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early memory impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153990/cell-type-dependent-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes-probing-the-biology-of%C3%A2-selective-neuronal-vulnerability
#1
Christina R Muratore, Constance Zhou, Meichen Liao, Marty A Fernandez, Walter M Taylor, Valentina N Lagomarsino, Richard V Pearse, Heather C Rice, Joseph M Negri, Amy He, Priya Srikanth, Dana G Callahan, Taehwan Shin, Monica Zhou, David A Bennett, Scott Noggle, J Christopher Love, Dennis J Selkoe, Tracy L Young-Pearse
Alzheimer's disease (AD) induces memory and cognitive impairment in the absence of motor and sensory deficits during its early and middle course. A major unresolved question is the basis for this selective neuronal vulnerability. Aβ, which plays a central role in AD pathogenesis, is generated throughout the brain, yet some regions outside of the limbic and cerebral cortices are relatively spared from Aβ plaque deposition and synapse loss. Here, we examine neurons derived from iPSCs of patients harboring an amyloid precursor protein mutation to quantify AD-relevant phenotypes following directed differentiation to rostral fates of the brain (vulnerable) and caudal fates (relatively spared) in AD...
November 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149519/early-executive-dysfunction-in-asd-simple-versus-complex-skills
#2
Nancy Garon, Isabel M Smith, Susan E Bryson
Despite the strong evidence of executive function (EF) impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), findings in the preschool period have been inconsistent. Whereas some research has supported an early deficit, many studies have not found early differences in EF. The present study assessed simple and complex components of three EF abilities: working memory, inhibition, and shifting, using a novel battery, the Preschool EF Battery (PEFB; Garon, Smith & Bryson, Child Neuropsychology, 20, 713-736, 2014). Previous research has indicated that the PEFB is sensitive to age differences in typically developing (TD) children aged 18-60 months...
November 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149177/new-brain-lesions-with-no-impact-on-physical-disability-can-impact-cognition-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-a-ten-year-longitudinal-study
#3
D Wybrecht, F Reuter, F Pariollaud, W Zaaraoui, A Le Troter, A Rico, S Confort-Gouny, E Soulier, M Guye, A Maarouf, J-P Ranjeva, J Pelletier, B Audoin
OBJECTIVE: In early multiple sclerosis, although brain T2 lesions accrual are hallmark of the disease, only weak correlations were found between T2 lesions accrual and EDSS progression, the disability scale commonly used in multiple sclerosis studies. This may be related to the very poor sensitivity of EDSS to cognitive dysfunctions that may occur and progress from the first stage of the disease. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate that cognitive deficits progress during the first ten years of MS and are significantly impacted by new T2 lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145913/goal-setting-deficits-at-13-years-in-very-preterm-born-children
#4
Kristina M Haebich, Catherine Willmott, Rachel Ellis, Alice C Burnett, Shannon E Scratch, Leona Pascoe, Megan M Spencer-Smith, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Terrie E Inder, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson, Peter J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Preterm children demonstrate deficits in executive functions including inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility; however, their goal setting abilities (planning, organization, strategic reasoning) remain unclear. This study compared goal setting abilities between very preterm (VP: <30 weeks/<1250 grams) and term born controls during late childhood. Additionally, early risk factors (neonatal brain abnormalities, medical complications, and sex) were examined in relationship to goal setting outcomes within the VP group...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143762/executive-function-capacities-negative-driving-behavior-and-crashes-in-young-drivers
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Walshe, Chelsea Ward McIntosh, Daniel Romer, Flaura K Winston
Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of injury and death in adolescents, with teen drivers three times more likely to be in a fatal crash when compared to adults. One potential contributing risk factor is the ongoing development of executive functioning with maturation of the frontal lobe through adolescence and into early adulthood. Atypical development resulting in poor or impaired executive functioning (as in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) has been associated with risky driving and crash outcomes...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141793/information-processing-deficits-as-a-driving-force-for-memory-impairment-in-ms-a-cross-sectional-study-of-memory-functions-and-mri-in-early-and-late-stage-ms
#6
Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136108/perturbation-of-gabaergic-synapses-at-the-axon-initial-segment-of-basolateral-amygdala-induces-trans-regional-metaplasticity-at-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Rinki Saha, Kuldeep Shrivastava, Liang Jing, Rachel Schayek, Mouna Maroun, Martin Kriebel, Hansjürgen Volkmer, Gal Richter-Levin
GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in fear memory generation. We have previously reported that reduction in GABAergic synapses innervating specifically at the axon initial segment (AIS) of principal neurons of BLA, by neurofascin (NF) knockdown, impairs fear extinction. BLA is bidirectionally connected with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is a key region involved in extinction of acquired fear memory. Here, we showed that reducing AIS GABAergic synapses within the BLA leads to impairment of synaptic plasticity in the BLA-mPFC pathway, as well as in the ventral subiculum (vSub)-mPFC pathway, which is independent of BLA involvement...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126669/what-can-dti-tell-about-early-cognitive-impairment-differentiation-between-mci-subtypes-and-healthy-controls-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#8
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125488/comparison-between-fcsrt-and-lassi-l-to-detect-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Jordi A Matias-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Rosie E Curiel, María Valles-Salgado, Teresa Rognoni, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, José Luis Carreras, David A Loewenstein, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is the most accurate test for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a novel cognitive test, the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), has been developed in order to provide an early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the FCSRT and the LASSI-L for the diagnosis of AD in its preclinical and prodromal stages using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a reference...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124106/gamma-rhythm-low-field-magnetic-stimulation-alleviates-neuropathologic-changes-and-rescues-memory-and-cognitive-impairments-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Xiechuan Weng, Wenting Su, Jianliang Zhang, Lihui Cai, Lin Dong, Haiting An, Ruijun Su, Jiang Wang, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Introduction: The abnormal amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and Aβ-related neural network dysfunction are considered central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the early stage. Deep-brain reachable low field magnetic stimulation (DMS), a novel noninvasive approach that was designed to intervene the network activity in brains, has been found to alleviate stress-related cognitive impairments. Methods: Amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mice (5XFAD) were treated with DMS, and cognitive behavior and AD-like pathologic changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological properties in 5XFAD mice were assessed...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124043/activities-of-daily-living-measured-by-the-harvard-automated-phone-task-track-with-cognitive-decline-over-time-in-non-demented-elderly
#11
Gad A Marshall, Sarah L Aghjayan, Maria Dekhtyar, Joseph J Locascio, Kamal Jethwani, Rebecca E Amariglio, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Dorene M Rentz
Background: Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden to both patients and caregivers. Mild impairment in instrumental activities of daily living is often seen at the stage of mild cognitive impairment. The field of Alzheimer's disease is moving toward earlier diagnosis and intervention and more sensitive and ecologically valid assessments of instrumental or complex activities of daily living are needed. The Harvard Automated Phone Task, a novel performance-based activities of daily living instrument, has the potential to fill this gap...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121595/from-the-psychosis-prodrome-to-the-first-episode-of-psychosis-no-evidence-of-a-cognitive-decline
#12
Ricardo E Carrión, Deborah J Walder, Andrea M Auther, Danielle McLaughlin, Heather O Zyla, Steven Adelsheim, Roderick Calkins, Cameron S Carter, Bentson McFarland, Ryan Melton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Tamara G Sale, Stephan F Taylor, William R McFarlane, Barbara A Cornblatt
Cognitive deficits have an important role in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there is a continuing debate as to whether cognitive impairments in the psychosis prodrome are stable predictors of eventual psychosis or undergo a decline due to the onset of psychosis. In the present study, to determine how cognition changes as illness emerges, we examined baseline neurocognitive performance in a large sample of helping-seeking youth ranging in clinical state from low-risk for psychosis through individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for illness to early first-episode patients (EFEP)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121196/the-role-of-phonological-working-memory-and-environmental-factors-in-lexical-development-in-italian-speaking-late-talkers-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#13
Andrea Marini, Milena Ruffino, Maria Enrica Sali, Massimo Molteni
Purpose: This follow-up study assessed (a) the influence of phonological working memory (pWM), home literacy environment, and a family history of linguistic impairments in late talkers (LTs); (b) the diagnostic accuracy of a task of nonword repetition (NWR) in identifying LTs; and (c) the persistence of lexical weaknesses after 10 months. Method: Two hundred ninety-three children were assessed at approximately 32 (t1) and 41 (t2) months. At t1, they were administered the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey, an NWR task (used to assess pWM), and questionnaires assessing home literacy environment and family history of language impairments...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120563/diagnosing-and-managing-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Sophie Behrman, Vyara Valkanova, Charlotte L Allan
There has been a rapid rise in the number of people diagnosed with dementia in England from 232,000 in 2008 to 850,000 in 2014. Currently, it is estimated that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in adults aged 65 and over is 10-20%. It is likely that this figure will increase in line with trends in dementia diagnosis. In some cases, mild cognitive impairment may be a prodrome for dementia, and my be caused by any of the dementia pathology subtypes. The relationship between depression in the elderly and mild cognitive impairment is difficult to tease out as they are frequently comorbid conditions and both have been found to be independent risk factors for subsequent dementia: about 10% convert to dementia each year, compared with 1-2% of the general elderly population...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119933/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Elzbieta Miller, Agnieszka Morel, Justyna Redlicka, Igor Miller, Joanna Saluk
Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116174/activation-of-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-kir3-girk-channels-rescues-hippocampal-functions-in-a-mouse-model-of-early-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology
#16
Irene Sánchez-Rodríguez, Sara Temprano-Carazo, Alberto Nájera, Souhail Djebari, Javier Yajeya, Agnès Gruart, José M Delgado-García, Lydia Jiménez-Díaz, Juan D Navarro-López
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory. Its correct performance relies on excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission balance. In early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuronal hyperexcitability leads to network dysfunction observed in cortical regions such as the hippocampus. G-protein-gated potassium (GirK) channels induce neurons to hyperpolarize, contribute to the resting membrane potential and could compensate any excesses of excitation. Here, we have studied the relationship between GirK channels and hippocampal function in a mouse model of early AD pathology...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113737/voluntary-alcohol-intake-after-noise-exposure-in-adolescent-rats-hippocampal-related-behavioral-alterations
#17
M Miceli, S J Molina, A Forcada, G B Acosta, L R Guelman
Different physical or chemical agents, such as noise or alcohol, can induce diverse behavioral and biochemical alterations. Considering the high probability of young people to undergo a successive or simultaneous exposure, the aim of the present work was to investigate in an animal model if noise exposure at early adolescence could induce hippocampal-related behavioral changes that might be modified after alcohol intake. MaleWistarrats(28-days-old)were exposed tonoise(95-97 dB, 2 h).Afterwards, animals were allowed to voluntarily drink alcohol(10% ethanol in tap water)for three consecutive days, using the two-bottle free choice paradigm...
November 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110613/a-biomarker-combining-imaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-for-tracking-early-alzheimer-s-disease-in-clinical-trials
#18
Nishant Verma, S Natasha Beretvas, Belen Pascual, Joseph C Masdeu, Mia K Markey, The Alzheimer S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Combining optimized cognitive (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, ADAS-Cog) and atrophy markers of Alzheimer's disease for tracking progression in clinical trials may provide greater sensitivity than currently used methods, which have yielded negative results in multiple recent trials. Furthermore, it is critical to clarify the relationship among the subcomponents yielded by cognitive and imaging testing, to address the symptomatic and anatomical variability of Alzheimer's disease...
November 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107832/impaired-action-self-monitoring-and-cognitive-confidence-among-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#19
Ł Gawęda, E Li, S Lavoie, T J Whitford, S Moritz, B Nelson
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring biases and overconfidence in incorrect judgments have been suggested as playing a role in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Little is known about whether self-monitoring biases may contribute to early risk factors for psychosis. In this study, action self-monitoring (i.e., discrimination between imagined and performed actions) was investigated, along with confidence in judgments among ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis individuals and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients...
September 22, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107091/the-hypothalamus-as-the-primary-brain-region-of-metabolic-abnormalities-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Hong Zheng, Qi Zhou, Yao Du, Chen Li, Pengtao Xu, Li Lin, Jian Xiao, Hongchang Gao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an amyloid-related neurodegenerative disorder and is also considered to be a metabolic disease. Thus, investigation of metabolic mechanisms of amyloid pathology progression is of substantial importance for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of AD. In the present study, cognitive function and brain metabolism were explored in the transgenic APP/PS1 mouse model of amyloid pathology at different ages. Using an NMR-based metabolomic approach, we examined metabolic changes in six different brain regions of wild-type and APP/PS1 mice at 1, 5 and 10months of age...
October 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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