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New born screening

Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Esmaeil Porsa
Incarcerated individuals are at high risk of HIV and tuberculosis (TB), though combined screening in the criminal justice system is limited. Newer blood tests for TB provide a unique opportunity to combine HIV and TB testing in corrections. Entering jail inmates were offered routine opt-out HIV testing along with TB screening, both via blood draw. Of the 529 individuals enrolled, 524 (99%) agreed to HIV testing. Testing identified 13 (2.5%) previously diagnosed HIV infections and one new positive. One quarter (138, 26%) of participants had never been tested for HIV and were more likely to be young, Hispanic, born outside of the United States, and incarcerated for the first time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
J Pavlíček, E Klásková, E Doležálková, D Matura, R Špaček, T Gruszka, S Polanská, M Procházka
OBJECTIVE: To audit the development and success rate of prenatal detection of congenital heart defects (CHDs), and to evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostics performed in standardized scanning planes. SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Ostrava. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Ultrasound examination of fetal heart (fetal echocardiography) was performed in the second trimester pregnancy. The observed region was the Moravian-Silesian region; the assessment was performed in the retrospective study performed between 2000- 2016...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
Ludmila Ferreira de Almeida Fiuza, Raiza Brandão Peres, Marianne Rocha Simões-Silva, Patricia Bernardino da Silva, Denise da Gama Jaen Batista, Cristiane França da Silva, Aline Nefertiti Silva da Gama, Tummala Rama Krishna Reddy, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro
American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease (CD) is a vector borne pathology caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), which remains a serious global health problem. The current available treatment for CD is limited to two nitroderivatives with limited efficacy and several side effects. The rational design of ergosterol synthetic route inhibitors (e.g. CYP51 inhibitors) represents a promising strategy for fungi and trypanosomatids, exhibiting excellent anti-T.cruzi activity in pre-clinical assays...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jennifer L Norcliffe, John G Mina, Emilio Alvarez, Juan Cantizani, Francisco de Dios-Anton, Gonzalo Colmenarejo, Silva Gonzalez-Del Valle, Maria Marco, José M Fiandor, Julio J Martin, Patrick G Steel, Paul W Denny
Leishmaniasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease caused by the insect-vector borne protozoan parasite, Leishmania species. Infection affects millions of the world's poorest, however vaccines are absent and drug therapy limited. Recently, public-private partnerships have developed to identify new modes of controlling leishmaniasis. Drug discovery is a significant part of these efforts and here we describe the development and utilization of a novel assay to identify antiprotozoal inhibitors of the Leishmania enzyme, inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anne Sofie Høgh Kølbæk Kjær, Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, Niels Henrik Hjollund, Lotte Oerneborg Rodkjaer, Merete Storgaard
INTRODUCTION: Use of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) in outpatient care holds promise as a tool to enhance quality of care. The management of chronic HIV-infection is multidimensional, and clinical assessment includes broad screening to identify complications. With growing constraints on time and resources, the use of PROs may provide a much-needed tool to ensure optimal HIV-care. Here, we aimed to evaluate the clinical implementation and use of a web-based tool to collect PRO in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hester Korthals Altes, Serieke Kloet, Frank Cobelens, Martin Bootsma
While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import...
2018: PloS One
Mitchell L Shiffman
The epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) began in the 1960s when transmission was primarily the result of blood transfusions. By 1990, when HCV was identified and a serologic test for screening donated blood was implemented, 123 million persons had already become infected worldwide and HCV was the most common cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and the most common indication for liver transplantation. Approximately 75% of persons with HCV are "baby boomers" born between the years 1945 and 1965...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Sudha Rathna Prabhu, Shriraam Mahadevan, Sujatha Jagadeesh, Dharani Dharan, Chandra Ganesh, Seshadri Suresh, Indrani Suresh
OBJECTIVE: To establish normative ultrasound data for thyroid gland volume in South Indian neonates and infants and compare with abnormal sonological features of thyroid in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) to explore thyroid ultrasound utility as a supportive screening tool to newborn screening programs for early detection of CH. METHODS: In view of impact of geo ethnic factors, varying growth velocities and body mass indices of human population worldwide, specific regional, age and gender related reference data for thyroid gland size and volume are vital...
February 9, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Adi L Tarca, Roberto Romero, Dereje W Gudicha, Offer Erez, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Lami Yeo, Gaurav Bhatti, Percy Pacora, Eli Maymon, Sonia S Hassan
BACKGROUND: The assessment of fetal growth disorders requires a standard. Current nomograms for the assessment of fetal growth in African American women have been derived either from neonatal (rather than fetal) biometry data or have not been customized for maternal ethnicity, weight, height, and parity and fetal sex. OBJECTIVE: We sought to (1) develop a new customized fetal growth standard for African American mothers; and (2) compare such a standard to 3 existing standards for the classification of fetuses as small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Valentina Chisu, Cipriano Foxi, Antonio Tanda, Giovanna Masala
Ticks are well known to be important vectors for a wide range of bacteria, viruses and protozoa affecting human and animal health. Ixodid ticks are widely distributed in Sardinia, and an increasing number of tick-borne bacteria have been documented in the island. A growing number of evidence are supporting the hypothesis of alternative transmission routes for chlamydial bacteria such as the involvement of vectors. This study was conducted to provide possible molecular detection of members belonging to the Chlamydiales order in Sardinian ticks and to update information concerning the presence of new ectoparasite-borne bacteria in ticks collected from domestic and wild hosts in a typical Mediterranean environment...
February 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
Matthew J Buchholz, Cheryl Davis, Naomi S Rowland, Carl W Dick
The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. This study examined ecological relationships of the B. burgdorferi/vector/reservoir system in order to understand the dynamics of Lyme disease risk in Kentucky...
February 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jonathan Hand, Keith Sigel, Shirish Huprikar, Camille Hamula, Meena Rana
INTRODUCTION: Pre-transplant screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is a complex consideration that varies by institution. Inconsistent performance of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) further complicates screening. Data regarding LTBI screening outcomes and test characteristics in large, foreign-born pre-transplant populations within the United States (US) is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients who received QuantiFERON® -TB Gold (QFT) prior to liver transplantation (LT) were included...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Miranda Surjadi
Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV), the cause of one of the most common infectious diseases, infects approximately 4 million to 5 million Americans with approximately half of infected individuals undiagnosed. Some workplaces screen employees for HCV exposure and other bloodborne pathogens (BBP) after needlestick injuries, but it is not well known whether employers screen employees for HCV without an occupational exposure. New guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that all individuals born between 1945 and 1965 should be screened for HCV regardless of risk; this provides an opportunity at the worksite for HCV outreach to employees, dependents, and retirees...
January 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
Faustino Torrico, Joaquim Gascon, Lourdes Ortiz, Cristina Alonso-Vega, María-Jesús Pinazo, Alejandro Schijman, Igor C Almeida, Fabiana Alves, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Isabela Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a major neglected vector-borne disease. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of three oral E1224 (a water-soluble ravuconazole prodrug) regimens and benznidazole versus placebo in adult chronic indeterminate Chagas disease. METHOD: In this proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomised phase 2 clinical trial, we recruited adults (18-50 years) with confirmed diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection from two outpatient units in Bolivia...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Magdalena Carlberg, Maigun Edhborg, Lene Lindberg
Several studies have used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), developed to screen new mothers, also for new fathers. This study aimed to further contribute to this knowledge by comparing assessment of possible depression in fathers and associated demographic factors by the EPDS and the Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS), developed for "male" depression screening. The study compared EPDS score ≥10 and ≥12, corresponding to minor and major depression, respectively, in relation to GMDS score ≥13...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Jinkook Lee, James P Smith
Imbalances in the sex ratio at birth in Southeast and East Asia increased especially after the mid-1980s. We study how ultrasonic technology affected sex ratios at birth in South Korea, a country with a strong son preference. Between 1985 and 1995 fetal screenings and abortion services were widely available, though not available in the years before, and prohibited in the years after. Using the 1985, 1995, and 2005 Census microdata, we examine changes in sex ratios of newborns by birth year. We then study periodic effects on the fertility stopping rule, using the 2006 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, which provides birth years for all children...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Miranda G Loutet, Matthew Burman, Nivenka Jayasekera, Duncan Trathen, Susan Dart, Heinke Kunst, Dominik Zenner
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening is an important intervention for tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low-incidence countries and is, therefore, a key component of England's TB control strategy. This study describes outcomes from a LTBI screening programme in a high-incidence area to inform national LTBI screening in England and other low-incidence countries.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of LTBI screening among eligible migrants (from high-incidence countries and entered the UK within the last 5 years), who were identified at primary-care clinics in Newham, London between August 2014 and August 2015...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Michaela Plamper, Felix Schreiner, Bettina Gohlke, Janina Kionke, Eckard Korsch, James Kirkpatrick, Mark Born, Stefan Aretz, Joachim Woelfle
Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) are at increased risk of developing benign and malignant tumors, including thyroid carcinoma. Benign thyroid lesions and single cases of thyroid carcinoma have been reported in children with PHTS. We conducted a retrospective, single-centered study including children and adolescents with a molecularly proven diagnosis of PTEN. Our cohort consists of 16 patients, with a mean age at diagnosis PHTS of 5.7 years. Twelve of 16 cases exhibited thyroid abnormalities (75%)...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Francesca Rizzo, Kathryn M Edenborough, Roberto Toffoli, Paola Culasso, Simona Zoppi, Alessandro Dondo, Serena Robetto, Sergio Rosati, Angelika Lander, Andreas Kurth, Riccardo Orusa, Luigi Bertolotti, Maria Lucia Mandola
BACKGROUND: Bat-borne virus surveillance is necessary for determining inter-species transmission risks and is important due to the wide-range of bat species which may harbour potential pathogens. This study aimed to monitor coronaviruses (CoVs) and paramyxoviruses (PMVs) in bats roosting in northwest Italian regions. Our investigation was focused on CoVs and PMVs due to their proven ability to switch host and their zoonotic potential. Here we provide the phylogenetic characterization of the highly conserved polymerase gene fragments...
December 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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