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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899534/gene-by-environment-interactions-of-the-clock-pemt-and-ghrelin%C3%A2-loci-with-average-sleep-duration-in-relation-to-obesity-traits%C3%A2-using-a-cohort-of-643-new-zealand-european-children
#1
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887418/expression-of-chitinases-in-listeria-monocytogenes-is-influenced-by-lmo0327-that-encodes-an-internalin-like-protein
#2
Dafni Katerina Paspaliari, Vicky Gaedt Kastbjerg, Hanne Ingmer, Magdalena Popowska, Marianne Halberg Larsen
The chitinolytic system of Listeria monocytogenes thus far comprises two chitinases, ChiA and ChiB, and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, Lmo2467. The role of the system in the bacterium appears to be pleiotropic, as besides mediating hydrolysis of chitin, the second most ubiquitous carbohydrate in nature, the chitinases have been deemed important for colonization of unicellular moulds, as well as mammalian hosts. In order to identify additional components of the chitinolytic system, we screened a transposon mutant library for mutants exhibiting impaired chitin hydrolysis...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854894/development-of-a-questionnaire-for-assessing-the-childbirth-experience-qace
#3
Pierre Carquillat, Françoise Vendittelli, Thomas Perneger, Marie-Julia Guittier
BACKGROUND: Due to its potential impact on women's psychological health, assessing perceptions of their childbirth experience is important. The aim of this study was to develop a multidimensional self-reporting questionnaire to evaluate the childbirth experience. METHODS: Factors influencing the childbirth experience were identified from a literature review and the results of a previous qualitative study. A total of 25 items were combined from existing instruments or were created de novo...
August 30, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836925/tuberculosis-in-healthcare-workers-scotland
#4
Kevin G Pollock, Eisin McDonald, Alison Smith-Palmer, Fiona Johnston, Syed Ahmed
In an attempt to explore healthcare worker acquisition of tuberculosis infection, we conducted population-based surveillance of all cases recorded as healthcare workers reported to Enhanced Surveillance of Mycobacterial Infection from 2000 to 2015. Over the study period, the mean incidence rate of tuberculosis among all healthcare workers was 15.4 per 100,000 healthcare workers. However, the incidence rate of tuberculosis amongst those healthcare workers born outside the UK was 164.8 per 100,000 compared with 5...
January 1, 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826450/screening-for-latent-tuberculous-infection-in-people-living-with-hiv-infection-in-auckland-new-zealand
#5
N Gow, S Briggs, M Nisbet
SETTING: New Zealand, which has a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB), has historically taken a risk-based approach to screening for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in adult people living with the human immunodeficiency virus infection (PLHIV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate LTBI screening, treatment and outcomes in an adult PLHIV population. DESIGN: This was a retrospective clinical record review of an initial cohort of adult PLHIV attending the Auckland City Hospital HIV clinic in 2011, and a second cohort of adult PLHIV newly attending the clinic in 2014...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810870/vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-of-dogs-in-north-west-new-south-wales-and-the-northern-territory-australia
#6
Amanda J Shapiro, Graeme Brown, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Debbie J Marriot, Nandhakumar Balakrishnan, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Richard Malik
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases of dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities are relatively unexplored. These dogs represent a unique group with variable ecto- and endo-parasitic burdens, nutritional stresses and a general lack of veterinary intervention. We investigated haemoprotozoal and bacterial pathogen prevalences in relation to erythrocyte and platelet numbers in dogs from North-West New South Wales (N-W NSW) and the Northern Territory (NT; Central Australia). METHODS: Real-time PCR (qPCR) amplification of Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, Mycoplasma haemocanis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Bartonella spp...
August 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809507/persistence-of-indigenous-escherichia-coli-in-raw-bovine-manure-amended-soil
#7
Samantha K Çekiç, Jaysankar De, Mohammad Jubair, Keith R Schneider
The Food Safety Modernization Act attempts to reduce produce-related foodborne illness by using preventive rather than reactive measures. The goal of this research was to determine the persistence of manure-borne generic Escherichia coli under laboratory and field conditions. The population density of naturally occurring E. coli was ∼7.2 and 5.4 log CFU/10 g in pre- and postscreened manures, respectively. Postscreened (i.e. after the liquid manure has passed through a screen) manure was applied at light, medium, and heavy rates to fields in Live Oak and Citra, FL, during the fall and summer...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783802/association-of-neonatal-glycemia-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-4-5-years
#8
Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane M Alsweiler, Nicola S Anstice, Nataliia Burakevych, Arijit Chakraborty, J Geoffrey Chase, Gregory D Gamble, Deborah L Harris, Robert J Jacobs, Yannan Jiang, Nabin Paudel, Ryan J San Diego, Benjamin Thompson, Trecia A Wouldes, Jane E Harding
Importance: Hypoglycemia is common during neonatal transition and may cause permanent neurological impairment, but optimal intervention thresholds are unknown. Objective: To test the hypothesis that neurodevelopment at 4.5 years is related to the severity and frequency of neonatal hypoglycemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Children With Hypoglycemia and Their Later Development (CHYLD) Study is a prospective cohort investigation of moderate to late preterm and term infants born at risk of hypoglycemia...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769894/a-historical-overview-of-research-on-babesia-orientalis-a-protozoan-parasite-infecting-water-buffalo
#9
REVIEW
Lan He, Qin Liu, Baoan Yao, Yanqin Zhou, Min Hu, Rui Fang, Junlong Zhao
Babesiosis is a globally important zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of the genus Babesia (phylum apicomplexa). In China, there are five species that infect cattle buffalo and cause great economic loss, which include Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. major, B. ovata, and B. orientalis. Among them, B. orientalis is the most recently identified new Babesia species epidemic in China. This review summarized the work done in the past 33 years to give an overview of what learned about this parasite...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746380/paleoproteomics-of-the-dental-pulp-the-plague-paradigm
#10
Rémi Barbieri, Rania Mekni, Anthony Levasseur, Eric Chabrière, Michel Signoli, Stéfan Tzortzis, Gérard Aboudharam, Michel Drancourt
Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744935/emergency-department-presentations-in-infants-predictors-from-an-australian-birth-cohort
#11
Julia Crilly, Cate M Cameron, Paul A Scuffham, Norm Good, Rani Scott, Gabor Mihala, Amy Sweeny, Gerben Keijzers
AIM: Infants under 12 months of age are disproportionately represented amongst emergency department (ED) presentations, and infants are more likely to be frequent ED users. This study aimed to describe and identify psychosocial predictors of ED presentation in infants. METHODS: A prospective birth cohort from Queensland and New South Wales (Environments for Healthy Living) was used to understand infant health service use. Baseline and 12-month questionnaire data pertaining to children born between 2006 and 2011 were used to identify predictors of ED presentation, using multiple regression analysis...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738838/improved-detection-of-genus-specific-alphavirus-using-a-generic-taqman%C3%A2-assay
#12
Claude Giry, Bénédicte Roquebert, Ghislaine Li-Pat-Yuen, Philippe Gasque, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee
BACKGROUND: Alphaviruses are arthropod borne RNA viruses of medical importance. Geographical expansion of mosquitoes of the Aedes genus in the past decades has been associated with major Alphavirus-associated outbreaks. Climate changes and intensification of air travels have favored vector expansion and virus dissemination in new territories leading to virus emergence not only in tropical areas but also in temperate regions. The detection of emergence is based upon surveillance networks with epidemiological and laboratory investigation...
July 24, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706107/interventions-that-improve-maternity-care-for-immigrant-women-in-the-uk-protocol-for-a-narrative-synthesis-systematic-review
#13
Gina Marie Awoko Higginbottom, Catrin Evans, Myfanwy Morgan, Kuldip Kaur Bharj, Jeanette Eldridge, Basharat Hussain
INTRODUCTION: A quarter of all births in the UK are to mothers born outside the UK. There is also evidence that immigrant women have higher maternal and infant death rates and of inequalities in the provision and uptake of maternity services/birth centres. The topic is of great significance to the National Health Service because of directives that address inequalities and the changing patterns of migration to the UK. Our main question for the systematic review is 'what interventions exist that are specifically focused on improving maternity care for immigrant women in the UK?' The primary objective of this synthesis is to generate new interpretations of research evidence...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693561/goats-as-sentinel-hosts-for-the-detection-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-risk-areas-in-the-canton-of-valais-switzerland
#14
Nadia Rieille, Christine Klaus, Donata Hoffmann, Olivier Péter, Maarten J Voordouw
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an important tick-borne disease in Europe. Detection of the TBE virus (TBEV) in local populations of Ixodes ricinus ticks is the most reliable proof that a given area is at risk for TBE, but this approach is time-consuming and expensive. A cheaper and simpler approach is to use immunology-based methods to screen vertebrate hosts for TBEV-specific antibodies and subsequently test the tick populations at locations with seropositive animals. RESULTS: The purpose of the present study was to use goats as sentinel animals to identify new risk areas for TBE in the canton of Valais in Switzerland...
July 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668194/discovery-of-novel-dengue-virus-entry-inhibitors-via-a-structure-based-approach
#15
Emilse S Leal, M Gabriela Aucar, Leopoldo G Gebhard, Nestor G Iglesias, María J Pascual, Juan J Casal, Andrea V Gamarnik, Claudio N Cavasotto, Mariela Bollini
Dengue is a mosquito-borne virus that has become a major public health concern worldwide in recent years. However, the current treatment for dengue disease is only supportive therapy, and no specific antivirals are available to control the infections. Therefore, the need for safe and effective antiviral drugs against this virus is of utmost importance. Entry of the dengue virus (DENV) into a host cell is mediated by its major envelope protein, E. The crystal structure of the E protein reveals a hydrophobic pocket occupied by the detergent n-octyl-β-d-glucoside (β-OG) lying at a hinge region between domains I and II, which is important for the low-pH-triggered conformational rearrangement required for fusion...
August 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661716/gene-by-activity-interactions-on-obesity-traits-of-six-year-old-new-zealand-european-children-a-children-of-scope-study
#16
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
PURPOSE: The decline of physical activity in children is considered an important determinant to explain the rising rates of obesity. However, this risk may be augmented in children who are genetically susceptible to increased weight gain. We hypothesised that a sedentary lifestyle and moderate activity will interact with genetic loci, resulting in differential effects in relation to obesity risk. METHODS: We recruited 643 European children born to participants in the New Zealand based Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study...
June 29, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650774/monte-carlo-electron-track-structure-calculations-in-liquid-water-using-a-new-model-dielectric-response-function
#17
Dimitris Emfietzoglou, George Papamichael, Hooshang Nikjoo
Monte Carlo track structure codes provide valuable information for understanding radiation effects down to the DNA level, where experimental measurements are most difficult or unavailable. It is well recognized that the performance of such codes, especially at low energies and/or subcellular level, critically depends on the reliability of the interaction cross sections that are used as input in the simulation. For biological media such as liquid water, one of the most challenging issues is the role of condensed-phase effects...
June 26, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649564/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-an-update-on-clinical-aspects-genetics-diagnosis-and-future-treatment-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Virginia Mirra, Claudius Werner, Francesca Santamaria
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an orphan disease (MIM 244400), autosomal recessive inherited, characterized by motile ciliary dysfunction. The estimated prevalence of PCD is 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 live-born children, but true prevalence could be even higher. PCD is characterized by chronic upper and lower respiratory tract disease, infertility/ectopic pregnancy, and situs anomalies, that occur in ≈50% of PCD patients (Kartagener syndrome), and these may be associated with congenital heart abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647805/a-comprehensive-health-profile-of-guyanese-immigrants-aged-18-64-in-schenectady-new-york
#19
Akiko S Hosler, Jamie R Kammer
Guyanese immigrants are the 5th largest foreign-born group in NY State, but sparse literature is available on their health status and health needs. A community-based health interview survey of Schenectady NY residents aged 18-64 (N = 1861) was analyzed. Bivariate comparisons between Guyanese respondents and White, Black, and Hispanic respondents were made for each variable to identify disparities. As predominantly low SES immigrants, Guyanese adults were less likely to be covered by health insurance, have a usual place for care, and receive cancer screenings...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645313/molecular-investigation-and-phylogeny-of-anaplasmataceae-species-infecting-domestic-animals-and-ticks-in-corsica-france
#20
Mustapha Dahmani, Bernard Davoust, Djamel Tahir, Didier Raoult, Florence Fenollar, Oleg Mediannikov
BACKGROUNDS: Corsica is a French island situated in the Mediterranean Sea. The island provides suitable natural conditions to study disease ecology, especially tick-borne diseases and emerging diseases in animals and ticks. The family Anaplasmataceae is a member of the order Rickettsiales; it includes the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia and Wolbachia. Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis traditionally refer to diseases caused by obligate intracellular bacteria of the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia...
June 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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