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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646712/prediction-of-vocational-participation-and-global-role-functioning-in-help-seeking-young-adults-from-neurocognitive-demographic-and-clinical-variables
#1
Alice J Cairns, David J Kavanagh, Frances Dark, Steven M McPhail
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate neurocognitive, demographic and clinical correlates of vocational participation among a sample of young help-seeking adults. METHODS: Young people (18-25 years) accessing an early intervention youth health service participated. The Global Functioning: Role scale and level of vocational participation, participant characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic background and family history of serious mental illness), distress, psychotic-like experiences, substance use, and mental health diagnoses were recorded...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646687/cortical-amyloid-accumulation-is-associated-with-alterations-of-structural-integrity-in-older-people-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#2
Stefan J Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Sarah Weschke, Michel J Grothe, Katrine Rojkova, Gaëlle Fontaine, Luce Dauphinot, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Marie-Claude Potier, Hugo Bertin, Marie-Odile Habert, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
We determined the effect of cortical amyloid load using (18)F-florbetapir PET on cognitive performance and gray matter structural integrity derived from MRI in 318 cognitively normally performing older people with subjective memory impairment from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort using multivariate partial least squares regression. Amyloid uptake was associated with reduced gray matter structural integrity in hippocampus, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and lentiform nucleus (p < 0...
May 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646160/loss-of-g%C3%AE-i-proteins-impairs-thymocyte-development-disrupts-t-cell-trafficking-and-leads-to-an-expanded-population-of-splenic-cd4-pd-1-cxcr5-t-cells
#3
Il-Young Hwang, Kathleen Harrison, Chung Park, John H Kehrl
Thymocyte and T cell trafficking relies on signals initiated by G-protein coupled receptors. To address the importance of the G-proteins Gαi2 and Gαi3 in thymocyte and T cell function, we developed several mouse models. Gαi2 deficiency in hematopoietic progenitors led to a small thymus, a double negative (DN)1/DN2 thymocyte transition block, and an accumulation of mature single positive (SP) thymocytes. Loss at the double positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development caused an increase in mature cells within the thymus...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645229/cognitive-function-in-early-psychosis-patients-from-a-lower-middle-income-country
#4
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Rachel Thomasson, Tayyeba Kiran, Paul Bassett, Muhammad I Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
OBJECTIVES: To establish evidence of cognitive changes in early psychosis (EP) patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in Pakistan. METHODS: Fifty-one participants with EP were recruited from psychiatric units in Karachi and Rawalpindi, Pakistan and matched with 51 HC. Neurocognitive domains were assessed using standardised neuropsychological tests [the Stroop test, block design, Matrix Reasoning, picture completion, object assembly, oral fluency, memory for design, Coughlan learning task (verbal and visual)]...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#5
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639878/exploring-the-phenotype-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-aid-the-prediction-of-those-at-risk-of-transitioning-to-parkinson-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Glenda M Halliday, Sharon L Naismith, Simon J G Lewis
To date, only limited research has concurrently investigated the presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and other features associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in people presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As a first step towards a longitudinal research project, the present study explored the relationships between MCI, RBD, and depression in 108 older adults who presented with subjective memory complaints but were not known to have a neurodegenerative condition...
July 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639807/the-impact-of-time-and-repeated-exposure-on-famous-person-knowledge-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Sophie Benoit, Isabelle Rouleau, Roxane Langlois, Valérie Dostie, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Sven Joubert
OBJECTIVE: Famous people knowledge has been shown to be impaired early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the question of whether recently acquired knowledge is more impaired than remotely acquired knowledge remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of semantic memory impairment in aMCI and AD by investigating 2 factors that may influence the retrieval of such knowledge, namely remoteness and frequency of repetition of information over time...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639724/longitudinal-changes-in-global-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-newcastle-85-study
#8
Blossom C M Stephan, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Antoneta Granic, Joanna Collerton, Karen Davies, Brian K Saxby, Keith A Wesnes, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Carol Jagger
OBJECTIVE: Ageing is associated with changes in cognition in some, but not all domains. In young-old adults, defined as persons aged 65-84 years, baseline cognitive function has been shown to impact on cognitive trajectories. Whether similar patterns occur in the very-old, defined as persons aged 85 years and over, is not known. METHODS: Longitudinal changes (5 years' follow-up) in global and domain specific cognitive function including memory, attention and speed were investigated in participants from the Newcastle 85+ Study (n = 845)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637174/effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-waterpipe-tobacco-smoke-on-learning-and-memory-of-adult-offspring-rats
#9
Nour Al-Sawalha, Karem Alzoubi, Omar Khabour, Weam Alyacoub, Yehya Almahmmod, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence worldwide, including among pregnant women. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal maternal waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) exposure during different stages of pregnancy on learning and memory of adult offspring rats. Methods: Pregnant rats received either fresh air or mainstream WTS (two hours daily) during early, mid, late, or whole gestational period. Male offspring rats were followed through 20 weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634108/disturbances-of-novel-object-exploration-and-recognition-in-a-chronic-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#10
Maria Jelena Hauser, Dirk Isbrandt, Jochen Roeper
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating disease with an overall lifetime risk of 1%. While positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are reduced by antipsychotic medication based on the inhibition of type 2 dopaminergic receptors (D2R), negative symptoms (e.g. reduced motivation) and cognitive symptoms (e.g. impaired working memory) of schizophrenia are not effectively treated by current medication. This dichotomy might arise in part because of our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628228/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model-for-schizophrenia
#11
Yelena Gulchina, Song-Jun Xu, Melissa A Snyder, Felice Elefant, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that NMDAR hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627904/the-development-of-real-time-stability-supports-visual-working-memory-performance-young-children-s-feature-binding-can-be-improved-through-perceptual-structure
#12
Vanessa R Simmering, Chelsey M Wood
Working memory is a basic cognitive process that predicts higher-level skills. A central question in theories of working memory development is the generality of the mechanisms proposed to explain improvements in performance. Prior theories have been closely tied to particular tasks and/or age groups, limiting their generalizability. The cognitive dynamics theory of visual working memory development has been proposed to overcome this limitation. From this perspective, developmental improvements arise through the coordination of cognitive processes to meet demands of different behavioral tasks...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625695/arbitrary-and-semantic-associations-in%C3%A2-subjective-memory-impairment-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-among-taiwanese-individuals-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Hsin-Te Chang, Ta-Fu Chen, Ting-Wen Cheng, Ya-Mei Lai, Mau-Sun Hua
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Researchers have recently proposed a preclinical stage of dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), referred to as subjective memory impairment (SMI), with the aim of developing methods for the early detection of DAT and subsequent intervention. It has been proposed that the objective memory functions of individuals with SMI are normal; however, arbitrary and semantic associations are both used to describe the processes of memory. No previous studies have investigated these processes among individuals with SMI...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625659/abnormal-semantic-knowledge-in-a-case-of-developmental-amnesia
#14
Anna Blumenthal, Devin Duke, Ben Bowles, Asaf Gilboa, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Stefan Köhler, Ken McRae
An important theory holds that semantic knowledge can develop independently of episodic memory. One strong source of evidence supporting this independence comes from the observation that individuals with early hippocampal damage leading to developmental amnesia generally perform normally on standard tests of semantic memory, despite their profound impairment in episodic memory. However, one aspect of semantic memory that has not been explored is conceptual structure. We built on the theoretically important distinction between intrinsic features of object concepts (e...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625189/influence-of-early-maladaptive-schemas-depression-and-anxiety-on-the-intensity-of-self-reported-cognitive-complaint-in-older-adults-with-subjective-cognitive-decline
#15
Caroline Tandetnik, Thierry Hergueta, Philippe Bonnet, Bruno Dubois, Catherine Bungener
BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) designates a self-reported cognitive decline despite preserved cognitive abilities. This study aims to explore, in older adults with SCD, the association between intensity of self-reported cognitive complaint and psychological factors including Young's early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) (i.e. enduring cognitive structures giving rise to beliefs about oneself and the world), as well as depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six subjects (69...
June 19, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625185/deterioration-of-visuospatial-associative-memory-following-a-first-psychotic-episode-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#16
C M J Wannan, C F Bartholomeusz, V L Cropley, T E Van Rheenen, A Panayiotou, W J Brewer, T M Proffitt, L Henry, M G Harris, D Velakoulis, P McGorry, C Pantelis, S J Wood
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623617/decrease-in-adult-neurogenesis-and-neuroinflammation-are-involved-in-spatial-memory-impairment-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rats
#17
Taysa Bervian Bassani, Jéssica M Bonato, Meira M F Machado, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Eric L R Moura, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Early impairments in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways may participate in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) are used to mimic sAD and study these alterations in rodents. Streptozotocin causes impairments in insulin signaling and has been reported to trigger several alterations in the brain, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysfunctions in adult neurogenesis, which may be involved in cognitive decline and are features of human AD...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623151/cognitive-performance-across-3-frailty-phenotypes-toledo-study-for-healthy-aging
#18
Cristina Rosado-Artalejo, Jose Antonio Carnicero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Carmen Castillo-Gallego, Gonzalo Gutierrez-Avila, Ana Alfaro-Acha, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Francisco José García-García
INTRODUCTION: Frailty is a strong predictor of adverse health events, but its impact on cognitive function is poorly understood. AIM: To assess cognitive performance in frailty and to identify the frailty stage where cognitive impairment begins. METHODS: Data were taken from 2044 people aged ≥65 years without cognitive impairment selected from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging, a population-based cohort of older adults. Frailty status was assessed by 3 different scales: Frailty Phenotype (FP), Frailty Trait Scale (FTS), and Frailty Index (FI)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621826/cerebral-metabolic-alterations-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-wechsler-intelligence-scale
#19
Doaa Mohammed Youssef, Ahmed Hosny Mohamed, Wafaa Mahmoud Kamel Attia, Faten Fawzy Mohammad, Nelly Rafaat Abd El Fatah, Amal Saeed Elshal
BACKGROUND: Many studies described Impaired intelligence, attention, memory and executive function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) dialyzed and non-dialyzed, but there is still lacking the early and sensitive method of detection of these deficits. The purpose of this study is to investigate relation between the brain metabolic alteration [measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)] and cognitive dysfunction in CKD children (detected by psychometric analysis). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty patients with CKD were included [ 40 patients with stage 5 CKD on dialysis, 30 patients with stage 4 to 5 CKD without dialysis, and 70 patients with stage 1 to 3 CKD]...
June 16, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612521/could-modafinil-prevent-psychostimulant-addiction-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#20
Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Higor Zuquetto Rosa, Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Raquel Cristine Silva Barcelos, Marilise Escobar Burger
Addiction is a serious health problem which leads to general social impairment. The period of adolescence plays a significant role in drug abuse liability. Psychostimulants, such as modafinil (MOD), are majorly used by teenagers seeking improvements in cognition, which contributes to its indiscriminate use. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of MOD (64 mg/kg by gavage, once a day) treatment during adolescence (PND 28-42) on amphetamine (AMPH, 4 mg/kg i.p.) conditioned place preference (CPP) in early adulthood (PND 60)...
June 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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