIEW
Daniel E Smith, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Daniel M Pastula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) was not initially thought to be an important cause of neurologic disease, but with the recent epidemic in the Western Hemisphere, there is a growing body of evidence for possible neurologic complications. This review discusses these in addition to what is known about modes of transmission, testing for the virus, as well as future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV disease has been associated with microcephaly and congenital eye disease in infants, as well as with Guillain-Barré syndrome, uveitis, myelitis, and meningoencephalitis in adults...
December 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056966/pseudorabies-virus-infection-aujeszky-s-disease-in-an-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus-in-spain-a-case-report
#6
A Javier Masot, María Gil, David Risco, Olga M Jiménez, José I Núñez, Eloy Redondo
BACKGROUND: The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typically causes serious neurologic disease. The endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild feline endemic to south-western Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The Iberian lynx was found to be the world's most endangered felid species in 2002. In wild felines, PRV infection has only been previously reported once in a Florida panther in 1994...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050250/bacillus-cereus-bacteraemia-comparison-between-haematologic-and-nonhaematologic-patients
#7
S Tusgul, G Prod'hom, L Senn, R Meuli, P-Y Bochud, S G Giulieri
Bacillus cereus bacteraemia can be severe, especially among patients with haematologic malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed first episodes of true B. cereus bacteraemia (more than one positive bottle plus signs of infection) at our institution between 1997 and 2013 with the aim to compare haematologic versus nonhaematologic patients and analyse episodes with complicated outcome. Among 56 episodes of positive-blood cultures for B. cereus, 21 were considered significant. Median age was 54 years (range 23-82 years)...
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041618/pyogenic-ventriculitis-and-ventricular-empyema-associated-with-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-in-a-puppy
#8
S A Headley, L G Pretto-Giordano, D F Nóbrega, C S Altrão, L A Villas-Boas, A A Alfieri, A P F R L Bracarense
A 40-day-old male, blue heeler puppy with hindlimb ataxia, nystagmus, apathy, motor incoordination and hyperaesthesia of the forelimbs died 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Significant gross findings included cerebellar herniation, cerebral oedema and dilation of the third and right lateral cerebral ventricles due to the accumulation of a purulent exudate. Histopathological examination revealed pyogenic ventriculitis and purulent meningoencephalitis. Pure colonies of a coagulase-positive Staphylococcus were isolated from the purulent cerebral exudate...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030337/occurrence-of-naegleria-species-in-therapeutic-geothermal-water-sources-northern-iran
#9
Ali Reza Latifi, Maryam Niyyati, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Ali Haghighi, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei, Zohreh Lasjerdi, Eznolah Azargashb
Potentially pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae include members belonging to Naegleria genus. The species N. fowleri is known worldwide as the causative agent of the lethal Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). Only one clinical case of N. fowleri has been reported in Iran. Several species of Naegleria have been reported to be natural carriers of other potentially pathogenic microbial agents. The thermotolerance properties of this genus facilitates their presence in geothermal water sources including hot springs and spas...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012729/neurologic-emergencies-in-hiv-negative-immunosuppressed-patients
#10
J A Guzmán-De-Villoria, P Fernández-García, P J Borrego-Ruiz
HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients comprise a heterogeneous group including transplant patients, patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressors, uremic patients, alcoholics, undernourished patients, diabetics, patients on dialysis, elderly patients, and those diagnosed with severe or neoplastic processes. Epileptic seizures, focal neurologic signs, and meningoencephalitis are neurologic syndromes that require urgent action. In most of these situations, neuroimaging tests are necessary, but the findings can be different from those observed in immunocompetent patients in function of the inflammatory response...
December 21, 2016: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011613/spinal-arachnoiditis-as-a-complication-of-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-non-hiv-previously-healthy-adults
#11
Anil A Panackal, Mika Komori, Peter Kosa, Omar Khan, Dima A Hammoud, Lindsey B Rosen, Sarah K Browne, Yen-Chih Lin, Elena Romm, Charu Ramaprasad, Bettina C Fries, John E Bennett, Bibiana Bielekova, Peter R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. METHODS: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009239/central-nervous-system-filariasis-masquerading-as-a-glioma-case-report
#12
Adesh Shrivastava, Prateek Arora, Akriti Khare, Garima Goel, Neelkamal Kapoor
Filariasis, an endemic zoonosis in the Southeast Asia region, has been reported to affect various organs as well as the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammatory reactions mimicking those from neoplastic lesions clinically and radiologically have been reported in the breast and urinary bladder. To date, a CNS manifestation of filarial infestation has been reported in the form of meningoencephalitis. The authors here present an interesting case of a young man presenting in status epilepticus, which on radiological evaluation appeared to be a glioma...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000126/autophagy-biomarkers-beclin-1-and-p62-are-increased-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Alicia K Au, Rajesh K Aneja, Hülya Bayır, Michael J Bell, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a process that recycles damaged proteins and organelles. Beclin 1 is involved in the nucleation phase, while p62 is consumed during the elongation phase. We hypothesized that these autophagy biomarkers are increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and associated with unfavorable outcome. METHODS: Thirty children with severe TBI had CSF collected on days 1, 3, and 7. Patients without TBI or meningoencephalitis served as controls...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995511/zika-virus-disease-for-the-neurointensivist
#14
Daniel M Pastula, Julia C Durrant, Daniel E Smith, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted flavivirus currently spreading throughout the Pacific and Western Hemisphere. ZIKV infection is often either asymptomatic or causes a self-limiting illness with symptoms such as rash, fever, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, or conjunctivitis. Rarely, ZIKV infection has been associated with conditions such as severe thrombocytopenia, microcephaly and other developmental abnormalities, acute polyneuropathy/Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, transient encephalopathy, provoked seizures, and various ophthalmologic conditions...
December 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994109/meningoencephalitis-caused-by-reactivation-of-chagas-disease-in-patient-without-known-immunosuppression
#15
Herbert J Fernandes, Luanda O F Barbosa, Tamara S Machado, João Paulo R Campos, Alexandre S Moura
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Chagas disease (CD) is an uncommon complication that can result from direct involvement of the parasite or from thromboembolic phenomena. Direct involvement of CNS can occur in both acute and chronic forms of CD, and can also be secondary to reactivation. Reactivation of CD generally occurs in immunosuppressed patients such as those with human immunodeficiency infection or malignancies being rarely described in patients without apparent immunosuppression. We report a case of a patient living for many years in a nonendemic area for CD that presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of neurological symptoms as a result of reactivation of the disease...
December 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993415/orally-transmitted-chagas-disease
#16
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Filigheddu, Miguel Górgolas, José Manuel Ramos
Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is most frequently associated with a vectorial transmission. However, in recent years we have observed a significant increase in the oral transmission of the disease, associated mainly with the consumption of drinks made from fruit or other vegetables contaminated with triatomine faeces or secretions from infected mammals. After a latency period of 3 to 22 days after ingestion, the oral infection is characterized by more severe manifestations than those associated with vectorial transmission: prolonged fever, acute myocarditis with heart failure and, in some cases, meningoencephalitis...
December 16, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990007/a-newborn-with-hemorrhagic-meningoencephalitis-due-to-proteus-mirabilis
#17
Yesim Coskun, Ipek Akman, Canan Yildirim, Mustafa Kemal Demir
Neonatal meningoencephalitis is a severe condition for the developing brain of a newborn. Radiologic findings of necrosis and liquefaction due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis may be confused with brain abcess. In this article, we report a neonate having liquefaction necrosis due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis mimicing intracranial abscess due to Proteus mirabilis. We would like to describe the clinical course and evolution of brain imaging and emphasize the importance of the serial MR imaging (MRI).
December 18, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976567/successful-treatment-of-refractory-listeria-meningitis-and-bacteremia-with-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#18
Meltem Polat, Soner Sertan Kara, Anıl Tapısız, Okşan Derinöz, Kayhan Çağlar, Hasan Tezer
Listeria monocytogenes is an important cause of life-threatening bacteremia and meningoencephalitis in neonates, pregnant women, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. However, it is an uncommon cause of illness in immunocompetent children beyond the neonatal period. Ampicillin with or without an aminoglycoside remains the best treatment for listeriosis. Here, we report a rare case of Listeria meningitis and bacteremia in a 7-month-old immunocompetent girl, which was refractory to ampicillin plus gentamicin treatment and successfully treated by the addition of TMP/SMX...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974249/elimination-of-naegleria-fowleri-from-bulk-water-and-biofilm-in-an-operational-drinking-water-distribution-system
#19
Haylea C Miller, Matthew J Morgan, Jason T Wylie, Anna H Kaksonen, David Sutton, Kalan Braun, Geoffrey J Puzon
Global incidence of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis cases associated with domestic drinking water is increasing. The need for understanding disinfectant regimes capable of eliminating the causative microorganism, Naegleria fowleri, from bulk water and pipe wall biofilms is critical. This field study demonstrated the successful elimination of N. fowleri from the bulk water and pipe wall biofilm of a persistently colonised operational drinking water distribution system (DWDS), and the prevention of further re-colonisation...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956091/integrated-analysis-neurimmirs-of-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-involved-in-immune-response-to-streptococcus-agalactiae-a-pathogen-causing-meningoencephalitis-in-teleosts
#20
Bei Wang, Zhen Gan, Zhongliang Wang, Dapeng Yu, Ziwei Lin, Yishan Lu, Zaohe Wu, Jichang Jian
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA molecules and play important roles in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including in immune response. Recent years have witnessed considerable amount of research interest in studies on miRNA-mediated modulation gene function during neuroinflammation. Here, we evaluated Streptococcus agalactiae infected tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) brain for the expression profile of miRNAs, potential functions and their correlation with genes involved in inflammatory pathways...
December 9, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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