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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813088/cognitive-dysfunction-in-corticobasal-degeneration
#1
Laís Machado de Oliveira, Igor Barcellos, Hélio A G Teive, Renato Puppi Munhoz
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) was originally described as a distinct clinicopathological entity in 1967. Since then, different phenotypic presentations have emerged as possible manifestations of CBD histopathological findings. In addition, pathophysiological findings and the molecular basis have been delineated and several aspects of its cognitive manifestations have been clarified. Thus, not only the spectrum of what is currently designated as CBD has expanded, but overlap with other degenerative and even secondary disorders has made clinical diagnostic certainty even more challenging in the absence of specific and readily-available markers...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#2
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811181/beneficial-effects-of-postnatal-choline-supplementation-on-long-term-neurocognitive-deficit-resulting-from-fetal-neonatal-iron-deficiency
#3
Bruce C Kennedy, Phu V Tran, Maulika Kohli, Jamie J Maertens, Jonathan C Gewirtz, Michael K Georgieff
Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient condition worldwide and can result in cognitive impairment in adulthood despite iron treatment. In rodents, prenatal choline supplementation can diminish long-term hippocampal gene dysregulation and neurocognitive deficits caused by iron deficiency. Since fetal iron status is generally unknown in humans, we determined whether postnatal choline supplementation exerts similar beneficial effects. Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (3-6ppm Fe) from gestational day (G) 3 through postnatal day (P) 7, and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200ppm Fe) thereafter...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810593/carotid-atherosclerosis-promotes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-three-year-prospective-study
#4
Jing Xiang
Although cerebrovascular diseases have been considered as risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, the associations between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been fully examined and remain controversial. The aim of this three-year prospective study was to investigate whether arotid artery atherosclerosis accelerates cognitive impairment in AD patients. The association of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) with prospective trajectories of cognitive function was assessed among 521 patients with light to moderate AD, and 437 AD patients were followed up annually for 3 years...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#5
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
August 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801686/mir-12-and-mir-124-contribute-to-defined-early-phases-of-long-lasting-and-transient-memory
#6
Julia Michely, Susanne Kraft, Uli Müller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators of mRNA translation implicated in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM). Since recent findings demonstrated a role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in early memory phases we investigated whether epigenetic regulation by miRNAs also contributes to early memory phases. We used the olfactory associative learning paradigm in honeybees and addressed the contribution of miRNAs depending on the conditioning strength. We selected miR-12, miR-124, and miR-125 that have been implicated in processes of neuronal plasticity and analysed their contribution to non-associative and associative learning using miRNA inhibitors...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799862/disrupted-topologic-efficiency-of-white-matter-structural-connectome-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-decline
#7
Ni Shu, Xiaoni Wang, Qiuhui Bi, Tengda Zhao, Ying Han
Purpose To determine whether individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), which is defined by memory complaints with normal performance at objective neuropsychologic examinations, exhibit disruptions of white matter (WM) connectivity and topologic alterations of the brain structural connectome. Materials and Methods Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory approaches were used to investigate the topologic organization of the brain structural connectome in 36 participants with SCD (21 women: mean age, 62...
August 11, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797603/chronic-traumatic-stress-impairs-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-acetylcholine-neuroinflammation-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-expression-in-the-hippocampus
#8
Ami Bhakta, Kartheek Gavini, Euitaek Yang, Lani Lyman-Henley, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran
Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797597/environmental-enrichment-protects-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-neurons-from-the-long-lasting-effects-of-protein-malnutrition-early-in-life
#9
Roberto O Soares, Everton Horiquini-Barbosa, Sebastião S Almeida, João-José Lachat
As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793933/can-cognitive-assessment-really-discriminate-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-at-initial-clinical-presentation
#10
Sophia Reul, Hubertus Lohmann, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Duning, Andreas Johnen
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776906/association-of-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-with-immediate-memory-and-other-cognitive-functions
#11
Lumine Matsumoto, Kazushi Suzuki, Yoshiko Mizuno, Yumiko Ohike, Atsuko Ozeki, Satoshi Ono, Mikio Takanashi, Daigo Sawaki, Toru Suzuki, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Shoji Tsuji, Atsushi Iwata
AIM: To clarify whether carotid atherosclerosis and its risk factors are associated with cognitive decline. METHODS: We evaluated 206 individuals who visited our center for health screening. We carried out physical examinations, blood tests, intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement by carotid ultrasonography, brain magnetic resonance imaging scanning and cognitive function assessments. A total of 30 individuals, who had significant cerebrovascular lesions detected in magnetic resonance imaging scans, were excluded...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774220/prospective-memory-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#12
Isabelle Rouleau, Emmanuelle Dagenais, Alexandra Tremblay, Mélanie Demers, Élaine Roger, Céline Jobin, Pierre Duquette
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system affecting information processing speed, episodic memory, attention, and executive functions. MS patients also often report prospective memory (PM) failures that directly impact their functional autonomy, including professional and social life. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the assessment and remediation of PM deficits in MS. METHOD: The literature pertaining to PM impairment in MS was carefully reviewed using PubMed, PsyINFO, and Google Scholar, as well as cross-references from the articles published on this topic...
August 4, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770543/feasibility-and-safety-of-virtual-reality-based-early-neurocognitive-stimulation-in-critically-ill-patients
#13
Marc Turon, Sol Fernandez-Gonzalo, Mercè Jodar, Gemma Gomà, Jaume Montanya, David Hernando, Raquel Bailón, Candelaria de Haro, Victor Gomez-Simon, Josefina Lopez-Aguilar, Rudys Magrans, Melcior Martinez-Perez, Joan Carles Oliva, Lluís Blanch
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769066/long-term-memory-requires-sequential-protein-synthesis-in-three-subsets-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila
#14
Jie-Kai Wu, Chu-Yi Tai, Kuan-Lin Feng, Shiu-Ling Chen, Chun-Chao Chen, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Creating long-term memory (LTM) requires new protein synthesis to stabilize learning-induced synaptic changes in the brain. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, aversive olfactory learning forms several phases of labile memory to associate an odor with coincident punishment in the mushroom body (MB). It remains unclear how the brain consolidates early labile memory into LTM. Here, we survey 183 Gal4 lines containing almost all 21 distinct types of MB output neurons (MBONs) and show that sequential synthesis of learning-induced proteins occurs at three types of MBONs...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764771/sensitivity-of-restriction-spectrum-imaging-to-memory-and-neuropathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Emilie T Reas, Donald J Hagler, Nathan S White, Joshua M Kuperman, Hauke Bartsch, Karalani Cross, Richard Q Loi, Akshara R Balachandra, M J Meloy, Christina E Wierenga, Douglas Galasko, James B Brewer, Anders M Dale, Linda K McEvoy
BACKGROUND: Diffusion imaging has demonstrated sensitivity to structural brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there remains a need for a more complete characterization of microstructural alterations occurring at the earliest disease stages, and how these changes relate to underlying neuropathology. This study evaluated the sensitivity of restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), an advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, to microstructural brain changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD...
August 2, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763060/bace1-inhibition-by-microdose-lithium-formulation-np03-rescues-memory-loss-and-early-stage-amyloid-neuropathology
#16
E N Wilson, S Do Carmo, M F Iulita, H Hall, A Ducatenzeiler, A R Marks, S Allard, D T Jia, J Windheim, A C Cuello
Lithium is first-line therapy for bipolar affective disorder and has recently been shown to have protective effects in populations at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying this protection is poorly understood and consequently limits its possible therapeutic application in AD. Moreover, conventional lithium formulations have a narrow therapeutic window and are associated with a severe side effect profile. Here we evaluated a novel microdose formulation of lithium, coded NP03, in a well-characterized rat model of progressive AD-like amyloid pathology...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760945/inactivation-of-nitric-oxide-synthesis-exacerbates-the-development-of-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-appps1-mice-amyloid-precursor-protein-presenilin-1
#17
Diana Cifuentes, Marine Poittevin, Philippe Bonnin, Anta Ngkelo, Nathalie Kubis, Tatyana Merkulova-Rainon, Bernard I Lévy
The epidemiological link between hypertension and Alzheimer disease is established. We previously reported that hypertension aggravates the Alzheimer-like pathology in APPPS1 mice (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1, mouse model of Alzheimer disease) with angiotensin II-induced hypertension, in relation with hypertension and nitric oxide deficiency. To provide further insights into the role of nitric oxide in the hypertension-Alzheimer disease cross-talk, we studied the effects of nitric oxide blockade in APPPS1 mice using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) alone or in combination with hydralazine, to normalize blood pressure...
July 31, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756946/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-requirements-in-activity-dependent-critical-period-neural-circuit-refinement
#18
Caleb A Doll, Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
Activity-dependent synaptic remodeling occurs during early-use critical periods, when naive juveniles experience sensory input. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) sculpts synaptic refinement in an activity sensor mechanism based on sensory cues, with FMRP loss causing the most common heritable autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the well-mapped Drosophila olfactory circuitry, projection neurons (PNs) relay peripheral sensory information to the central brain mushroom body (MB) learning/memory center...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755859/systemic-inflammation-combined-with-neonatal-cerebellar-haemorrhage-aggravates-long-term-structural-and-functional-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model
#19
Sophie Tremblay, Alex Pai, Lindsay Richter, Rod Vafaei, Praneetha Potluri, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Daniel Goldowitz
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased recognition of cerebellar injury in survivors of preterm birth, the neurodevelopmental consequences of isolated cerebellar injury have been largely unexplored and our current understanding of the functional deficits requires further attention in order to translate knowledge to best practices. Preterm infants are exposed to multiple stressors during their postnatal development including perinatal cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) and postnatal infection, two major risk factors for neurodevelopmental impairments...
July 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755273/cognitive-impairment-and-brain-and-peripheral-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-the-preterm-newborn
#20
Antonio Segado-Arenas, Carmen Infante-Garcia, Isabel Benavente-Fernandez, Daniel Sanchez-Sotano, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Almudena Alonso-Ojembarrena, Simon Lubian-Lopez, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) remains a serious complication in the preterm newborn. The significant increase of survival rates in extremelye preterm newborns has also contributed to increase the absolute number of patients developing GMH-IVH. However, there are relatively few available animal models to understand the underlying mechanisms and peripheral markers or prognostic tools. In order to further characterize central complications and evolution of GMH-IVH, we injected collagenase intraventricularly to P7 CD1 mice and assessed them in the short (P14) and the long term (P70)...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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