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LL37 and mucosa

Jivianne T Lee, Oswaldo H Escobar, Rabin Anouseyan, Agnieszka Janisiewicz, Edward Eivers, Keith E Blackwell, David B Keschner, Rohit Garg, Edith Porter
BACKGROUND: Airway secretions contain endogenous antimicrobial factors (AMFs) that contribute to the innate host defense of the respiratory tract. Antibacterial peptides as well as host-derived lipids including cholesteryl esters have been detected in maxillary lavage fluid. Sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) is a key enzyme in cholesteryl ester production. The purpose of this study is to determine if such intrinsic microbicidal molecules are acutely expressed within sinus tissue and to compare levels of expression between patients with and without chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)...
November 2014: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Sabine Nuding, Michael Gersemann, Yoshio Hosaka, Sabrina Konietzny, Christian Schaefer, Julia Beisner, Bjoern O Schroeder, Maureen J Ostaff, Katunori Saigenji, German Ott, Martin Schaller, Eduard F Stange, Jan Wehkamp
BACKGROUND: Although antimicrobial peptides protect mucus and mucosa from bacteria, Helicobacter pylori is able to colonize the gastric mucus. To clarify in which extend Helicobacter escapes the antimicrobial defense, we systematically assessed susceptibility and expression levels of different antimicrobial host factors in gastric mucosa with and without H. pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression levels of HBD1 (gene name DEFB1), HBD2 (DEFB4A), HBD3 (DEFB103A), HBD4 (DEFB104A), LL37 (CAMP) and elafin (PI3) by real time PCR in gastric biopsy samples in a total of 20 controls versus 12 patients colonized with H...
2013: PloS One
Thomas W Cullen, David K Giles, Lindsey N Wolf, Chantal Ecobichon, Ivo G Boneca, M Stephen Trent
Modification of bacterial surface structures, such as the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is used by many pathogenic bacteria to help evade the host innate immune response. Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium capable of chronic colonization of the human stomach, modifies its lipid A by removal of phosphate groups from the 1- and 4'-positions of the lipid A backbone. In this study, we identify the enzyme responsible for dephosphorylation of the lipid A 4'-phosphate group in H. pylori, Jhp1487 (LpxF)...
December 2011: PLoS Pathogens
Christian Rodriguez Rodrigues, Mercedes Cabrini, Federico Remes Lenicov, Juan Sabatté, Ana Ceballos, Carolina Jancic, Silvina Raiden, Matías Ostrowski, Claudia Silberstein, Jorge Geffner
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role in anti-viral immunity by virtue of their ability to produce high amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) and a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to viral infections. Since recent studies have established that pDCs accumulate at the site of virus entry in the mucosa, here we analyzed whether epithelial cells were able to modulate the function of pDCs. We found that the epithelial cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2, as well as a primary culture of human renal tubular epithelial cells (HRTEC), induced the phenotypic maturation of pDCs stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines...
2011: PloS One
Lindsey A Edwards, Colette O'Neill, Mark A Furman, Susan Hicks, Franco Torrente, Miguel Pérez-Machado, Elizabeth M Wellington, Alan D Phillips, Simon H Murch
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus may cause severe inflammatory intestinal disease, particularly in infants or immunodeficient or elderly patients. They are also recognized to be associated with sudden infant death syndrome. Little is known, however, about mucosal responses to staphylococci. METHODS: The mucosal lesion in three infants with staphylococcal enterocolitis was assessed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The organisms underwent extensive molecular analysis...
April 2012: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Dan Xie, Yunkai Guo, Dan Wu, Dinghua Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expressions of LL-37 and IL-8 in chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps. METHOD: Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the expressions of LL-37 and IL-8 in nasal polyp tissues of 31 patients with chronic sinusitis and inferior turbinate tissues of 11 patients with chronic rhinitis. RESULT: LL-37 and IL-8 mRNA were all positively expressed in all nasal polyps and inferior turbinate tissues...
April 2010: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Hitoshi Komatsuzawa, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Toshihisa Kawai, Sakuo Yamada, Tamaki Fujiwara, Hideki Shiba, Hidemi Kurihara, Martin A Taubman, Motoyuki Sugai
Antimicrobial peptides play an important role in the human innate immune defense system. In the oral cavity, a number of antimicrobial peptides, including defensins and LL37, are produced from various tissues such as salivary glands, gingival epithelium, tongue and buccal mucosa. These peptides are believed to function as a host defense system by controlling the activities of commensal bacteria and thus preventing the colonization and growth of pathogenic bacteria in oral cavity. Two major oral diseases, dental caries and periodontitis are known as infectious diseases...
2007: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jürgen Schauber, Frank Weiler, Andrea Gostner, Ralph Melcher, Theodor Kudlich, Hardi Lührs, Wolfgang Scheppach
The effect of regular consumption of the low-digestible and prebiotic isomalt versus the digestible sucrose on gene expression in rectal mucosa was examined in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Nineteen healthy volunteers received 30 g isomalt per day or 30 g sucrose as part of a controlled diet over two 4-week test periods with a 4-week washout period in between. At the end of each test phase rectal biopsies were obtained. After RNA extraction mucosal gene expression was assayed using GeneChip microarrays...
November 2006: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Beverly A Dale, Renchuan Tao, Janet R Kimball, Richard J Jurevic
The presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in saliva may be a biological factor that contributes to susceptibility or resistance to caries. This manuscript will review AMPs in saliva, consider their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions, and evaluate their potential role in the oral cavity for protection of the tooth surface as well as the oral mucosa. These AMPs are made in salivary gland and duct cells and have broad antimicrobial activity. Alpha-defensins and LL37 are also released by neutrophils into the gingival crevicular fluid...
June 15, 2006: BMC Oral Health
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