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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937045/carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-nonstroke-patients
#1
REVIEW
Wei-Hong Chen, Wei Jin, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Rui Li, Ming Hu, Xiang-Jian Xiao
OBJECTIVE: As a vascular risk factor, carotid atherosclerosis is crucial to cognitive impairment. While carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis can reflect carotid atherosclerosis in different stages, this review aimed to explore researches on the role of carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis in the progress of cognitive impairment in nonstroke patients and tried to illustrate the possible mechanisms. DATA SOURCES: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to July 2017, with the key words of "carotid atherosclerosis," "carotid intima-media thickness," "carotid plaque," "carotid stenosis," "nonstroke," and "cognitive impairment...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931676/protective-humoral-immunity-in-the-cns-requires-peripheral-cd19-dependent-germinal-center-formation-following-coronavirus-encephalomyelitis
#2
Jeffrey R Atkinson, Cornelia C Bergmann
B cell subsets with phenotypes characteristic of naïve, non-isotype-switched, memory (Bmem), and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) accumulate in various models of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, including viral encephalomyelitis. During neurotropic coronavirus JHMV infection infiltration of protective ASC occurs after T cell mediated viral control, and is preceded by accumulation of non-isotype switched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells. However, the contribution of peripheral activation events in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) in driving humoral immune responses in the infected CNS is poorly defined...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926676/randomized-controlled-trial-of-increasing-physical-activity-on-objectively-measured-and-self-reported-cognitive-functioning-among-breast-cancer-survivors-the-memory-motion-study
#3
Sheri J Hartman, Sandahl H Nelson, Emily Myers, Loki Natarajan, Dorothy D Sears, Barton W Palmer, Lauren S Weiner, Barbara A Parker, Ruth E Patterson
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). At baseline and at 12 weeks, objective cognition was measured with the National Institutes of Health Cognitive Toolbox, and self-reported cognition using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales...
September 19, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924264/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-functioning-in-adolescents-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-a-population-based-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-study
#4
S S Frye, J Fernandez-Mendoza, S L Calhoun, J Gaines, M D Sawyer, F He, D Liao, A N Vgontzas, E O Bixler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in young children; however, this association is less studied in adolescents. Evidence suggests that obesity plays a key role in the development of SDB, although its relative association with neurobehavioral functioning remains unclear. We examined whether SDB and obesity are associated with neurocognitive and behavior problems in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 421 adolescents (17...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923025/intrafamilial-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-a-taiwanese-family-with-a-mapt-p-r5h-mutation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Hui-Chi Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin, Pei-Lung Chen, Shih-Jung Cheng, Pei-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in executive function that frequently overlaps with parkinsonism and motor neuron disorders. Several genes have been identified to cause autosomal dominant forms of FTD, including the gene coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT). While most reported pathogenic mutations in MAPT occur in exons 9-13, few families have been reported with mutations outside of this region...
September 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922152/brain-biomarkers-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-models
#6
Yafit Kuttner-Hirshler, Palamadai N Venkatasubramanian, Joan Apolinario, Jacqueline Bonds, Alice M Wyrwicz, Orly Lazarov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive deterioration. It is thought that the onset of the disease takes place several decades before memory deficits are apparent. Reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognostication of the disease are highly desirable. Neural stem cells (NSC) exist in the adult brain throughout life and give rise to neural progenitor cells (NPC), which differentiate into neurons or glia. The level of NPC proliferation and new neuron formation is significantly compromised in mouse models of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919157/ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-trichilia-catigua-restores-long-term-retrograde-memory-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-after-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#7
Jacqueline Godinho, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira, Anacharis Babeto de Sa-Nakanishi, Cristiano Correia Bacarin, Claudia Hitomi Huzita, Renata Longhini, João Carlos P Mello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Isolde Santos Previdelli, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro, Humberto Milani
We originally reported that an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of Trichilia catigua prevented the impairment of water maze learning and hippocampal neurodegeneration after transient global cerebral (TGCI) in mice. We extended that previous study by evaluating whether T. catigua (i) prevents the loss of long-term retrograde memory assessed in the aversive radial maze (AvRM), (ii) confers hippocampal and cortical neuroprotection, and (iii) mitigates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rats that are subjected to the four vessel occlusion (4-VO) model of TGCI...
September 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918947/hormonal-signaling-cascade-during-an-early-adult-critical-period-required-for-courtship-memory-retention-in-drosophila
#8
Sang Soo Lee, Yike Ding, Natalie Karapetians, Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez, Fernando Gabriel Noriega, Michael E Adams
Formation and expression of memories are critical for context-dependent decision making. In Drosophila, a courting male rejected by a mated female subsequently courts less avidly when paired with a virgin female, a behavioral modification attributed to "courtship memory." Here we show the critical role of hormonal state for maintenance of courtship memory. Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is essential for courtship memory through regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) levels in adult males. Reduction of JH levels via silencing of ETH signaling genes impairs short-term courtship memory, a phenotype rescuable by the JH analog methoprene...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918863/more-haste-less-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-thinking-latencies-during-planning-in-people-with-psychosis
#9
REVIEW
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915338/neurocognitive-psychosocial-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#10
Matthew J Ehrhardt, Daniel A Mulrooney, Chenghong Li, Malek J Baassiri, Kari Bjornard, John T Sandlund, Tara M Brinkman, I-Chan Huang, Deo Kumar Srivastava, Kirsten K Ness, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergo treatment with central nervous system-directed therapy, the potentially neurotoxic effects of which have not been reported in NHL survivors. METHODS: NHL survivors (n = 187) participating in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort who were 10 or more years from their diagnosis and were 18 years old or older underwent neurocognitive, emotional distress (Brief Symptom Inventory 18), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessments (36-Item Short Form Health Survey)...
September 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912625/cognitive-impairment-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-very-mild-clinical-disability
#11
S Migliore, A Ghazaryan, I Simonelli, P Pasqualetti, F Squitieri, G Curcio, D Landi, M G Palmieri, F Moffa, M M Filippi, F Vernieri
Cognitive dysfunction affects 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and can occur in the early stages of the disease. This study aimed to explore cognitive functions by means of the Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in MS (MACFIMS) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with very mild clinical disability to identify the primarily involved cognitive functions. Ninety-two consecutive RRMS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores ≤ 2.5 and forty-two healthy controls (HC) were investigated...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904510/dysfunction-of-cognition-patterns-measured-by-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-mccb-among-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-biological-parents
#12
Aiai Cao, Ting Shen, Haibin Li, Chuangxin Wu, Marita McCabe, David Mellor, Linda Byrne, Jie Zhang, Jia Huang, Daihui Peng, Yifeng Xu
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal perception, thinking, emotions, and behaviors. Cognitive dysfunction is acknowledged as one of the most pivotal symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition to positive or negative symptoms, which had been proposed by Gallhofer in the early 1970s, schizophrenia patients suffered from cognitive impairments as well. Many studies show that there is genetic susceptibility in the first grading kinship of patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia have cognitive impairment not only in the acute phase but also in the stable phase...
June 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902836/hippocampal-ltp-and-contextual-learning-require-surface-diffusion-of-ampa-receptors
#13
A C Penn, C L Zhang, F Georges, L Royer, C Breillat, E Hosy, J D Petersen, Y Humeau, D Choquet
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission has long been considered a cellular correlate for learning and memory. Early LTP (less than 1 h) had initially been explained either by presynaptic increases in glutamate release or by direct modification of postsynaptic AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor function. Compelling models have more recently proposed that synaptic potentiation can occur by the recruitment of additional postsynaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), sourced either from an intracellular reserve pool by exocytosis or from nearby extra-synaptic receptors pre-existing on the neuronal surface...
September 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899422/moderating-effects-of-sex-on-the-impact-of-diagnosis-and-amyloid-positivity-on-verbal-memory-and-hippocampal-volume
#14
Jessica Z K Caldwell, Jody-Lynn Berg, Jeffrey L Cummings, Sarah J Banks
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts men and women differently, but the effect of sex on predementia stages is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether sex moderates the impact of florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity (A(+)) on verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume (HV) in normal cognition (NC) and early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI). METHODS: Seven hundred forty-two participants with NC and participants with eMCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (second cohort [ADNI2] and Grand Opportunity Cohort [ADNI-GO]) were included...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893335/the-effect-of-age-on-the-fcsrt-ir-and-temporary-visual-memory-binding
#15
Lewis Killin, Sharon Abrahams, Mario A Parra, Sergio Della Sala
BACKGROUND: Cognitive markers of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) should be sensitive and specific to memory impairments that are not associated with healthy cognitive aging. In the present study, we investigated the effect of healthy cognitive aging on two proposed cognitive markers of AD: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Task with Immediate Recall (FCSRT-IR) and a temporary visual memory binding (TMB) task. METHOD: Free recall and the cost of holding bound information in visual memory were compared between 24 younger and 24 older participants in a mixed, fully counterbalanced experiment...
September 12, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891447/potential-role-of-neuroimaging-markers-for-early-diagnosis-of-dementia-in-primary-care
#16
Stefan Teipel, Ingo Kilimann, Jochen R Thyrian, Stefan Klöppel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The use of imaging markers for the diagnosis of predementia and early dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has widely been explored in research settings and specialized care. The use of these markers in primary care has yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: Summarize current evidence for the usefulness of imaging markers for AD in primary compared to specialized care settings. METHOD: Selective overview of the literature, and pilot data on the use of MRI-based hippocampus and basal forebrain volumetry for the discrimination of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases from healthy controls in 58 cases from a primary care cohort and 58 matched cases from a memory clinic's sample...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891432/neonatal-treatment-with-ovarian-hormones-and-suckling-among-distinct-litter-sizes-differential-effects-on-recognition-memory-and-spreading-depression-at-adulthood
#17
Noranege Epifânio Accioly, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: Ovarian hormones (OH) and early malnutrition may affect the developing brain, with repercussions on behavioral and excitability-dependent processes. However, the possible synergistic effects of both factors have not been analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment in early life with OH and suckling among distinct litter sizes on recognition memory, anxiety behavior, and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD)...
September 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886753/depletion-of-adult-neurogenesis-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-compromising-hippocampal-inhibition
#18
Carolyn Hollands, Matthew Kyle Tobin, Michael Hsu, Kianna Musaraca, Tzong-Shiue Yu, Rachana Mishra, Steven G Kernie, Orly Lazarov
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism underlying progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a dynamic process that continuously changes the dentate gyrus and is important for hippocampal plasticity, learning and memory. However, whether impairments in neurogenesis affect the hippocampal circuitry in a way that leads to memory deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Controversial results in that regard were reported in transgenic mouse models of amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884250/memory-impairment-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-early-and-late-initiation-of-regular-marijuana-use
#19
Linda M Skalski, Sheri L Towe, Kathleen J Sikkema, Christina S Meade
Marijuana use is disproportionately prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. The strongest neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is impairment in the domain of memory. Memory impairment is also high among HIV-infected persons. The present study examined 69 HIV-infected individuals who were stratified by age of regular marijuana initiation to investigate how marijuana use impacts neurocognitive functioning. A comprehensive battery assessed substance use and neurocognitive functioning. Findings indicated early onset marijuana users (regular use prior to age 18), compared to non-marijuana users and late onset marijuana users (regular use at age 18 or later), were over 8 times more likely to have learning impairment and nearly 4 times more likely to have memory impairment...
September 7, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882420/age-related-differences-in-the-topological-efficiency-of-the-brain-structural-connectome-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Tengda Zhao, Can Sheng, Qiuhui Bi, Weili Niu, Ni Shu, Ying Han
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is accompanied by the accelerated cognitive decline and rapid brain degeneration with aging. However, the age-related alterations of the topological organization of the brain connectome in aMCI patients remained largely unknown. In this study, we constructed the brain structural connectome in 51 aMCI patients and 51 healthy controls by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and deterministic tractography. The different age-related alteration patterns of the global and regional network metrics between aMCI patients and healthy controls were assessed by a linear regression model...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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