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early memory impairment

Soren Impey, Timothy Jopson, Carl Pelz, Amanuel Tafessu, Fatema Fareh, Damian Zuloaga, Tessa Marzulla, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Blair Stewart, Susanna Rosi, Mitchell S Turker, Jacob Raber
BACKGROUND: Astronauts are exposed to (56)Fe ions that may pose a significant health hazard during and following prolonged missions in deep space. We showed previously that object recognition requiring the hippocampus, a structure critical for cognitive function, is affected in 2-month-old mice irradiated with (56)Fe ions. Here we examined object recognition in 6-month-old mice irradiated with (56)Fe ions, a biological age more relevant to the typical ages of astronauts. Moreover, because the mechanisms mediating the detrimental effects of (56)Fe ions on hippocampal function are unclear, we examined changes in hippocampal networks involved in synaptic plasticity and memory, gene expression, and epigenetic changes in cytosine methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) that could accompany changes in gene expression...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Pietro Ciolli, Margherita Russo, Daniele Bruschetta, Antonio Duca, Fabio Trimarchi, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Anastasi
According to the classical view, the cerebellum has long been confined to motor control physiology; however, it has now become evident that it exerts several non-somatic features other than the coordination of movement and is engaged also in the regulation of cognition and emotion. In a previous diffusion-weighted imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography study, we demonstrated the existence of a direct cerebellum-hippocampal pathway, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of the cerebellar role in non-motor domains...
October 24, 2016: Cerebellum
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Dennis Chan, Laura Marie Gallaher, Kuven Moodley, Ludovico Minati, Neil Burgess, Tom Hartley
This protocol describes the administration of the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), a short test of spatial memory, in which memory for the topographical layout of four mountains within a computer-generated landscape is tested using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm. Allocentric spatial memory is assessed by altering the viewpoint, colors and textures between the initially presented and target images. Allocentric spatial memory is a key function of the hippocampus, one of the earliest brain regions to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impairment of hippocampal function predates the onset of dementia...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Silvia Serino, Giuseppe Riva
In addition to impairments in episodic and spatial memory, anosognosia (i.e., loss of awareness of the deficient aspect of own cognitive functioning) may be considered an important cognitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, although a growing body of interesting models have been proposed to explain this early symptom, what is still missing is a unifying framework of all the characteristic signs occurring in patients with AD that may guide the search for its causal neuropathological process and, ultimately, the etiological process...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ada Wai Tung Fung, Wai-Chi Chan, Corine Sau-Man Wong, Eric Yu-Hai Chen, Roger Man-Kin Ng, Edwin Ho-Ming Lee, Wing-Chung Chang, Se-Fong Hung, Eric Fuk-Chi Cheung, Pak-Chung Sham, Helen Fung-Kum Chiu, Ming Lam, Tin-Po Chiang, Jim van Os, Joseph Tak-Fai Lau, Glyn Lewis, Paul Bebbington, Linda Chiu Wa Lam
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are prevalent yet under-recognized in late life. We examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a representative sample of community dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. METHOD: Data on 1,158 non-demented respondents aged 60-75 years were extracted from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity survey (HKMMS). Anxiety was assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). RESULT: One hundred and thirty-seven respondents (11...
October 21, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Marina Ávila-Villanueva, Ana Rebollo-Vázquez, José M Ruiz-Sánchez de León, Meritxell Valentí, Miguel Medina, Miguel A Fernández-Blázquez
Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jasmin Remmes, Carina Bodden, S Helene Richter, Jörg Lesting, Norbert Sachser, Hans-Christian Pape, Thomas Seidenbecher
Behavioral profiles are strongly shaped by an individual's whole life experience. The accumulation of negative experiences over lifetime is thought to promote anxiety-like behavior in adulthood ("allostatic load hypothesis"). In contrast, the "mismatch hypothesis" of psychiatric disease suggests that high levels of anxiety-like behavior are the result of a discrepancy between early and late environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different life histories shape the expression of anxiety-like behavior and modulate fear memory...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Helena Soler, Jonatan Dorca-Arévalo, Marta González, Sara Esmeralda Rubio, Jesús Ávila, Eduardo Soriano, Marta Pascual
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia nowadays, has been linked to alterations in the septohippocampal pathway (SHP), among other circuits in the brain. In fact, the GABAergic component of the SHP, which controls hippocampal rhythmic activity crucial for learning and memory, is altered in the J20 mouse model of AD-a model that mimics the amyloid pathology of this disease. However, AD is characterized by another pathophysiological hallmark: the hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau...
September 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Rocio Saravia, África Flores, Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Antoni Pastor, Rafael de la Torre, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Giovanni Marsicano, Andrés Ozaita, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
BACKGROUND: Tobacco withdrawal is associated with deficits in cognitive function, including attention, working memory, and episodic memory. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects is crucial because cognitive deficits during nicotine withdrawal may predict relapse in humans. METHODS: We investigated in mice the role of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) in memory impairment and spine density changes induced by nicotine withdrawal precipitated by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine...
July 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Morris D Bell, Holly B Laws, Ismene B Petrakis
Objective: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is reported to improve neurocognitive and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes in residential treatments. This National Institute of Drug Abuse funded pilot study reports on CRT as an augmentation to outpatient treatment for SUD. Method: Recovering outpatient veterans were randomized into CRT + Work Therapy (n = 24) or work therapy (n = 24) with treatment-as-usual. Blind assessments of neurocognition and substance use were performed at baseline, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6-month follow-up...
October 10, 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal-associated aversive memories might trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, changes in structural and synaptic plasticity, as well as epigenetic mechanisms, which may be critical for long-term aversive memory, have yet to be elucidated. We used male Wistar rats and performed conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to uncover the role of glucocorticoids (GCs) on plasticity-related processes that occur within the dentate gyrus (DG) during opiate-withdrawal conditioning (memory formation-consolidation) and after reactivation by re-exposure to the conditioned environment (memory retrieval)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal aversive memories generate a motivational state leading to compulsive drug taking, with plasticity changes in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) being essential in aversive motivational learning. The conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm allows for measuring the negative affective component of drug withdrawal. First, CPA triggers association between negative affective consequences of withdrawal with context (memory consolidation). Afterwards, when the animals are re-exposed to the paired environment, they avoid it due to the association between the context and aversive memories (memory retrieval)...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
A L Dinel, C Rey, C Baudry, C Fressange-Mazda, P Le Ruyet, A Nadjar, P Pallet, C Joffre, S Layé
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ying Cui, Xia Liang, Hong Gu, Yuzheng Hu, Zhen Zhao, Xiang-Yu Yang, Cheng Qian, Yihong Yang, Gao-Jun Teng
To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects provided informed consent. Forty T2DM patients and 41 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls were included. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was obtained by pulsed ASL perfusion imaging at 3 T MRI...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Niels R Reinders, Yvonne Pao, Maria C Renner, Carla M da Silva-Matos, Tessa R Lodder, Roberto Malinow, Helmut W Kessels
Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a prime suspect for causing cognitive deficits during the early phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experiments in AD mouse models have shown that soluble oligomeric clusters of Aβ degrade synapses and impair memory formation. We show that all Aβ-driven effects measured in these mice depend on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA3. Hippocampal neurons that lack GluA3 were resistant against Aβ-mediated synaptic depression and spine loss. In addition, Aβ oligomers blocked long-term synaptic potentiation only in neurons that expressed GluA3...
October 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jean-Bastien Bott, Céline Héraud, Brigitte Cosquer, Karine Herbeaux, Julien Aubert, Maxime Sartori, Romain Goutagny, Chantal Mathis
: Brain mechanisms compensating for cerebral lesions may mitigate the progression of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often precedes AD, is characterized by neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). This loss leads to a hippocampal disconnection syndrome that drives clinical progression. The concomitant sprouting of cholinergic terminals in the hippocampus has been proposed to compensate for reduced EC glutamatergic input...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daniel Radzicki, Erdong Liu, Han-Xiang Deng, Teepu Siddique, Marco Martina
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are believed to represent the different outcomes of a common pathogenic mechanism. However, while researchers have intensely studied the involvement of motor neurons in the ALS/FTD syndrome, very little is known about the function of hippocampal neurons, although this area is critical for memory and other cognitive functions. We investigated the electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells in slices from 1 month-old UBQLN2(P497H) mice, a recently generated model of ALS/FTD that shows heavy depositions of ubiquilin2-positive aggregates in this brain region...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xiuming Zhang, Elizabeth C Mormino, Nanbo Sun, Reisa A Sperling, Mert R Sabuncu, B T Thomas Yeo
We used a data-driven Bayesian model to automatically identify distinct latent factors of overlapping atrophy patterns from voxelwise structural MRIs of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia patients. Our approach estimated the extent to which multiple distinct atrophy patterns were expressed within each participant rather than assuming that each participant expressed a single atrophy factor. The model revealed a temporal atrophy factor (medial temporal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala), a subcortical atrophy factor (striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum), and a cortical atrophy factor (frontal, parietal, lateral temporal, and lateral occipital cortices)...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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