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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131676/incidence-of-postoperative-neurologic-complications-in-pugs-following-portosystemic-shunt-attenuation-surgery
#1
Mandy L Wallace, Catriona M MacPhail, Eric Monnet
Postoperative seizures occur in 5-12% of dogs following surgical attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (CEPSS) and are often refractory to treatment. Because pugs are predisposed to necrotizing meningoencephalitis, they may be at higher risk of developing neurologic complications after CEPSS attenuation. We hypothesized that pugs have a higher prevalence of postoperative neurologic complications and that pugs who died due to neurologic complications would have evidence of encephalitis at necropsy...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128927/toll-like-receptors-participate-in-naegleria-fowleri-recognition
#2
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri is a protozoan that invades the central nervous system and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. It has been reported that N. fowleri induces an important inflammatory response during the infection. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of Toll-like receptors in the recognition of N. fowleri trophozoites by human mucoepithelial cells, analyzing the expression and production of innate immune response mediators. After amoebic interactions with NCI-H292 cells, the expression and production levels of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and human beta defensin-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and dot blot assays, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127615/fungal-and-parasitic-cns-infections
#3
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120154/predisposing-factors-responsible-for-the-occurrence-of-bacterial-purulent-meningoencephalitis
#4
Brankica Dupanović, Olgica Gajović, Dragica Terzić, Bogdanka Andrić, Zoran Todorović, Branko Jakovljević, Danko Živković
Bacterial purulent meningoencephalitis (BPME) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by various pyogenic bacteria. The disease is defined as the inflammatory process of leptomeninges (visceral layer, pia mater and arachnoid membrane) and brain parenchyma with exudates in the subarachnoid space and surrounding brain structures. The aim of the study was to define the predisposing factors responsible for the occurrence of BPME, as well as the possible correlation between the presence of predisposing factors and patient demographic characteristics, etiology and outcome of the disease...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118127/peripheral-blood-biomarkers-of-disease-outcome-in-a-monkey-model-of-rift-valley-fever-encephalitis
#5
Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Amy L Caroline, Cynthia M McMillen, Aaron W Walters, Douglas S Reed, Simon M Barratt-Boyes, Amy L Hartman
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an emerging arboviral disease of livestock and people. Although a mosquito-borne virus, humans are infected through contact with or inhalation of virus-laden particles from contaminated animal carcasses. Some individuals infected with RVF virus (RVFV) develop meningoencephalitis resulting in morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to neurologic sequelae, and thus animal models that represent human disease are needed. African green monkeys (AGM) exposed to aerosols containing RVFV develop a reproducibly lethal neurological disease that resembles human illness...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116409/chronic-meningoencephalitis-caused-by-echo-virus%C3%A2-6-in-a%C3%A2-patient-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-successful-treatment-with-pleconaril
#6
Igor Radanović, Deni Rkman, Paulo Zekan, Marko Kutleša, Bruno Baršić
Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis, most commonly caused by echoviruses, can particularly be seen in agammaglobulinemic patients. In spite of the fact that no specific treatment for enteroviral infections exists, pleconaril is an antiviral drug reported to be efficient against enteroviral infections in infants and adults. We present a case of a 42-year-old male, previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency, who presented with severe chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Echo virus 6 and was successfully treated with pleconaril...
November 7, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113016/cryptococcal-dissemination-to-the-central-nervous-system-requires-the-vacuolar-calcium-transporter-pmc1
#7
Eamim D Squizani, Natália K Oliveira, Júlia C V Reuwsaat, Bárbara M Marques, William Lopes, Alexandra L Gerber, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Sophie Lev, Julianne T Djordjevic, Augusto Schrank, Marilene H Vainstein, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast and the cause of cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. The most severe form of the disease is meningoencephalitis, which is one of the leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to access the central nervous system (CNS), C. neoformans relies on the activity of certain virulence factors such as urease, which allows transmigration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we demonstrate that the calcium transporter Pmc1 enables C...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#8
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104430/pitfalls-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-invasive-pneumococcal-meningoencephalitis-what-we-can-learn-from-a-case
#9
Pascale S Grzonka, Raoul Sutter
Invasive pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease affecting the central nervous system. It continues to be the most common type of community-acquired acute bacterial meningitides. Despite advances in neuro-critical care, the case fatality rate remains high. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of antibiotic therapy precludes mortality and long-term neurological sequelae in survivors. However, not all cases are easily recognised, and unanticipated complications may impede optimal course and outcome...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081366/central-nervous-system-infections-in-the-absence-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-pleocytosis
#10
Hakan Erdem, Derya Ozturk-Engin, Yasemin Cag, Seniha Senbayrak, Asuman Inan, Esra Kazak, Umit Savasci, Nazif Elaldi, Haluk Vahaboglu, Rodrigo Hasbun
Previous multicenter/multinational studies were evaluated to determine the frequency of the absence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in patients with central nervous system infections, as well as the clinical impact of this condition. It was found that 18% of neurosyphilis, 7.9% of herpetic meningoencephalitis, 3% of tuberculous meningitis, 1.7% of Brucella meningitis, and 0.2% of pneumococcal meningitis cases did not display cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Most patients were not immunosuppressed. Patients without pleocytosis had a high rate of unfavorable outcomes and thus this condition should not be underestimated...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078126/differential-diagnosis-of-scrub-typhus-meningitis-from-tuberculous-meningitis-using-clinical-and-laboratory-features
#11
Ashraf V Valappil, Sohanlal Thiruvoth, Jabir M Peedikayil, Praveenkumar Raghunath, Manojan Thekkedath
OBJECTIVES: The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070439/amyloid-and-immune-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Ying-Hui Wang, Yu-Gen Zhang
Extracellular amyloid deposition defines a range of amyloidosis and amyloid-related disease. Addition to primary and secondary amyloidosis, amyloid-related disease can be observed in different tissue/organ that sharing the common pathogenesis based on the formation of amyloid deposition. Currently, both Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with certainly only based on the autopsy results, by which amyloidosis of the associative tissue/organ is observed. Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity...
October 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057859/neurological-manifestations-laboratory-and-neuroimaging-features-in-hiv-infected-patients
#13
Hai Chen, Fangju Lin, Shimeng Liu, Yuwei Da, Dongmei Guo
OBJECTIVE: To present detailed information regarding these aspects in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients making an effort to improve the recognition of neurological complications of HIV infection. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the clinical manifestations, laboratory and neuroimaging results of HIV-infected patients with neurological complications at Xuanwu hospital, Beijing, China from January 2011 to December 2014, one of top-rated hospitals in Beijing, China...
October 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056932/pathogenicity-of-human-st23-streptococcus-agalactiae-to-fish-and-genomic-comparison-of-pathogenic-and-non-pathogenic-isolates
#14
Rui Wang, Liping Li, Yin Huang, Ting Huang, Jiayou Tang, Ting Xie, Aiying Lei, Fuguang Luo, Jian Li, Yan Huang, Yunliang Shi, Dongying Wang, Ming Chen, Qiang Mi, Weiyi Huang
Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a major pathogen causing neonatal sepsis and meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. CC23, including its namesake ST23, is not only the predominant GBS strain derived from human and cattle, but also can infect a variety of homeothermic and poikilothermic species. However, it has never been characterized in fish. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS to fish and explore the mechanisms causing the difference in the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS based on the genome analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053888/epidemiological-patterns-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-in-lithuania-and-clinical-features-in-adults-in-the-light-of-the-high-incidence-in-recent-years-a-retrospective-study
#15
Daiva Radzišauskienė, Kęstutis Žagminas, Loreta Ašoklienė, Arminas Jasionis, Rūta Mameniškienė, Arvydas Ambrozaitis, Ligita Jančorienė, Dalius Jatužis, Iveta Petraitytė, Evelina Mockienė
BACKGROUND: Lithuania is one of the countries with the highest incidence of TBE in Europe. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological patterns of TBE in Lithuania, and characterize clinical features in adults in the light of the high incidence in recent years. METHODS: Surveillance data available on the website of the Center for Communicable Diseases and AIDS of Lithuania were used to describe the epidemiological patterns of TBE. The retrospective study included 712 patients hospitalized in the Center for Infectious Diseases and the Center for Neurology of Vilnius University in the years 2005-2014...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050838/three-children-of-meningoencephalitis-with-kikuchi-necrotizing-lymphadenitis
#16
Joung-Hee Byun, Su Eun Park, Sang Ook Nam, Young A Kim, Young Mi Kim, Gyu Min Yeon, Yun-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Kikuchi necrotizing lymphadenitis (KNL) is a rare and benign cause of lymphadenopathy, most often cervical. The etiology of KNL remains unknown. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, such as in meningoencephalitis, is a very rare clinical manifestation of KNL, especially in children. CASE REPORTS: A 12-year-old boy presented with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Histopathological findings led to the diagnosis of KNL. He revisited due to severe headache and vomiting one week later...
October 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044046/locally-extensive-meningoencephalitis-caused-by-miamiensis-avidus-syn-philasterides-dicentrarchi-in-a-zebra-shark
#17
Wen-Ta Li, Chieh Lo, Chen-Yi Su, Hsuan Kuo, Susanne Je-Han Lin, Hui-Wei Chang, Victor Fei Pang, Chian-Ren Jeng
Scuticociliatosis, caused by ciliated protozoa in the subclass Scuticociliatia of the phylum Ciliophora, can cause fatal disease in teleost fish species. However, information on scuticociliatosis in elasmobranchs is still scarce. In this report, we describe a case of locally extensive meningoencephalitis caused by Miamiensis avidus (syn. Philasterides dicentrarchi) in a 2 yr old captive zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. Granulocytic meningoencephalitis was observed through histological assessment. Inflammation was confined to the ventral aspect of the brain with a large number of ciliated protozoa, transforming into non-suppurative meningitis in the lateral aspect, and gradually vanished in the dorsal aspect...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026617/cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-multiple-aneurysms-in-a-child-with-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#18
Elisa Kortela, Jukka Hytönen, Jussi Numminen, Margit Overmyer, Harri Saxen, Jarmo Oksi
Introduction. Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Neurological manifestations are reported in up to 15 % of adult patients with Lyme disease, while the frequency among children is higher. The most common manifestations are painful radiculopathy, facial nerve paresis and lymphocytic meningitis. Epileptic seizures and cerebral vasculitis with stroke or aneurysms are very rare complications. Case presentation. We describe a paediatric patient with sensorineural auditory dysfunction, headache, fatigue and epileptic seizures as sequelae of meningoencephalitis/Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) caused by B...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022865/toscana-virus-cap-snatching-and-initiation-of-transcription
#19
Abdennour Amroun, Stéphane Priet, Gilles Querat
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus within the family Phenuiviridae in the order Bunyavirales. It seems to be an important agent of human meningoencephalitis in the warm season in the Mediterranean area. Because the polymerase of Bunyavirales lacks a capping activity, it cleaves short-capped RNA leaders derived from the host cell, and uses them to initiate viral mRNA synthesis. To determine the size and nucleotide composition of the host-derived RNA leaders, and to elucidate the first steps of TOSV transcription initiation, we performed a high-throughput sequencing of the 5' end of TOSV mRNAs in infected cells at different times post-infection...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022542/streptococcus-azizii-sp-nov-isolated-from-na%C3%A3-ve-weanling-mice
#20
Patricia Lynn Shewmaker, Anne M Whitney, Christopher A Gulvik, Neil S Lipman
Three isolates of a previously reported novel catalase-negative, Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, alpha-haemolytic, Streptococcus species that were associated with meningoencephalitis in naïve weanling mice were further evaluated to confirm their taxonomic status and to determine additional phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed nearly identical intra-species sequence similarity (≥99.9 %), and revealed the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptococcus acidominimus and Streptococcus cuniculi, with 97...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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