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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#1
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200789/pharmacovigilance-a-public-health-priority-for-south-africa
#2
Ushma Mehta, Emma Kalk, Andrew Boulle, Portia Nkambule, Joey Gouws, Helen Rees, Karen Cohen
South Africa has been engaged in pharmacovigilance (PV) activities to assess the impact of adverse drug reactions on public safety and health for 40 years. Activities have evolved from passive regulatory reporting to encompass active surveillance systems. The HIV and AIDS and TB epidemics stimulated pharmacoepidemiological research into the risks associated with medicines used in the standardised regimens of mass treatment programmes. Specific safety concerns, supported by robust local cohort data, have prompted major changes to national and international treatment policies...
2017: South African Health Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198599/who-is-the-boss-individual-recognition-memory-and-social-hierarchy-formation-in-crayfish
#3
Nayeli Jiménez-Morales, Karina Mendoza-Ángeles, Mercedes Porras-Villalobos, Elizabeth Ibarra-Coronado, Gabriel Roldán-Roldán, Jesús Hernández-Falcón
Under laboratory conditions, crayfish establish hierarchical orders through agonistic encounters whose outcome defines the dominant one and one, or more, submissive animals. These agonistic encounters are ritualistic, based on threats, pushes, attacks, grabs, and avoidance behaviors that include retreats and escape responses. Agonistic behavior in a triad of unfamiliar, size-matched animals is intense on the first day of social interaction and the intensity fades on daily repetitions. The dominant animal keeps its status for long periods, and the submissive ones seem to remember 'who the boss is'...
November 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189609/introduction-of-routine-hiv-birth-testing-in-the-south-african-national-consolidated-guidelines
#4
Faith Moyo, Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Peter Barron, Sanjana Bhardwaj, Ameena Ebrahim Goga, Yogan Pillay, Gayle Gillian Sherman
BACKGROUND: South Africa represents the first high-burden setting to introduce routine virological testing at birth within its early infant diagnosis program, implemented in June 2015. National HIV birth testing coverage, intra-uterine transmission rates and case rates for the first year since introduction of universal birth testing are reported. METHODS: HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test data from June 2015 to May 2016 were extracted from the National Health Laboratory Service's central data repository by year, month, age, result and geographic location...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159658/lung-necrosectomy-in-pediatric-patients-with-necrotizing-pneumonia
#5
Francina V Bolaños-Morales, Emmanuel Peña Gómez-Portugal, María E Aguilar-Mena, Patricio J Santillán-Doherty, Avelina Sotres-Vega, J Alfredo Santibáñez-Salgado
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing pneumonia is the consolidation of lung parenchyma with destruction and necrosis, forming solitary or multiloculated radiolucent foci. When antibiotic treatment fails and clinical course does not improve, patients might need lung tissue resection: segmentectomy, lobectomy or bilobectomy. We have performed a more conservative surgical approach in pediatric patients with necrotizing pneumonia, lung necrosectomy: resection of unviable necrotic tissue, to preserve more healthy and potentially recoverable lung parenchyma...
November 20, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155095/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-by-which-prior-experience-impacts-subsequent-learning
#6
Ryan G Parsons
Memory is often thought about in terms of its ability to recollect and store information about the past, but its function likely rests with the fact that it permits adaptation to ongoing and future experience. Thus, the brain circuitry that encodes memory must act as if stored information is likely to be modified by subsequent experience. Considerable progress has been made in identifying the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition and consolidation of memories, but this knowledge comes largely from studies in laboratory animals in which the training experience is presented in isolation from prior experimentally-controlled events...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141959/an-integrative-strategy-to-identify-the-entire-protein-coding-potential-of-prokaryotic-genomes-by-proteogenomics
#7
Ulrich Omasits, Adithi R Varadarajan, Michael Schmid, Sandra Goetze, Damianos Melidis, Marc Bourqui, Olga Nikolayeva, Maxime Québatte, Andrea Patrignani, Christoph Dehio, Juerg E Frey, Mark D Robinson, Bernd Wollscheid, Christian H Ahrens
Accurate annotation of all protein-coding sequences (CDSs) is an essential prerequisite to fully exploit the rapidly growing repertoire of completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. However, large discrepancies among the number of CDSs annotated by different resources, missed functional short open reading frames (sORFs), and overprediction of spurious ORFs represent serious limitations. Our strategy toward accurate and complete genome annotation consolidates CDSs from multiple reference annotation resources, ab initio gene prediction algorithms and in silico ORFs (a modified six-frame translation considering alternative start codons) in an integrated proteogenomics database (iPtgxDB) that covers the entire protein-coding potential of a prokaryotic genome...
December 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052351/analysis-of-the-clinical-features-of-invasive-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#8
Yueqin Cao, Changzhou Shao, Yuanlin Song
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) is difficult, so the mortality rate is high. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical features of IBPA. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, imaging findings, laboratory test, diagnosis, and treatment of 115 patients with IBPA diagnosed from October 2004 to June 2013 in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. RESULTS: The main clinical manifestations were cough in 58 patients (50...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049239/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-chinese-patients
#9
Xiaomeng Hou, Hong Zhang, Lei Kou, Wei Lv, Jingjing Lu, Ji Li
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has recently been recognized as a significant global health burden. In China, the diagnosis of CPA is still unfamiliar to most doctors. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical manifestations and diagnoses of CPA in China.A multidisciplinary team of doctors retrospectively screened 690 records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis from January 2000 to December 2016 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China. Of these, 69 patients were diagnosed with CPA...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966493/clinical-manifestations-of-nocardiosis-study-of-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#10
Teena Wadhwa, Usha Baveja, Navin Kumar, Deepak Govil, Sharmila Sengupta
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the predisposing risk factors, clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, and treatments taken and outcomes in patients of nocardiosis in the span of 5 years in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients whose specimens showed Nocardia like organism in Gram-staining, Kinyoun staining and characteristic colonies in culture were included in the retrospective analysis study. Retrospective analysis of associated risk factors, clinical presentations, and radiological findings was performed...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966166/cell-scientist-to-watch-dana-branzei
#11
(no author information available yet)
Originally from Iaşi, Romania, Dana received her bachelor's degree in pharmaceutical sciences and a master's degree in molecular and cellular biology from Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan. For her PhD, she joined the lab of Takemi Enomoto to work on DNA replication and recombination in yeast. After a short postdoc with Kunihiro Ohta at the RIKEN laboratory in Wako, Dana took a position as a staff scientist with Marco Foiani at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation (IFOM) in Milan, Italy. There, she became a junior group leader in 2008 and tenured principal investigator in 2013...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964658/a-decade-of-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-training-time-based-metrics-and-qualitative-grading-for-fellows-and-residents
#12
Muammer Altok, Mary F Achim, Surena F Matin, Curtis A Pettaway, Brian F Chapin, John W Davis
OBJECTIVES: As modern urology residency and fellowship training in robot-assisted surgery evolves toward standardized curricula (didactics, dry/wet-laboratory exercises, and surgical assistance), additional tools are needed to evaluate on-console performance. At the start of our robotics program in 2006, we set-up a time- and quality-based evaluation program and aim to consolidate this data into a simple set of metrics for self-evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using our index procedure of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), we prospectively collected data on 2,215 cases over 10 years from 6 faculty surgeons and 94 trainees (43 urologic oncology fellows and 51 urology residents)...
September 27, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961309/phase-ii-study-of-bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-and-dexamethasone-as-induction-therapy-in-multiple-myeloma-dsmm-xi-trial
#13
Hermann Einsele, Monika Engelhardt, Christoph Tapprich, Jürgen Müller, Peter Liebisch, Christian Langer, Martin Kropff, Lars O Mügge, Wolfram Jung, Hans-Heinrich Wolf, Bernd Metzner, Christina Hart, Martin Gramatzki, Bernd Hertenstein, Michael Pfreundschuh, Wolf Rösler, Thomas Fischer, Georg Maschmeyer, Lothar Kanz, Georg Hess, Elke Jäger, Martin Bentz, Heinz A Dürk, Hans Salwender, Holger Hebart, Christian Straka, Stefan Knop
We assessed the safety and efficacy of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) induction therapy in previously untreated multiple myeloma patients. A total of 414 patients received three 21-day cycles of VCD prior to autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Most common grade ≥3 adverse events were leucopenia (31·4%) and thrombocytopenia (6·8%). The overall response rate (ORR) by investigator-based assessment was 85·4%. Most patients (74%) underwent successful central laboratory-based molecular cytogenetic analysis...
September 29, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948882/innovating-public-participation-methods-technoscientization-and-reflexive-engagement
#14
Jan-Peter Voß, Nina Amelung
We reconstruct the innovation journey of 'citizen panels', as a family of participation methods, over four decades and across different sites of development and application. A process of aggregation leads from local practices of designing participatory procedures like the citizens jury, planning cell, or consensus conference in the 1970s and 1980s, to the disembedding and proliferation of procedural formats in the 1990s, and into the trans-local consolidation of participatory practices through laboratory-based expertise since about 2000...
October 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943541/the-correlation-between-chest-x-ray-scores-and-the-clinical-findings-in-children-and-adults-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#15
Takeshi Saraya, Takayasu Watanabe, Yayoi Tsukahara, Kosuke Ohkuma, Haruyuki Ishii, Hirokazu Kimura, Kunimasa Yan, Hajime Goto, Hajime Takizawa
Objective To compare the radiological and laboratory data of children and adults with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and to evaluate the correlation between the total affected lung area and the clinical findings. Methods We retrospectively examined the data from MPP patients who visited our hospital during the period from April 2006 to July 2014. All data were retrieved at the time of the diagnosis of MPP and were analyzed to investigate the correlation between the clinical findings and the total affected lung area using a chest X-ray scoring system...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935008/coccidioidomycosis-in-an-indoor-housed-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#16
Mila C Kundu, Michael A Ringenberg, Denise L d'Epagnier, Heather L Haag, Sean Maguire
Coccidioides spp. are saprophytic, dimorphic fungi that are endemic to arid climates, are capable of infecting many species, and result in diverse clinical presentations. An indoor-housed laboratory rhesus macaque presented with weight loss and decreased activity and appetite. During the diagnostic evaluation, a bronchiolar-alveolar pattern in the cranial lung lobes, consistent with bronchopneumonia, was noted on radiographs. Given the poor prognosis, the macaque was euthanized. Confirming the radiographic assessment, gross necropsy findings included multifocal to coalescing areas of consolidation in the right and left cranial lung lobes...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924106/intravenous-immunoglobulin-monotherapy-for-granulomatous-lymphocytic-interstitial-lung-disease-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#17
Mizue Hasegawa, Fumikazu Sakai, Asako Okabayashi, Akitoshi Sato, Naoko Yokohori, Hideki Katsura, Chihiro Asano, Toshiko Kamata, Eitetsu Koh, Yasuo Sekine, Kenzo Hiroshima, Takashi Ogura, Tamiko Takemura
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous subset of immunodeficiency disorders. Recurrent bacterial infection is the main feature of CVID, but various non-infectious complications can occur. A 42-year-old woman presented with cough and abnormal chest X-ray shadows. Laboratory tests showed remarkable hypogammaglobulinemia. Computed tomography revealed multiple consolidation and nodules on the bilateral lung fields, systemic lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. A surgical lung biopsy specimen provided the final diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease in CVID, which was grouped under the term granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease...
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904692/evaluation-of-bacterial-meningitis-surveillance-data-of-the-northern-region-ghana-2010-2015
#18
Basil Benduri Kaburi, Chrysantus Kubio, Ernest Kenu, Donne Kofi Ameme, Jacob Yakubu Mahama, Samuel Oko Sackey, Edwin Andrew Afari
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis is a disease of major public health importance especially for countries such as Ghana; whose northern part lies within the meningitis belt. The Northern region of Ghana has been recording cases with outbreaks over the years. In order to generate evidence to improve surveillance, we described the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis using surveillance data of the northern region. METHODS: Bacterial meningitis datasets from January 2010 to December 2015 for all the 26 districts of the Northern region were retrieved from line lists...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863010/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-establishment-of-a-clinical-application-framework
#19
Simon M D Jørgensen, Mette M Hansen, Christian Erikstrup, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening, laboratory processing and clinical application of FMT are warranted. METHODS: Here, we describe the development of a complete clinical application framework for FMT. The framework has been developed to comply with the European Tissue Act, thus considering donor faeces for FMT comparable to a human tissue and not a drug...
November 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852675/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-children-from-2009-to-2015-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Herve Caspard, Raburn M Mallory, Jing Yu, Christopher S Ambrose
BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis describes and consolidates findings from all studies that assessed the effectiveness of live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against laboratory-confirmed influenza since the 2009 pandemic in children and young adults. METHODS: A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published from January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2016. All original publications reporting an effectiveness estimate of LAIV against cases of influenza confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or culture were retained for analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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