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Z Kotmanova, M Simera, M Veternik, L Martvon, J Misek, J Jakus, T Y Shen, M N Musselwhite, T Pitts, D C Bolser, I Poliacek
GABA, muscimol, and baclofen were microinjected into the rostral (rNTS) and caudal solitary tract nucleus (cNTS) in 24 anesthetized cats. Electromyograms (EMGs) of diaphragm (DIA) and abdominal muscles (ABD), blood pressure and esophageal pressure (EP) were recorded and analysed. Bilateral microinjections of 1 mM GABA (total 66 ± 4 nl), 1 mM baclofen (64 ± 4 nl) and unilateral microinjections of 0.5 mM muscimol (33 ± 1 nl) in the rNTS significantly reduced cough number (CN), amplitudes of ABD EMGs, expiratory EP, and prolonged the duration of the cough inspiratory phase...
February 20, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Meredith T Niles, Jonathan D Salerno
Future climate changes will affect smallholder farmers in the developing world, posing threats to household food security. Nevertheless, there remains limited comparable evidence across multiple countries and regions regarding the global extent of climate shocks affecting smallholder food security. We examine data from 5,299 household surveys across 15 countries in Latin America, Africa and South Asia to assess the extent of climate shocks and their association with food insecurity, as well as what strategies may help buffer against climate shocks...
2018: PloS One
Victor A Brugman, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Jolyon M Medlock, Anthony R Fooks, Simon Carpenter, Nicholas Johnson
Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Thibault Allain, Soraya Chaouch, Myriam Thomas, Marie-Agnès Travers, Isabelle Valle, Philippe Langella, Philippe Grellier, Bruno Polack, Isabelle Florent, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, a disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea and abdominal pain in a large number of mammal species. Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal parasitic diseases in the world and thus a high veterinary, and public health concern. It is well-established that some probiotic bacteria may confer protection against this parasite in vitro and in vivo and we recently documented the implication of bile-salt hydrolase (BSH)-like activities from strain La1 of Lactobacillus johnsonii as mediators of these effects in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Majda Khalil Suleiman, Narayana Ramachandra Bhat, Sheena Jacob, Meali Al-Burais
Plant physiological and morphological attributes should be critically evaluated for selecting any species for landscaping projects. The selection of a species should be based on the evaluation of its adaptability, noninvasiveness, growth potential, and performance under the prevailing local arid conditions for their aesthetic looks, soil stabilization, and afforestation values. Chrysopogon zizanoides (Vetiver), is suitable for Kuwait because it can withstand fluctuating temperatures ranging from -14 to 55 °C with unique physical and physiological characteristics...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Kamelia M Osman, Ashgan M Hessain, Usama H Abo-Shama, Zeinab M Girh, Saleh A Kabli, Hassan A Hemeg, Ihab M Moussa
Escherichia coli is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the underdeveloped countries to differentiate pathogenic from non-pathogenic E. coli is a problematic issue. Our grail was to assess the phenotypic virulence markers motility, hemolysin, congo red agar, embryo lethality assay and serum resistance for pathogenic E. coli (PEC) correlated to PCR tests which is currently used world-wide to evaluate the PEC. The 448 strains of Escherichia coli that were isolated from different sources, were characterized for phenotypic virulence factors such as motility, hemolysin, Congo red binding, Embryo Lethality assay (ELA) and serum resistance, as well as antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion method to 23 antibiotics ...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
(no author information available yet)
Based on her own life experiences, vet Belinda Johnston set up Our Special Friends, a charity that promotes and supports the bond between people and their pets.
February 24, 2018: Veterinary Record
Catherine Ness
A vet with an unconventional approach to life, Clif Botcherby was always ready to help others and was 'a great boss'. He was a keen golfer and was passionate about Robert Burns.
February 24, 2018: Veterinary Record
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Veterinary Record
Katelyn Wassell, Josh Sullivan, Bryan Paul Jett, Jeffrey Zuber
PURPOSE: Results of a study to compare the impact of clinical pharmacy specialist (CPS) interventions with primary care physician (PCP) interventions in veterans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in a rural setting are presented. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed examining veterans diagnosed with T2D with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) of ≥8% receiving treatment at a rural community-based outpatient clinic associated with the Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Maren Bernau, Bernd Große Liesner, Sebastian Schwanitz, Ann-Sophie Kraus, Almuth Falkenau, Miriam Leipig-Rudolph, Walter Hermanns, Armin Manfred Scholz
Safety testing is one major part of the licensing procedure for veterinary vaccines and demands a large number of animals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was tested as an alternative, which may lead to a reduction in numbers of animals required for safety testing, and, correspondingly to a detailed description of the three-dimensional extent of the local tissue reaction repetitively in live pigs. In previous pig studies the following questions arose:To answer these questions the following study was performed by comparing two vaccine groups of suckling piglets (8 animals per group; A and B) with two control groups (4 animals per group; C and D)...
February 19, 2018: Vaccine
Jordan S Robinson, Robert L Collins, Brian I Miller, Vitor H Pacheco, Nicholas M Wisdom
Objective: The current study sought to evaluate and replicate the severe impairment profile (SIP) of the Word Memory Test (WMT) in patients referred for dementia evaluations. Method: The sample consisted of 125 patients referred for a neuropsychological evaluation at a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Patients were assigned a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) by blind raters, and were classified according to their performance on performance validity testing. Subsequent chart reviews were conducted to help in more accurately determining the presence of severe memory impairment likely due to an underlying dementing process versus poor effort/task engagement...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Ariel N Rivers, Christina A Mullen, Mary E Barbercheck
Agricultural practices affect arthropod communities and, therefore, have the potential to influence the activities of arthropods. We evaluated the effect of cover crop species and termination timing on the activity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in transition to organic production in Pennsylvania, United States. We compared two cover crop treatments: 1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) planted together with triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) after wheat harvest, and 2) cereal rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus) planted after corn harvest...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Fernando Carlos Vetromille Ribeiro, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
INTRODUCTION: The Forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a particularly useful test of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system that has an increasingly important role in lung function laboratories. There is general agreement in the literature that the determination of reference values is of utmost importance in the clinical use of the FOT. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to present reference values for whole-breath FOT measurements, establish which anthropometric variables were more predictive of impedance parameters, and provide all the details to adequately adopt these reference equations in individual laboratories...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Qiting Zuo, Chunhui Han, Jing Liu, Junxia Ma
Water quality assessment is an important basic work in the development, utilization, management, and protection of water resources, and also a prerequisite for water safety. In this paper, the harmony degree equation (HDE) was introduced into the research of water quality assessment, and a new method for water quality assessment was proposed according to the HDE: by harmony degree equation (WQA-HDE). First of all, the calculation steps and ideas of this method were described in detail, and then, this method with some other important methods of water quality assessment (single factor assessment method, mean-type comprehensive index assessment method, and multi-level gray correlation assessment method) were used to assess the water quality of the Shaying River (the largest tributary of the Huaihe in China)...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Thomas H Hansen
At a VA hospital, wait times for gastroenterology care have been in the order of 60 to 90 days for new clinic consults. Through a quality improvement process, these times were reduced to less than 30 days. With a revised triage process, the number of consults needing to be scheduled into the clinic was reduced 34%. In addition to achieving rapid clinical access, the weekly half-day clinic became less congested and more efficient. We describe this process of achieving improved access.
March 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
C Best, J B Coe, J Hewson, M Meehan, D Kelton
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the veterinary referral process and factors that contribute to positive outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate equine referring veterinarians' (rDVMs') satisfaction with their most recent referral experience and compare rDVM and specialist perspectives. SAMPLE: 187 rDVMs and 92 specialists (referral care providers). METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. An online survey was administered to both rDVMs and specialists...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
M A Kopke, R K Burchell, C G Ruaux, S E Burton, N Lopez-Villalobos, A Gal
BACKGROUND: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a screening tool for early kidney dysfunction and monitoring treatment in cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are no current studies describing the suitability of this test for use with published population-based reference intervals. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the components of biological variability, the index of individuality (IOI), the critical difference between sequential measurements (CD ) and the number of measurements required to assess the homeostatic set point (HSP), for both SDMA and serum creatinine (sCr), in apparently healthy dogs...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
T M Sørensen, C R Bjørnvad, G Cordoba, P Damborg, L Guardabassi, V Siersma, L Bjerrum, L R Jessen
BACKGROUND: Clinical signs of urinary tract disease in dogs often lead to prescription of antibiotics. Appropriate diagnostic work-up could optimize treatment and reduce the risk of inappropriate use of antibiotics. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe and evaluate the impact of diagnostic work-up on decision to treat (DTT) and choice of antibiotic treatment (COT) for dogs presenting with clinical signs of urinary tract disease. ANIMALS: One hundred and fifty-one dogs presenting to 52 Danish veterinary practices...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Edward Alan Miller, Orna Intrator, Emily Gadbois, Stefanie Gidmark, James L Rudolph
This study identifies factors VA staff perceived to promote or impede home and community-based services (HCBS) placement post-hospital discharge among Veterans cared for within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Data derive from 35 semi-structured interviews with staff from 12 VA Medical Centers from around the country. VA staff reported that Veterans' care needs and social and financial resources influence HCBS placement. They also reported prerequisites for successful placement, including housing, unpaid informal care, and non-VA services funded privately and by public programs such as Medicaid and the Older Americans Act...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
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