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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139600/arcr-modulates-biofilm-formation-in-the-dental-plaque-colonizer-streptococcus-gordonii
#1
Jill C Robinson, Nadia Rostami, John Casement, Waldemar Vollmer, Alexander H Rickard, Nicholas S Jakubovics
Biofilm formation and cell-cell sensing by the pioneer dental plaque coloniser Streptococcus gordonii is dependent upon arginine. This study aimed to identify genetic factors linking arginine-dependent responses and biofilm formation in S. gordonii. Isogenic mutants disrupted in genes required for biosynthesis or catabolism of arginine, or for arginine-dependent gene regulation, were screened for their ability to form biofilms in a static culture model. Biofilm formation by a knockout mutant of arcR, encoding an arginine-dependent regulator of transcription, was reduced to <50% that of the wild-type whereas other strains were unaffected...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132525/hepatitis-c-a-new-era
#2
REVIEW
Dee Ann Bragg, Ashley Crowl, Emily Manlove
More than 2 million Americans are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and only about half are aware that they are infected. Primarily blood-borne, risk factors for the virus include injection or intranasal drug use, unregulated tattoos, incarceration, and blood transfusion before 1992. In addition, 75% of those with the virus were born between 1945 and 1965, thus making the baby-boomer cohort a population of screening interest. Because acute and early chronic HCV are often asymptomatic, screening of at-risk individuals is of utmost importance...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082114/an-interspecies-heart-to-heart-using-xenopus-to-uncover-the-genetic-basis-of-congenital-heart-disease
#3
Alexandra MacColl Garfinkel, Mustafa K Khokha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the enormous impact congenital heart disease has on child health, it is imperative that we improve our understanding of the disease mechanisms that underlie patient phenotypes and clinical outcomes. This review will outline the merits of using the frog model, Xenopus, as a tool to study human cardiac development and left-right patterning mechanisms associated with congenital heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient-driven gene discovery continues to provide new insight into the mechanisms of congenital heart disease, and by extension, patient phenotypes and outcomes...
June 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073129/receipt-of-selected-preventive-health-services-for-women-and-men-of-reproductive-age-united-states-2011-2013
#4
Karen Pazol, Cheryl L Robbins, Lindsey I Black, Katherine A Ahrens, Kimberly Daniels, Anjani Chandra, Anjel Vahratian, Lorrie E Gavin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Receipt of key preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age (i.e., 15-44 years) can help them achieve their desired number and spacing of healthy children and improve their overall health. The 2014 publication Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs (QFP) establishes standards for providing a core set of preventive services to promote these goals. These services include contraceptive care for persons seeking to prevent or delay pregnancy, pregnancy testing and counseling, basic infertility services for those seeking to achieve pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, and other preconception care and related preventive health services...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055243/physiological-vital-sign-ranges-in-newborns-from-34-weeks-gestation-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Michelle Paliwoda, Karen New, Mark Davies, Fiona Bogossian
CONTEXT: The birth process and the moments thereafter are a crucial time for newborns as they adapt to extra uterine life. The adaptive process begins immediately and can take a number of days to complete. The process involves initiating and maintaining respirations, thermoregulation, and the change from foetal circulation to newborn circulation. The majority of newborns successfully adapt to extra uterine life, some experience difficulty. Early warning tools may assist clinicians identify early signs of failure to adapt and/or deterioration but these are dependent on 'Normal' vital sign reference ranges for triggering an escalation of care...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038510/lure-and-kill-yeast-interfering-rna-larvicides-targeting-neural-genes-in-the-human-disease-vector-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#6
Limb K Hapairai, Keshava Mysore, Yingying Chen, Elizabeth I Harper, Max P Scheel, Alexandra M Lesnik, Longhua Sun, David W Severson, Na Wei, Molly Duman-Scheel
New mosquito control strategies are vitally needed to address established arthropod-borne infectious diseases such as dengue and yellow fever and emerging diseases such as Zika and chikungunya, all of which are transmitted by the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. In this investigation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) was engineered to produce short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) corresponding to the Aedes aegypti orthologs of fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 2 (fez2) and leukocyte receptor cluster (lrc) member, two genes identified in a recent screen for A...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024765/identification-of-2-deoxy-2-fluorocytidine-as-a-potent-inhibitor-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-replication-using-a-recombinant-fluorescent-reporter-virus
#7
Stephen R Welch, Florine E M Scholte, Mike Flint, Payel Chatterjee, Stuart T Nichol, Éric Bergeron, Christina F Spiropoulou
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne orthonairovirus, causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, CCHF). Currently, no vaccines are approved to prevent CCHF; treatment is limited to supportive care and the use of ribavirin, the therapeutic benefits of which remain unclear. CCHF is part of WHO's priority list of infectious diseases warranting further research and development. To aid in the identification of new antiviral compounds, we generated a recombinant CCHFV expressing a reporter protein, allowing us to quantify virus inhibition by measuring the reduction in fluorescence in infected cells treated with candidate compounds...
October 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023425/screening-a-natural-product-based-library-against-kinetoplastid-parasites
#8
Bilal Zulfiqar, Amy J Jones, Melissa L Sykes, Todd B Shelper, Rohan A Davis, Vicky M Avery
Kinetoplastid parasites cause vector-borne parasitic diseases including leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Chagas disease. These Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) impact on some of the world's lowest socioeconomic communities. Current treatments for these diseases cause severe toxicity and have limited efficacy, highlighting the need to identify new treatments. In this study, the Davis open access natural product-based library was screened against kinetoplastids (Leishmania donovani DD8, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi) using phenotypic assays...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020289/a-novel-human-pegivirus-hpgv-2-hhpgv-1-is-tightly-associated-with-hcv-infection-and-hcv-hiv-1-co-infection
#9
Haiying Wang, Zhengwei Wan, Ru Xu, Yujuan Guan, Nalin Zhu, Jianping Li, Zhiwei Xie, Aiqi Lu, Fuchun Zhang, Yongshui Fu, Shixing Tang
Background: HPgV-2 is a novel blood-borne human pegivirus that mainly infects HCV-infected subjects. We have investigated the prevalence of HPgV-2 in China, its association with HCV and HIV-1, and the impact on HCV viral load and liver damage. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with both blood donors and HCV- and HIV-1-infected patients in Guangzhou, China. All subjects were screened for antiHPgV-2 and HPgV-2 RNA. Demographic and clinical information were obtained from electronic medical records...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016323/enzootic-circulation-of-chikungunya-virus-in-east-africa-serological-evidence-in-nonhuman-kenyan-primates
#10
Gillian Eastwood, Rosemary C Sang, Matilde Guerbois, Evans L N Taracha, Scott C Weaver
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally emerging pathogen causing debilitating arthralgia and fever in humans. First identified in Tanzania (1953), this mosquito-borne alphavirus received little further attention until a 2004 re-emergence in Kenya from an unknown source. This outbreak subsequently spread to the Indian Ocean, with adaptation for transmission by a new urban vector. Under the hypothesis that sylvatic progenitor cycles of CHIKV exist in Kenya (as reported in West Africa, between nonhuman primates (NHPs) and arboreal Aedes spp...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993892/screening-investigations-in-small-for-gestational-age-near-term-and-term-infants
#11
Mohan B Krishnamurthy, Abigail Popiel, Atul Malhotra
The aims of this study are to examine how frequently near-term and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants were investigated in our clinical practice, whether being born less than the third centile for weight increased the yield of positive investigations, and whether there were additional characteristics in infants with positive investigations. This retrospective cohort study was compiled using a database of a large maternity network, using the search near term and term gestational age (greater than or equal to 35 weeks) over a span of 4 years...
December 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969827/pathogens-in-ectoparasites-from-free-ranging-animals-infection-with-rickettsia-asembonensis-in-ticks-and-a-potentially-new-species-of-dipylidium-in-fleas-and-lice
#12
Van Lun Low, Batah Kunalan Prakash, Tiong Kai Tan, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Fasihah Hanani Khairul Anwar, Wei Yin Vinnie-Siow, Sazaly AbuBakar
Vector-borne infections are persistent public health threats worldwide. In recent years, a number of mosquito-borne viruses have emerged or re-emerged to cause major disease outbreaks. Other vector-borne pathogens, however, remain understudied and much neglected especially in the developing regions of the world including Southeast Asia. In this study, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, cat louse Felicola subrostratus, and cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides orientis collected from free-ranging cats and dogs in Malaysia were molecularly screened for the presence of Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria, and Dipylidium tapeworm...
October 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969212/postpartum-depression-in-women-a-risk-factor-analysis
#13
Farheen Zaidi, Aruna Nigam, Ruby Anjum, Rashmi Agarwalla
INTRODUCTION: Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a known entity affecting not only the women but the whole family. It affects women more harshly and chronically due to their increased stress sensitivity, maladaptive coping strategies and multiple social roles in the community. AIM: To estimate the commonly associated risk factors of PPD among the women coming to a tertiary hospital in New Delhi, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a longitudinal study conducted at the antenatal clinic for a period of one year...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961694/a-severe-neonatal-lymphopenia-associated-with-administration-of-azathioprine-to-the-mother-in-a-context-of-crohn-s-disease
#14
C Thomas, C Monteil-Ganiere, S Mirallié, C Hémont, C Dert, A Léger, C Joyau, D Caldari, M Audrain
Azathioprine is commonly used in Crohn's Diseases. It has been administered to many pregnant women over many years without significant side effects. However, pancytopenia and Severe Combined Immune Deficiency-like disease have been reported in infants whose mothers received azathioprine throughout pregnancy. Moreover, myelotoxicity has been described in patients treated with azathioprine and having a low or absent thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) activity.Here, we describe the case of a new-born girl found highly lymphopenic (<300 CD3+ T cells) after a positive new-born screening for Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960137/galleria-mellonella-as-an-infection-model-to-investigate-virulence-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#15
Sariqa Wagley, Richard Borne, Jamie Harrison, Craig Baker-Austin, Donatella Ottaviani, Francesca Leoni, Varaporn Vuddhakul, Richard W Titball
Non-toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates (tdh(-)/trh(-)/T3SS2(-)) have recently been isolated from patients with gastroenteritis. In this study we report that the larvae of the wax moth (Galleria mellonella) are susceptible to infection by toxigenic or non-toxigenic clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. In comparison larvae inoculated with environmental isolates of V. parahaemolyticus did not succumb to disease. Whole genome sequencing of clinical non-toxigenic isolates revealed the presence of a gene encoding a nudix hydrolase, identified as mutT...
September 29, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958885/pathophysiology-screening-and-treatment-of-rop-a-multi-disciplinary-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Tailoi Chan-Ling, Glen A Gole, Graham E Quinn, Samuel J Adamson, Brian A Darlow
The population of infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) varies by world region; in countries with well developed neonatal intensive care services, the highest risk infants are those born at less than 28 weeks gestational age (GA) and less than 1 kg at birth, while, in regions where many aspects of neonatal intensive and ophthalmological care are not routinely available, more mature infants up to 2000 g at birth and 37 weeks GA are also at risk for severe ROP. Treatment options for both groups of patients include standard retinal laser photocoagulation or, more recently, intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs...
September 25, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958847/small-molecule-adjuvants-that-suppress-both-chromosomal-and-mcr-1-encoded-colistin-resistance-and-amplify-colistin-efficacy-in-polymyxin-susceptible-bacteria
#17
William T Barker, Sara E Martin, Courtney E Chandler, T Vu Nguyen, Tyler L Harris, Christopher Goodell, Roberta J Melander, Yohei Doi, Robert K Ernst, Christian Melander
Bacterial resistance to polymyxin antibiotics has taken on a new and more menacing form. Common are genomically-encoded resistance mechanisms to polymyxins, specifically colistin (polymyxin E), however, the plasmid-borne mobile colistin resistance-1 (mcr-1) gene has recently been identified and poses a new threat to global public health. Within six months of initial identification in Chinese swine in November 2015, the first human clinical isolation in the US was reported (Apr. 2016). Herein we report successful reversion of mcr-1-driven colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli with adjuvants we previously reported as modulators of chromosomally-encoded colistin resistance...
October 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957037/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-mandating-health-care-providers-to-offer-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-to-all-persons-born-during-1945-1965-new-york-2014
#18
Colleen A Flanigan, Shu-Yin J Leung, Kirsten A Rowe, Wendy K Levey, Andrea King, Jamie N Sommer, Johanne E Morne, Howard A Zucker
Approximately 75% of all hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in the United States and 73% of HCV-associated mortality occur in persons born during 1945-1965, placing this birth cohort at increased risk for liver cancer and other HCV-related liver disease (1). In the United States, an estimated 2.7 million persons are living with HCV infection, and it is estimated that up to 75% of these persons do not know their status. Since 2012, CDC has recommended that persons born during 1945-1965 receive one-time HCV testing...
September 29, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940658/community-based-screening-to-detect-school-readiness-problems-in-very-preterm-children
#19
Nitin Rajput, Chris McKinlay, Gordon Purdie, Julia Filipovska, Malcolm Battin, Harshad Patel, Pat Tuohy
AIM: Very preterm (VPT) children (≤32 weeks) have school readiness difficulties across multiple domains, but routine follow-up is often limited. We assessed the performance of VPT children on the Before School Check (B4SC), a community-based screening programme of school readiness at 4 years of age. METHODS: VPT children discharged from Wellington and Auckland Neonatal Intensive Care Units (2005-2009) were compared to a national control cohort born during the same period...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927677/std-nmr-experiments-identify-a-structural-motif-with-novel-second-site-activity-against-west-nile-virus-ns2b-ns3-protease
#20
Tobias Schöne, Lena Lisbeth Grimm, Naoki Sakai, Linlin Zhang, Rolf Hilgenfeld, Thomas Peters
West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. This mosquito-borne virus that is highly pathogenic to humans has been evolving into a global threat during the past two decades. Despite many efforts, neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available. The viral protease NS2B-NS3(pro) is essential for viral replication, and therefore it is considered a prime drug target. However, success in the development of specific NS2B-NS3(pro) inhibitors had been moderate so far. In the search for new structural motifs with binding affinity for NS2B-NS3(pro), we have screened a fragment library, the Maybridge Ro5 library, employing saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments as readout...
September 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
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