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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#1
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845027/clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-use-of-therapeutic-monitoring-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitors-lisa-tracker%C3%A2-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa-kits-tnf-%C3%AE-blocker-elisa-kits-and-promonitor%C3%A2-elisa-kits-versus-standard-care
#2
Karoline Freeman, Martin Connock, Peter Auguste, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Hema Mistry, Deepson Shyangdan, Rachel Court, Ramesh Arasaradnam, Paul Sutcliffe, Aileen Clarke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Systematic reviews and economic modelling of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic monitoring of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors [using LISA-TRACKER(®) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Theradiag, Marne La Vallee, France, or Alpha Laboratories, Heriot, UK), TNF-α-Blocker ELISA kits (Immundiagnostik AG, Bensheim, Germany) and Promonitor(®) ELISA kits (Proteomika, Progenika Biopharma, Bizkaia, Spain)] versus standard care for Crohn's disease (CD)...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843856/induced-sputum-versus-bronchial-washings-in-the-diagnosis-of-sputum-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#3
Gopathi Nageswar Rao, Mandava Venu, Namballa Usha Rani, Makala Sravani
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary TB (PT) is an important component of TB control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and smear-negative PT remains a common problem. This study compares the results of induced sputum (IS) and bronchial washings (BWs) in detecting sputum negative PT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825991/cyp24a1-deficiency-does-not-affect-bone-regeneration-in-distraction-osteogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Abdallah Husseini, René St-Arnaud
The putative biological activity of 24,25-(OH)2D remains unclear. Previous studies showed an increase in the circulating levels of this metabolite following fracture in chicks. Our laboratory has generated a mouse model deficient for the Cyp24a1 gene for studying the role of 24,25-(OH)2D. We set out to study the role of CYP24A1 and 24,25-(OH)2D in intramembranous bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in wild-type and Cyp24a1-deficient mice. Distraction osteogenesis was applied to mouse tibiae using a miniature external fixator apparatus...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790628/factors-associated-with-pneumonia-among-overweight-and-obese-under-five-children-in-an-urban-hospital-of-a-developing-country
#5
K M Shahunja, Tahmeed Ahmed, Md Iqbal Hossain, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syeed Golam Faruque, Md Munirul Islam, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahid, Jui Das, Mohammad Habibur Rahman Sarker, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
To our knowledge, there are no data on the role of overweight and obesity in childhood pneumonia. We sought to determine that impact of overweight and obesity in such children. In this retrospective chart analysis, we enrolled hospitalized children aged 6 to 59 months in the Dhaka Hospital of the icddr,b, Bangladesh (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh), from January 2010 to June 2014. Children with pneumonia having overweight and obesity (body mass index Z score [BMIZ] >2.00) constituted cases (n = 25), and those who had pneumonia without overweight and obesity (BMIZ -2...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783399/validation-of-prostate-specific-antigen-laboratory-values-recorded-in-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-registries
#6
Margaret Peggy Adamo, Jessica A Boten, Linda M Coyle, Kathleen A Cronin, Clara J K Lam, Serban Negoita, Lynne Penberthy, Jennifer L Stevens, Kevin C Ward
BACKGROUND: Researchers have used prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values collected by central cancer registries to evaluate tumors for potential aggressive clinical disease. An independent study collecting PSA values suggested a high error rate (18%) related to implied decimal points. To evaluate the error rate in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, a comprehensive review of PSA values recorded across all SEER registries was performed. METHODS: Consolidated PSA values for eligible prostate cancer cases in SEER registries were reviewed and compared with text documentation from abstracted records...
October 26, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779622/mothers-do-it-differently-reproductive-experience-alters-fear-extinction-in-female-rats-and-women
#7
J S Milligan-Saville, B M Graham
Fear extinction is the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Recent findings have revealed that estradiol is necessary to the consolidation of extinction memories in females. These findings are based on studies conducted using virgin rats and young women whose reproductive history is unknown. We hypothesized that motherhood, which results in extensive endocrinological, neurobiological and behavioral changes, may lead to alterations in fear extinction in females. We used a cross-species translational approach to investigate the impact of reproductive experience on fear extinction and fear relapse in female rats (n=116) and women (n=64)...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773596/early-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-access-and-equity-of-viral-load-testing-for-hiv-treatment-monitoring
#8
Trevor Peter, Dennis Ellenberger, Andrea A Kim, Debrah Boeras, Tsehaynesh Messele, Teri Roberts, Wendy Stevens, Ilesh Jani, Alash'le Abimiku, Nathan Ford, Zachary Katz, John N Nkengasong
Scaling up access to HIV viral load testing for individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings is a global health priority, as emphasised by research showing the benefits of suppressed viral load for the individual and the whole population. Historically, large-scale diagnostic test implementation has been slow and incomplete because of service delivery and other challenges. Building on lessons from the past, in this Personal View we propose a new framework to accelerate viral load scale-up and ensure equitable access to this essential test...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758813/tuberculous-meningitis-in-an-immunocompetent-male-complicated-by-hydrocephalus
#9
Louise Dunphy, Prashanth Shetty, Rabinder Randhawa, Kharil Amir Rani, Yaw Duodu
A 39-year-old man, born in India but resident in the UK for 10 years, was travelling in America when he became feverish with an altered mentation. He reported a 10-day history of fever, photophobia, headache and fatigue. His medical history included hypothyroidism and migraine. He was a non-smoker, did not consume alcohol and denied a history of drug use. He was transferred to the emergency department. Laboratory investigations confirmed hyponatraemia (sodium 128 mmol/L). A chest radiograph confirmed no focal consolidation...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753006/tripping-with-synthetic-cannabinoids-spice-anecdotal-and-experimental-observations-in-animals-and-man
#10
Torbjörn U C Järbe, Jimit Girish Raghav
The phenomenon of consuming synthetic cannabinoids ("Spice") for recreational purposes is a fairly recent trend. However, consumption of cannabis dates back millennia, with numerous accounts written on the experience of its consumption, and thousands of scientific reports published on the effects of its constituents in laboratory animals and humans. Here, we focus on consolidating the scientific literature on the effects of "Spice" compounds in various behavioral assays, including assessing abuse liability, tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, and potential toxicity...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748243/acute-sleep-deprivation-blocks-short-and-long-term-operant-memory-in-aplysia
#11
Harini C Krishnan, Catherine E Gandour, Joshua L Ramos, Mariah C Wrinkle, Joseph J Sanchez-Pacheco, Lisa C Lyons
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short- and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. DESIGN: Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 h using context changes and tactile stimulation prior to or after training using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI)...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743774/consolidated-bioprocessing-of-microalgal-biomass-to-carboxylates-by-a-mixed-culture-of-cow-rumen-bacteria-using-anaerobic-sequencing-batch-reactor-asbr
#12
Baisuo Zhao, Jie Liu, Craig Frear, Mark Holtzapple, Shulin Chen
This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698778/scrub-typhus-associated-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-a-report-of-six-pediatric-patients
#13
Yingkang Jin, Li Huang, Huifeng Fan, Gen Lu, Yi Xu, Zhiyuan Wu
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683498/the-accreditation-experience-of-clinical-laboratories-and-blood-banks-in-mexico
#14
Sandra Quintana
The accreditation of clinical laboratories and blood banks based on ISO 15189 is now being consolidated in Mexico, and is coordinated by the Mexican accreditation entity innovative strategies, A.C. (ema) and supported by the activities of the committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks. The active participation in working groups formed by the technical committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks in specific areas, has contributed to the formulation of technical documents and criteria of evaluation that strengthen the current accreditation scheme...
November 2015: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646712/predictors-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection-in-primary-care-a-systematic-review-protocol
#15
Benhildah N Rumbwere Dube, Tom P Marshall, Ronan P Ryan
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early, before they have irreversible immunologic damage. A large proportion of patients that are diagnosed with HIV, in United Kingdom, would have seen a general practitioner (GP) within the previous year. Determining the demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients prior to diagnosis of HIV may be useful in identifying patients likely to be HIV positive in primary care...
September 20, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640053/waste-minimization-in-the-remediation-of-contaminated-sites-using-the-oil-belt-skimmer-technology-for-the-removal-of-heavy-hydrocarbons-from-groundwater
#16
Sabino De Gisi, Michele Notarnicola
Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623322/-a-well-inked-pneumonia%C3%A2-can-you-decrypt-it
#17
M Tetart, V Trosini-Désert, A Fekkar, C Chenivesse
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of pneumonia associated with necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes in an immunocompetent patient. The case report illustrates the difficulties in making a diagnosis in necrotic mediastinal lymph nodes and discusses strategies to optimize sampling. OBSERVATION: A 21-year-old immunocompetent woman was admitted to hospital with dyspnea and fever occurring ten days after delivery. Physical examination, biological results and chest X-ray led to the diagnosis of right upper lobe pneumonia...
September 9, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614086/values-of-radiological-examinations-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-invasive-bronchial-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-critically-ill-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-diseases
#18
Linna Huang, Hangyong He, Yi Ding, Jingjing Jin, Qingyuan Zhan
INTRODUCTION: The important role of radiological examinations of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with neutropenia has been well studied; however, little is known about IPA in critically ill chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the value of radiological examinations in the diagnosis and prognosis of invasive bronchial-pulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) in critically ill COPD patients. METHODS: We included 61 critically ill COPD patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) in a retrospective, single-center cohort study...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608478/clinical-and-radiological-signs-of-abpa-associated-with-airways-infection-with-aspergillus-in-the-absence-of-specific-ige
#19
F Sunzini, C Barbato, C Canofari, L Lugari, R Perricone, A Bergamini
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus that mainly affects patients with asthma. For diagnosis, elevated serum IgE level are needed according to Greenberger and Patterson criteria. We report a case of 43 years-old woman who developed ABPA with productive cough, fever and radiological findings of multiple confluent areas of consolidation in both upper lobes. Laboratory tests showed elevated peripheral eosinophil counts (9.3 x 10(3)/ml). In bronchial washing A...
September 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588444/clinical-analysis-and-outcome-of-interstitial-lung-disease-complicated-with-juvenile-dermatomyositis-and-juvenile-polymyositis
#20
Satoshi Sato, Yoji Uejima, Meika Nanbu, Eisuke Suganuma, Tadamasa Takano, Risa Tanaka, Tomoyuki Kabuki, Eiji Oguma, Tsutomu Oh-Ishi, Yutaka Kawano
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical phenotype and outcome of interstitial lung disease (ILD) complicated with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) or juvenile polymyositis (JPM). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study. From 1984 to 2015, we retrospectively reviewed 29 patients who were diagnosed with JDM/JPM, among whom eight cases were ILD and 21 were non-ILD. The clinical features and laboratory findings included chest computed tomography (CT) images that were compared between the patients with ILD and non-ILD...
September 20, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
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