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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332184/neurologic-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#1
Avi Fellner, Chen Makranz, Michal Lotem, Felix Bokstein, Alisa Taliansky, Shai Rosenberg, Deborah T Blumenthal, Jacob Mandel, Suzana Fichman, Elena Kogan, Israel Steiner, Tali Siegal, Alexander Lossos, Shlomit Yust-Katz
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have recently emerged as a novel treatment for cancer. These agents, transforming the field of oncology, are not devoid of toxicity and cause immune-related side effects which can involve any organ including the nervous system. In this study, we present 9 patients (7 men and 2 women) with neurologic complications secondary to ICPI treatment. These included meningoencephalitis, limbic encephalitis, polyradiculitis, cranial polyneuropathy, myasthenic syndrome and myositis...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330273/rheumatoid-disease-an-unusual-cause-of-relapsing-meningoencephalitis
#2
Sian K Alexander, Maria Di Cicco, Ute Pohl, Alberto Cifelli
A 73-year-old man presented with three episodes of dysphasia and disinhibited behaviour, a single seizure and transient ischaemic attack-like events characterised by right arm and/or leg weakness. These episodes were separated by month-long asymptomatic intervals. Medical history included rheumatoid arthritis, which was clinically quiescent on leflunomide.Repeated cerebrospinal fluid examination showed a persistent lymphocytosis with mildly reduced glucose and elevated protein; oligoclonal bands and viral PCR were negative...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327203/loss-of-cx43-mediated-functional-gap-junction-communication-in-meningeal-fibroblasts-following-mouse-hepatitis-virus-infection
#3
Abhishek Bose, Rahul Basu, Mahua Maulik, Jayasri Das Sarma
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection causes meningoencephalitis by disrupting the neuro-glial and glial-pial homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that MHV infection alters gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43)-mediated intercellular communication in brain and primary cultured astrocytes. In addition to astrocytes, meningeal fibroblasts also express high levels of Cx43. Fibroblasts in the meninges together with the basal lamina and the astrocyte endfeet forms the glial limitans superficialis as part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326371/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-presenting-as-stroke-and-meningoencephalitis-with-aortic-and-subclavian-aneurysms-without-pulmonary-involvement
#4
Pournamy Sarathchandran, Abubaker Al Madani, Ayman M Alboudi, Jihad Inshasi
A 39-year-old Philipino man presented with acute onset fever and headache. Neurological examination was normal except for neck stiffness. There was no history of chest pain, cough or breathlessness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed a mild increase in protein with normal sugar and lymphocytic pleocytosis. CSF PCR for herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus was negative. He developed acute right haemiplegia a week after hospitalisation. MRI showed acute infarct in the left centrum semiovale. His angiogram showed aneurysm in the left subclavian artery and aortic arch...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323087/opportunistic-free-living-amoeba-now-becoming-a-usual-pathogen
#5
Dnyaneshwari Purushottam Ghadage, Archana Chintaman Choure, Archana Bhimrao Wankhade, Arvind Vamanrao Bhore
Acanthamoeba species cause granulomatous Acanthamoeba encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of acute purulent meningoencephalitis with a focal neurological deficit caused by Acanthamoeba species in a 2 years immunocompetent child.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318332/-zika-virus-infection-and-the-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
I W Husstedt, M Maschke, C Eggers, E Neuen-Jacob, G Arendt
Zika virus is an arbovirus from the family of flaviviruses, which is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegyptii and also by the Asian mosquito Aedes albopticus. The largest observed Zika virus epidemic is currently taking place in North and South America, in the Caribbean, southern USA and Southeast Asia. In most cases the infection is an unspecific, acute, febrile disease. Neurological manifestations consist mainly of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome but other rare manifestations have also become known in the meantime, such as meningoencephalitis and myelitis...
January 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313244/meningoencephaloradiculitis-following-infection-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Stephanie Du Four, Rembert Mertens, Wietse Wiels, Jacques De Keyser, Veronique Bissay, Anja Flamez
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus that is endemic to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and large parts of Asia. The tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted through the saliva of infected ticks and infected goat milk. In the vast majority of cases, an infection with TBEV has a subclinical course. However, in some cases, it leads to neurological symptoms due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, or meningoencephaloradiculitis...
January 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311092/pharmacodynamics-of-flubendazole-for-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-repurposing-and-reformulation-of-an-anti-parasitic-agent-for-a-neglected-fungal-disease
#8
Gemma L Nixon, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Nikki Farrington, Sarah Whalley, Joanne Livermore, Cristien Natal, Gina Washbourn, Jaclyn Bibby, Neil Berry, Jodi Lestner, Megan Truong, Andrew Owen, David Lalloo, Ian Charles, William Hope
Current therapeutic options for cryptococcal meningitis are limited by toxicity, global supply and emergence of resistance. There is an urgent need to develop additional antifungal agents that are fungicidal within the central nervous system and preferably orally bioavailable. The benzimidazoles have broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity, but also have in vitro antifungal activity that includes Cryptococcus neoformans Flubendazole (a benzimidazole) has been reformulated by Janssen Pharmaceutica as an amorphous solid drug nanodispersion to develop an orally bioavailable medicine for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases such as onchocerciasis...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297810/sarcocystis-neurona-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-a-pacific-walrus-odobendus-rosmarus-divergens
#9
Lana Krol, Vanessa Fravel, Diana G Procter, Kathleen M Colegrove
A 21-yr-old intact male walrus ( Odobendus rosmarus divergens) presented with acute onset of shifting lameness, initially associated with breeding behaviors. Further clinical signs manifested, including muscle tremors, anorexia, hematuria, and coughing. Diagnostics were limited, as the animal would not offer behaviors for voluntary sample collection. Signs were addressed with anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics. The walrus developed cluster seizures and ultimately, respiratory and cardiac arrest...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288699/development-of-a-replicon-cell-line-based-high-throughput-antiviral-assay-for-screening-inhibitors-of-zika-virus
#10
Jia-Qi Li, Cheng-Lin Deng, Dayong Gu, Xiao Li, Lei Shi, Jian'an He, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Bo Zhang, Han-Qing Ye
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an important emerging human pathogen associated with microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome and meningoencephalitis. Developing rapid and reliable HTS assay is important for ZIKV drug discovery. Here, we constructed a dicistronic ZIKV replicon (ZIKV-Pac-Rluc-Rep) that contained the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter gene separated from the puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (Pac) selectable marker by a short peptide cleavage site. A clonal replicon cell line stably expressing high level of ZIKV replicon was established by selection with puromycin...
December 27, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287680/monitoring-the-uptake-of-live-avian-vaccines-by-their-detection-in-feathers
#11
Irit Davidson, Amira Natour-Altory, Israel Raibstein, Eitan Kin, Yaad Dahan, Haim Krispin, Nati Elkin
Protection against diseases caused by the avian viruses, Marek's disease, Infectious laryngotracheitis, chicken anemia and turkey meningoencephalitis is achieved by live vaccines. The application quality is important to assure proper uptake in commercial flocks. We describe a novel evaluation method for the vaccination process by sequential monitoring the vaccine viruses in feathers. Feather collection is easy, non-invasive and non-lethal for the birds, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. To demonstrate the vaccine virus presence, an innovative assay of nested real-time amplification was approached because vaccine viruses presence in vivo is less abundant comparing to virulent wild-type isolates...
December 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286010/blood-brain-barrier-and-intrathecal-immune-response-in-patients-with-neuroinfections
#12
Trifon Valkov, Julieta Hristova, Tatiana Tcherveniakova, Dobrin Svinarov
Cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio is one of the most informative parameters for blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in cases of central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases. Normally, CNS albumin concentration is a function of diffusion processes along with CSF drainage and resorption. In pathological processes CSF albumin levels are dependent only on the rate of CSF drainage resulting in non-linear reciprocal changes of albumin quotient (Qalb). IgG, IgA and IgM concentrations both in CSF and serum can be compared to Qalb, thus determining the intrathecal immune response...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284029/cyp51-is-an-essential-drug-target-for-the-treatment-of-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-pam
#13
Anjan Debnath, Claudia M Calvet, Gareth Jennings, Wenxu Zhou, Alexander Aksenov, Madeline R Luth, Ruben Abagyan, W David Nes, James H McKerrow, Larissa M Podust
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282755/fatal-cache-valley-virus-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-rituximab-maintenance-therapy
#14
Yuanquan Yang, Jingxin Qiu, Abigail Snyder-Keller, Yongping Wu, Shufeng Sun, Haixin Sui, Amy B Dean, Laura Kramer, Francisco Hernandez-Ilizaliturri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260676/estimation-of-undiagnosed-naegleria-fowleri-primary-amebic-meningoencephalitis-united-states1
#15
Almea Matanock, Jason M Mehal, Lindy Liu, Diana M Blau, Jennifer R Cope
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis is an acute, rare, typically fatal disease. We used epidemiologic risk factors and multiple cause-of-death mortality data to estimate the number of deaths that fit the typical pattern for primary amebic meningoencephalitis; we estimated an annual average of 16 deaths (8 male, 8 female) in the United States.
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258580/apoptosis-and-necroptosis-of-mouse-hippocampal-and-parenchymal-astrocytes-microglia-and-neurons-caused-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-infection
#16
Zhang Mengying, Xu Yiyue, Pan Tong, Hu Yue, Yanin Limpanont, Huang Ping, Kamolnetr Okanurak, Wu Yanqi, Paron Dekumyoy, Zhou Hongli, Dorn Watthanakulpanich, Wu Zhongdao, Wang Zhi, Lv Zhiyue
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus cantonensis has been the only parasite among Angiostrongylidae to cause human central nervous system infection characterized by eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The mechanism of the extensive neurological impairments of hosts caused by A. cantonensis larvae remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate apoptosis, necroptosis and autophagy in the brains of mice infected with A. cantonensis, which will be valuable for better understanding the pathogenesis of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis...
December 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251394/optic-neuritis-in-dogs-96-cases-1983-2016
#17
Sara M Smith, Hans D Westermeyer, Christopher L Mariani, Brian C Gilger, Michael G Davidson
OBJECTIVE: To characterize ocular and neurologic findings, causes, and treatment outcomes of dogs with optic neuritis. PROCEDURE: Medical records from dogs with a diagnosis of optic neuritis at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Hospital between 1983 and 2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: Ninety-six cases (20 unilateral, 76 bilateral), comprised of 38 males and 58 females with a mean age of 6.1 ± 3.0 years (range 0...
December 18, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250449/short-lasting-unilateral-neuralgiform-headache-attacks-with-conjunctival-injection-and-tearing-in-a-patient-with-varicella-zoster-virus-encephalomyelitis
#18
Megan E Gray, Brian Wispelwey, Christopher J Arnold
Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing syndrome (SUNCT) is a type of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Its etiology is generally idiopathic, though rarely it has been associated with viral infections. We describe the fourth case reported in the literature of SUNCT in association with viral meningoencephalitis.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234548/steroid-responsive-encephalopathy-associated-with-autoimmune-thyroiditis-presenting-with-fever-and-confusion
#19
Chiranthi Kongala Liyanage, Tilak Manthi Janake Munasinghe, Adsareswary Paramanantham
Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis (SREAT) is a diagnostic conundrum as it may present with a myriad of nonspecific clinical features and laboratory and neuroimaging investigations are not diagnostic. We report a case of a 65-year-old female who presented with an acute febrile illness associated with headache and confusion, tangential thoughts, and loose association. Based on neutrophil leukocytosis in the full blood count and elevated inflammatory markers, she was commenced on empirical intravenous antibiotics suspecting meningoencephalitis...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230484/-vaccination-in-advanced-age
#20
REVIEW
H J Heppner, A Leischker, P Wutzler, A Kwetkat
Infectious diseases are responsible for up to 5% of fatalities even in developed countries. In addition, there is an increasing susceptibility for infections in elderly people due to physiological aging of the immune system. The principles of vaccination are based on a targeted activation of the human immune system. Principally, a distinction is made between passive immunization, i.e. the application of specific antibodies against a pathogen and active immunization. In active immunization, i.e. vaccination, weakened (attenuated) or dead pathogens or components of pathogens (antigens) are administered...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
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