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Yvonne Groen, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha
This study describes the development and utility of a new self-report measure of attentional capacities of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the Everyday Life Attention Scale (ELAS). Different from previous attention scales, attentional capacities are rated for nine everyday situations. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the ELAS in 1206 healthy participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a situation-specific approach which categorizes everyday attention into nine situation scales: Reading, Movie, Activity, Lecture, Conversation, Assignment, Cooking, Cleaning up, and Driving...
March 14, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Ning Zhuang, Ying Zeng, Kai Yang, Chi Zhang, Li Tong, Bin Yan
Most current approaches to emotion recognition are based on neural signals elicited by affective materials such as images, sounds and videos. However, the application of neural patterns in the recognition of self-induced emotions remains uninvestigated. In this study we inferred the patterns and neural signatures of self-induced emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG signals of 30 participants were recorded while they watched 18 Chinese movie clips which were intended to elicit six discrete emotions, including joy, neutrality, sadness, disgust, anger and fear...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Hilary Richardson, Grace Lisandrelli, Alexa Riobueno-Naylor, Rebecca Saxe
Human adults recruit distinct networks of brain regions to think about the bodies and minds of others. This study characterizes the development of these networks, and tests for relationships between neural development and behavioral changes in reasoning about others' minds ('theory of mind', ToM). A large sample of children (n = 122, 3-12 years), and adults (n = 33), watched a short movie while undergoing fMRI. The movie highlights the characters' bodily sensations (often pain) and mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions), and is a feasible experiment for young children...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Hélène Carabin, Athanase Millogo, Helena A Ngowi, Cici Bauer, Veronique Dermauw, Assana Cissé Koné, Ida Sahlu, Alicia L Salvator, Pierre-Marie Preux, Télesphore Somé, Zékiba Tarnagda, Sarah Gabriël, Rabiou Cissé, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Linda D Cowan, Marie-Paule Boncoeur-Martel, Pierre Dorny, Rasmané Ganaba
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of drug-free interventions in controlling human cysticercosis is not well known. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a community-based educational intervention in reducing the frequency of human cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial between 2011 and 2014. 60 eligible villages from three provinces (Boulkiemdé, Sanguié, and Nayala) were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Irene Dang, Alexis Gautreau
Cell migration is essential to many biological processes such as embryonic development, immune surveillance and wound healing. Random cell migration refers to the intrinsic ability of cells to migrate, often called cell motility. This basal condition contrasts with directed cell migration, where cells migrate toward a chemical or physical cue. Unlike Brownian particles, however, randomly migrating cells exhibit a directional persistence, i.e., they are more likely to sustain the movement in the direction they previously took than to change, even if this direction is randomly chosen in an isotropic environment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jie Wei, Ming Chao
PURPOSE: We presented a feasibility study to extract the diaphragm motion from the inferior contrast cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images using a constrained linear regression optimization algorithm. METHODS: The shape of the diaphragm was fitted by a parabolic function which was initialized by five manually placed points on the diaphragm contour of a pre-selected projection. A constrained linear regression model by exploiting the spatial, algebraic, and temporal constraints of the diaphragm, approximated by a parabola, was employed to estimate the parameters...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Dawn S Lin, Andrey Kan, Jerry Gao, Edmund J Crampin, Philip D Hodgkin, Shalin H Naik
A thorough understanding of cellular development is incumbent on assessing the complexities of fate and kinetics of individual clones within a population. Here, we develop a system for robust periodical assessment of lineage outputs of thousands of transient clones and establishment of bona fide cellular trajectories. We appraise the development of dendritic cells (DCs) in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand culture from barcode-labeled hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) by serially measuring barcode signatures and visualize these multidimensional data using developmental interpolated t-distributed stochastic neighborhood embedding (DiSNE) time-lapse movies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Timothy Grant, Alexis Rohou, Nikolaus Grigorieff
We have developed new open-source software called cis TEM (computational imaging system for transmission electron microscopy) for the processing of data for high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle averaging. cis TEM features a graphical user interface that is used to submit jobs, monitor their progress, and display results. It implements a full processing pipeline including movie processing, image defocus determination, automatic particle picking, 2D classification, ab-initio 3D map generation from random parameters, 3D classification, and high-resolution refinement and reconstruction...
March 7, 2018: ELife
Karen E Atler, Aaron M Eakman, Rebecca Orsi
BACKGROUND: Experiences of hedonia (i.e., seeking pleasure) and eudaimonia (i.e., actualizing human potential in pursuit of meaningful goals) are central to the study of human well-being. PURPOSE: This study sought to examine levels of hedonia (pleasure) and eudaimonia (productivity) in a convenience sample of college (university) students' ( n = 264) daily activities, controlling for levels of perceived stress. METHOD: Data were gathered using a 24-hr time-use recall diary designed to assess objective and subjective information about everyday activities...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
Thomas A W Bolton, Delphine Jochaut, Anne-Lise Giraud, Dimitri Van De Ville
To refine our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), studies of the brain in dynamic, multimodal and ecological experimental settings are required. One way to achieve this is to compare the neural responses of ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals when viewing a naturalistic movie, but the temporal complexity of the stimulus hampers this task, and the presence of intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) may overshadow movie-driven fluctuations. Here, we detected inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) transients to disentangle movie-induced functional changes from underlying resting-state activity while probing FC dynamically...
March 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Haiguang Wen, Junxing Shi, Wei Chen, Zhongming Liu
The brain represents visual objects with topographic cortical patterns. To address how distributed visual representations enable object categorization, we established predictive encoding models based on a deep residual network, and trained them to predict cortical responses to natural movies. Using this predictive model, we mapped human cortical representations to 64,000 visual objects from 80 categories with high throughput and accuracy. Such representations covered both the ventral and dorsal pathways, reflected multiple levels of object features, and preserved semantic relationships between categories...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Noga Oren, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Yulia Lerner, Talma Hendler, Nir Giladi, Elissa L Ash
Aging is marked by memory decline that is exacerbated with attentional loading. Achieving a complex understanding of older adults' neural functions when encoding information in conditions of high and low attentional load is a necessary step toward understanding this phenomenon. Furthermore, the information gained may be used to devise strategies aimed to prevent age-related decline in these processes. To address this issue, a group of older adults underwent fMRI scanning while encoding short movies under two levels of attentional loading...
February 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Kaisu Lankinen, Jukka Saari, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Pia Tikka, Lauri Parkkonen, Riitta Hari, Miika Koskinen
Movie-viewing allows human perception and cognition to be studied in complex, real-life-like situations in a brain-imaging laboratory. Previous studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and with magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) have demonstrated consistent temporal dynamics of brain activity across movie viewers. However, little is known about the similarities and differences of fMRI and MEG/EEG dynamics during such naturalistic situations. We thus compared MEG and fMRI responses to the same 15-min black-and-white movie in the same eight subjects who watched the movie twice during both MEG and fMRI recordings...
February 24, 2018: NeuroImage
Sumit Anand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Derrick Ssewanyana, Amina Abubakar, Anneloes van Baar, Patrick N Mwangala, Charles R Newton
Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are among the key modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although such diseases often only appear in adulthood, these behaviors are typically initiated or reinforced already during adolescence. However, knowledge on underlying factors for adolescents' unhealthy dieting and physical inactivity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is poor. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore the perceptions of a diverse group of 78 young people of 10-19 years of age, which also included some adolescents living with HIV, as this is an emerging group in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in many parts of SSA...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Jonghyeok Park, Hackjin Kim, Jeong-Woo Sohn, Jong-Ryul Choi, Sung-Phil Kim
Humans often attempt to predict what others prefer based on a narrow slice of experience, called thin-slicing. According to the theoretical bases for how humans can predict the preference of others, one tends to estimate the other's preference using a perceived difference between the other and self. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that the network of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is related to the ability of predicting others' preference. However, it still remains unknown about the temporal patterns of neural activities for others' preference prediction through thin-slicing...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fumihiro Kano, Stephen V Shepherd, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call
When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models' eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and the effects of experience on patterns of gaze toward social movies...
2018: PloS One
Justin C Ondry, Matthew R Hauwiller, A Paul Alivisatos
Using in-situ high resolution TEM, we study the structure and dynamics of well-defined edge dislocations in imperfectly attached PbTe nanocrystals. We identify that attachment of PbTe nanocrystals on both {100} and {110} facets give rise to b=a/2<110> edge dislocations. Based on the Burgers vector of individual dislocations, we can identify the glide plane of the dislocations. We observe that defects in particles attached on {100} facets have glide planes that quickly intersect the surface, and HRTEM movies show that the defects follow the glide plane to the surface...
February 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Carly Zapata, Hillary D Lum, Emily Wistar, Claire Horton, Rebecca L Sudore
BACKGROUND: Primary care providers in safety-net settings often do not have time to discuss advance care planning (ACP). Group visits (GV) may be an efficient means to provide ACP education. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and impact of a video-based website to facilitate GVs to engage diverse adults in ACP. DESIGN: Feasibility pilot among patients who were ≥55 years of age from two primary care clinics in a Northern California safety-net setting...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Amy Bleakley, Atika Khurana, Michael Hennessy, Morgan Ellithorpe
CONTEXT: Parents, peers and media are informal sources of sexual information for adolescents. Although the content of sexual information communicated by these sources is known to vary, little is known about what adolescents report actually learning from each source. METHODS: Data from 1,990 U.S.14-17-year-olds who participated in an online survey in 2015 were used to assess learning about four topics (sex, condoms, hormonal birth control and romantic relationships) from three informal sources (parents, peers, and television and movies)...
February 20, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
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