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early memory impairment

Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre
Normal and pathological ageing are associated with several motor impairments that reduce quality of life and represent a general challenge for public healthcare systems. Consequently, over the past decades, many scientists and physiotherapists dedicated their research to the development and improvement of safe and costless methods to counteract the progressive decline of motor functions with age. The urgency of finding new and easy to implement methods is even more paramount in case of acute pathologies (e...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Ben Chen, Xiaomei Zhong, Naikeng Mai, Qi Peng, Zhangying Wu, Cong Ouyang, Weiru Zhang, Wanyuan Liang, Yujie Wu, Sha Liu, Lijian Chen, Yuping Ning
Background: Late-life depression patients are at a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and diminished olfactory identification is an indicator in early screening for Alzheimer's disease in the elderly. However, whether diminished olfactory identification is associated with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in late-life depression patients remains unclear. Methods: One hundred and twenty-five late-life depression patients, 50 Alzheimer's disease patients, and 60 normal controls were continuously recruited...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Stephanie Ascough, Suzanna Paterson, Christopher Chiu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yue Cao, Christian Hölscher, Meng-Ming Hu, Ting Wang, Fang Zhao, Yu Bai, Jun Zhang, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. The early primary symptom of AD is the decline of memory ability, which gradually develops into complete dementia. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor of AD; and mimetics of the incretin hormone GLP-1 developed to treat diabetes are being tested as a novel therapeutic strategy for AD. In the present study, we reported for the first time the neuroprotective effects of a novel GLP-1/GIP dual agonist DA5-CH that activates the incretin hormone GLP-1 and GIP receptors in the APP/PS1 transgenic AD mouse model...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiao Luo, Kaicheng Li, Y L Jia, Qingze Zeng, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Tiantian Qiu, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Chao Wang, J J Xu, Minming Zhang
The APOE ε4 allele is associated with impaired intrinsic functional connectivity in neural networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN). However, effective connectivity (EC) reflects the direct causal effects of one brain region to another, which has rarely been investigated. Recently, Granger causality analysis (GCA) proved suitable for the study of directionality in neuronal interactions. Using GCA, we examined the differences in the EC between the anterior medial prefrontal cortex/posterior cingulate cortex (aMPFC/PCC) and the whole brain in 17 ε4 carrying and 32 non-carrying cognitively intact elderly individuals...
March 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Andrea L Metti, John R Best, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Mary Ganguli, Caterina Rosano
Background: physical function (PF) and physical activity (PA) both decline as adults age and have been linked to negative outcomes, including dementia, depression and cardiovascular diseases. Although declines in each are associated with numerous negative outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between these two measures is unclear. Objective: to examine the dynamic, bidirectional associations between declines in PF and PA. Design: prospective cohort...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Natane Daiana Silva Sousa, Tarciana Nobre de Menezes, Nathalie de Almeida Silva, Maria do Carmo Eulálio, Adriana de Azevedo Paiva
The scope of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and the correlation between the concentration of hemoglobin and cognitive factors in an elderly population group resident in Campina Grande, Paraiba, Brazil. It was a cross-sectional study with individuals aged 60 or older. Men with hemoglobin levels <13 g / dL and women with levels <12 g / dL were considered anemic. Sociodemographic, cognitive condition and nutritional status variables were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by means of simple and multiple linear regression...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Ewelina Bator, Joachim Latusz, Urszula Głowacka, Aleksandra Radaszkiewicz, Kinga Mudlaff, Marzena Maćkowiak
Social isolation (SI) during adolescence may induce schizophrenia-like behavior. In the present study, we investigated whether adolescent SI might affect the development of schizophrenia-like behavior in the MAM-E17 neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Rats were socially isolated for 10 days during adolescence (postnatal days (P) 30-40), followed by resocialization until late adolescence (P45-P48) or early adulthood (P70-P75); behavioral and neurochemical studies were performed at these ages. The behavioral studies analyzed locomotor activity, social interaction, recognition memory, and sensorimotor gating; GAD65 and GAD67 protein levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Ivan Koychev, John Francis William Deakin, Wael El-Deredy, Corinna Haenschel
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological studies suggest that impaired early visual processing may contribute to impaired WM in the visual domain. Abnormal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function has been implicated both in WM and in early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia. We investigated whether ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, would replicate in healthy volunteers the WM performance and early visual processing abnormalities we and others have reported in patients with schizophrenia...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the relationship between the sub-regional pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and cognitive impairment in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the effect of striatal dopamine density on cognitive prognosis. METHODS: Patients with drug-naïve non-demented PD were divided into mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 129) and cognitively normal (PD-CogN; n = 182) groups. Using quantification of the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in each striatal sub-region with18 F-FP-CIT PET scans, we performed inter-group comparative analysis of DAT availability and multivariate linear regression analysis to assess the association between DAT availability and cognitive performance...
March 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Piray Atsak, Maria Morena, Chantal Schoenmaker, Emma Tabak, Charlotte A Oomen, Sara Jamil, Matthew N Hill, Benno Roozendaal
Early-life stress (ELS) creates life-long vulnerability to stress-related anxiety disorders through altering stress and fear systems in the brain. The endocannabinoid system has emerged as an important regulator of the stress response through a crosstalk with the glucocorticoid system, yet whether it plays a role in the persistent effects of ELS remains unanswered. By combining, behavioral, pharmacological and biochemical approaches in adult male rats, we examined the impact of ELS on the regulation of endocannabinoid function by stress and glucocorticoids...
February 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hassina Belblidia, Marianne Leger, Abdelouadoud Abdelmalek, Anne Quiedeville, Floriane Calocer, Michel Boulouard, Christelle Jozet-Alves, Thomas Freret, Pascale Schumann-Bard
Episodic memory decline is one of the earlier deficits occurring during normal aging in humans. The question of spatial versus non-spatial sensitivity to age-related memory decline is of importance for a full understanding of these changes. Here, we characterized the effect of normal aging on both non-spatial (object) and spatial (object location) memory performances as well as on associated neuronal activation in mice. Novel-object (NOR) and object-location (OLR) recognition tests, respectively assessing the identity and spatial features of object memory, were examined at different ages...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Csaba Fekete, Csaba Vastagh, Ádám Dénes, Erik Hrabovszky, Gábor Nyiri, Imre Kalló, Zsolt Liposits, Miklós Sárvári
Microglia are instrumental for recognition and elimination of amyloid β1-42 oligomers (AβO), but the long-term consequences of AβO-induced inflammatory changes in the brain are unclear. Here, we explored microglial responses and transciptome-level inflammatory signatures in the rat hippocampus after chronic AβO challenge. Middle-aged Long Evans rats received intracerebroventricular infusion of AβO or vehicle for 4 weeks, followed by treatment with artificial CSF or MCC950 for the subsequent 4 weeks. AβO infusion evoked a sustained inflammatory response including activation of NF-κB, triggered microglia activation and increased the expression of pattern recognition and phagocytic receptors...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Rainbow T H Ho, Ted C T Fong, Tiffany Hon, Wai Chi Chan, Joseph S K Kwan, Patrick K C Chiu, Linda C W Lam
OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to an early but abnormal state of cognitive impairment with minimal functional impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) as a measure of episodic memory function. METHOD: The study sample included 204 Chinese older adults with cognitive impairments. The participants completed five recall trials and a delayed trial in FOME, neurocognitive measures on digit spans and trail making, and daily functioning...
March 8, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Ling-Yun Fan, Ya-Mei Lai, Ta-Fu Chen, Yung-Chin Hsu, Pin-Yu Chen, Kuo-Zhou Huang, Ting-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yi Isaac Tseng, Mau-Sun Hua, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses insidiously from the preclinical stage to dementia. While people with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have normal cognitive performance, some may be in the preclinical stage of AD. Neurofibrillary tangles appear first in the transentorhinal cortex, followed by the entorhinal cortex in the clinically silent stage of AD. We expected the earliest changes in subjects with SCD to occur in medial temporal subfields other than the hippocampal proper. These selective structural changes would affect specific memory subcomponents...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
N Crespo-Eguilaz, P D Dominguez, M Vaquero, J Narbona
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
R Espert, M Gadea, M Alino, J Oltra-Cucarella, C Perpina
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis or occlusion in the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries, affecting both children and adults. AIM: To conduct a review and update on MMD from a clinical, neuroradiological, neuropsychological and genetic perspective. DEVELOPMENT: In this pathology, which occurs with ischemia or cerebral hemorrhage, an unusual compensatory vascular network (moyamoya vessels) develops at the base of the brain in the form of collateral channels...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal studies have found that physical activity protects against Alzheimer disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The prevailing model derives from animal research and has physical activity directly affecting brain physiology by increasing brain volume, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and hippocampal neurogenesis with consequent gains in neuropsychological test scores. Supporting evidence has been mixed, with physical-activity-related gains across multiple neuropsychological domains considered indicative of the protective effect...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Yang Yang, Wei-Gang Ji, Zhi-Ru Zhu, Yu-Ling Wu, Zhi-Yang Zhang, Shao-Chen Qu
Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a significant active component isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. The overproduction of soluble amyloid β protein (Aβ) oligomers in the hippocampus is closely involved in impairments in cognitive function at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Growing evidences show that RIN possesses neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether RIN can prevent soluble Aβ1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity is still unclear...
March 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Antonio Daniele, Giordano Lacidogna
Among non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive and behavioural symptoms may precede the appearance of motor symptoms and become increasingly severe over disease progression. In patients with PD, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) refers to a condition characterized by variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction, which does not significantly interfere with independence in daily living activities. PD-MCI may occur in at least 9% of patients in early disease stages1 , is a risk factor for PD dementia (PDD), and may present with a variety of patterns of impairment across several cognitive domains (executive functions, attention/working memory, episodic memory, visuospatial skills, language)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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