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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917695/the-impact-of-gabaergic-drugs-on-tms-induced-brain-oscillations-in-human-motor-cortex
#1
Isabella Premoli, Til O Bergmann, Matteo Fecchio, Mario Rosanova, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) have so far been assessed either by TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), mostly reflecting phase-locked neuronal activity, or time-frequency-representations (TFRs), reflecting oscillatory power arising from a mixture of both evoked (i.e., phase-locked) and induced (i.e., non-phase-locked) responses. Single-pulse TMS of the human primary motor cortex induces a specific pattern of oscillatory changes, characterized by an early (30-200 ms after TMS) synchronization in the α- and β-bands over the stimulated sensorimotor cortex and adjacent lateral frontal cortex, followed by a late (200-400 ms) α- and β-desynchronization over the stimulated and contralateral sensorimotor cortex...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901969/disorders-of-consciousness-after-severe-brain-injury-therapeutic-options
#2
Caroline Schnakers, Martin M Monti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Very few options exist for patients who survive severe traumatic brain injury but fail to fully recover and develop a disorder of consciousness (e.g. vegetative state, minimally conscious state). RECENT FINDINGS: Among pharmacological approaches, Amantadine has shown the ability to accelerate functional recovery. Although with very low frequency, Zolpidem has shown the ability to improve the level of consciousness transiently and, possibly, also in a sustained fashion...
September 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893667/amnestic-drugs-in-the-odor-span-task-effects-of-flunitrazepam-zolpidem-and-scopolamine
#3
Mark Galizio, Michael Mathews, Madeleine Mason, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Paul Soto
The odor span task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure designed to provide an analysis of working memory capacity in rodents. The procedure takes place in an arena apparatus and rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli in the form of scented lids with the selection of new stimuli reinforced. This procedure makes it possible to study drug effects as a function of the number of stimuli to remember. In the present study, the non-selective positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulator flunitrazepam impaired odor span performance at doses that did not affect a control odor discrimination...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884784/the-association-between-the-use-of-zolpidem-and-the-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-among-older-people
#4
Hui-Ting Cheng, Fang-Ju Lin, Steven R Erickson, Jin-Liern Hong, Chung-Hsuen Wu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between zolpidem use and the risk of Alzheimer's disease among older people. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using data from 2001 to 2011 from the National Health Insurance Research Database. SETTING: Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6,922 patients aged 65 years or older enrolled from January 2002 to December 2004 (the enrollment period). INTERVENTION (EXPOSURE): Zolpidem users were identified as patients who used zolpidem during the enrollment period...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851658/benzodiazepines-use-and-breast-cancer-risk-a-population-based-study-and-gene-expression-profiling-evidence
#5
Usman Iqbal, Tzu-Hao Chang, Phung-Anh Nguyen, Shabbir Syed-Abdul, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Chih-Wei Huang, Suleman Atique, Wei-Chung Yang, Max Moldovan, Wen-Shan Jian, Min-Huei Hsu, Yun Yen, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term use of Benzodiazepines (BZDs) is associated with breast cancer risk through the combination of population-based observational and gene expression profiling evidence. We conducted a population-based case-control study by using 1998 to 2009 year Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and investigated the association between BZDs use and breast cancer risk. We selected subjects age of > 20 years old and six eligible controls matched for age, sex and the index date (i...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845958/sleep-disorders-insomnia
#6
Deepa Burman
Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep...
September 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844123/use-of-hypnotics-and-the-risk-of-or-mortality-from-heart-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#7
Young-Hyo Kim, Hong-Bae Kim, Do-Hyoung Kim, Ja-Young Kim, Hyun-Young Shin
Background/Aims: Some observational epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between hypnotics use and the risk of developing and/or dying from heart disease. We investigated these associations using a meta-analysis of available literatures. Methods: We searched the databases PubMed and EMBASE, along with the bibliographies of relevant articles to find additional publications in February 2016. Results: Of 495 articles satisfying our initial criteria, two case-control studies and six cohort studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analyses...
August 28, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841781/non-medical-use-of-psychoactive-prescription-drugs-is-associated-with-fatal-poisoning
#8
Jari Haukka, Pirkko Kriikku, Claudia Mariottini, Timo Partonen, Ilkka Ojanperä
AIMS: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and predictors of non-medical substance use, and to assess the association between non-medical substance use and fatal poisoning or history of drug abuse in Finland. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of all medico-legally investigated death cases in Finland. The post-mortem toxicology database was linked together with the register on reimbursed prescription medicines. PARTICIPANTS/CASES: All post-mortem cases between 2011 and 2013 positive for one or more of the following drugs: oxycodone, fentanyl, tramadol, clonazepam, gabapentin, pregabalin, tizanidine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, alprazolam, zolpidem, mirtazapine, and bupropion, n=2974...
August 25, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835522/functional-and-molecular-plasticity-of-gamma-and-alpha-1-gabaa-receptor-subunits-in-the-dorsal-motor-nucleus-of-the-vagus-after-experimentally-induced-diabetes
#9
Carie R Boychuk, Katalin Cs Smith, Bret N Smith
Chronic experimentally-induced hyperglycemia augments subunit specific gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor-mediated inhibition of parasympathetic preganglionic motor neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). However, the contribution of α1 or γ GABAA receptor subunits, which are ubiquitously expressed on central nervous system neurons, to this elevation in inhibitory tone have not been determined. This study investigated the effect of chronic hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia on α1- and γ-subunit specific GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition using electrophysiological recordings in vitro and quantitative (q)RT-PCR...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831822/effect-of-zolpidem-on-functional-recovery-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#10
Min-Kyun Oh, Kyung Jae Yoon, Yong-Taek Lee, Seoung Wan Chae, Hye Young Choi, Hee Suk Shin, Yun Hee Park, Se-Woong Chun, Young Sook Park
Objective To evaluate the effects of zolpidem on functional recovery in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke. Methods Following ischemic stroke procedures, 42 rats (six in each group) were randomly assigned to receive zolpidem (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg/kg) or normal saline administer intraperitoneally once daily for two weeks. Motor behavioural index (MBI) scores, radial 8-arm maze (RAM) test times and brain MRI scans were obtained 24 hours (Day 1) and two weeks (Day 14) post-procedure. Immunohistochemistry was performed on Day 14...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810070/the-appearance-taste-and-concentrations-of-zolpidem-dissolved-in-still-water-and-carbonated-beverages
#11
Gunhild Heide, Knut Hjelmeland, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Ritva Karinen, Gudrun Høiseth
Zolpidem is a sedative that could be used to drug victims, but its suitability to dissolve in drinks is unknown. In this small study, we added either crushed or whole tablets of zolpidem hemitartrate to carbonated beverages or still water to observe how this affected the taste and appearance. Also, concentrations were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry at different time intervals. Two crushed tablets (20 mg) in cider (250 mL) lead to a maximum concentration of 84 mg/L zolpidem base after 30 min, while the corresponding concentration after adding fifteen tablets (150 mg) was 467 mg/L...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735928/efficacy-and-safety-of-almorexant-in-adult-chronic-insomnia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-with-an-active-reference
#12
Jed Black, Giora Pillar, Jan Hedner, Olli Polo, Ouali Berkani, Sara Mangialaio, Abdel Hmissi, Gary Zammit, Goran Hajak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The orally active dual OX1R and OX2R antagonist, almorexant, targets the orexin system for the treatment of primary insomnia. This clinical trial assessed the effect of almorexant on sleep maintenance and other sleep endpoints, and its safety and tolerability in adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active referenced trial in male and female adults aged 18-64 years with chronic, primary insomnia...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734941/sleep-chronic-pain-and-opioid-risk-for-apnea
#13
REVIEW
Serguei Marshansky, Pierre Mayer, Dorrie Rizzo, Marc Baltzan, Ronald Denis, Gilles J Lavigne
Pain is an unwelcome sleep partner. Pain tends to erode sleep quality and alter the sleep restorative process in vulnerable patients. It can contribute to next-day sleepiness and fatigue, affecting cognitive function. Chronic pain and the use of opioid medications can also complicate the management of sleep disorders such as insomnia (difficulty falling and/or staying asleep) and sleep-disordered breathing (sleep apnea). Sleep problems can be related to various types of pain, including sleep headache (hypnic headache, cluster headache, migraine) and morning headache (transient tension type secondary to sleep apnea or to sleep bruxism or tooth grinding) as well as periodic limb movements (leg and arm dysesthesia with pain)...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716996/long-term-benzodiazepine-and-z-drugs-use-in-the-uk-a-survey-of-general-practice
#14
James Davies, Todd C Rae, Luke Montagu
BACKGROUND: Current British National Formulary (BNF) guidelines state that benzodiazepines and zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, commonly known as Z-drugs (BZD), be prescribed for no more than 4 weeks, although anecdotal data suggest that many patients are prescribed BZDs for much longer. As there are no recent, evidence-based estimates of long-term (>12 months) BZD use in the UK, the scale of this potential problem is unknown. AIM: To produce the first reliable, evidence-based estimate of long-term BZD use in the UK...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671376/insomnia-pharmacologic-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Eric Matheson, Barry L Hainer
Insomnia accounts for more than 5.5 million visits to family physicians each year. Although behavioral interventions are the mainstay of treatment, pharmacologic therapy may be necessary for some patients. Understanding the risks and benefits of insomnia medications is critical. Controlled-release melatonin and doxepin are recommended as first-line agents in older adults; the so-called z-drugs (zolpidem, eszopiclone, and zaleplon) should be reserved for use if the first-line agents are ineffective. For the general population with difficulty falling asleep, controlled-release melatonin and the z-drugs can be considered...
July 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669021/new-occasional-and-frequent-use-of-zolpidem-or-zopiclone-alone-and-in-combination-and-the-risk-of-injurious-road-traffic-crashes-in-older-adult-drivers-a-population-based-case-control-and-case-crossover-study
#16
Alicia Nevriana, Jette Möller, Lucie Laflamme, Joel Monárrez-Espino
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the effect of zolpidem or zopiclone use on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs) have shown mixed results. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between zolpidem or zopiclone use (as separate drugs or combined) and the occurrence of injurious RTCs among older adult drivers. METHODS: This was a population-based matched case-control and case-crossover study based on secondary data linked together from Swedish national registers...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667742/gingival-bleeding-a-possible-serious-adverse-drug-reaction-an-observational-study-in-the-french-pharmacovigilance-database
#17
Emmanuelle Bondon-Guitton, Thibaut Mourgues, Vanessa Rousseau, Sarah Cousty, Judith Cottin, Guillaume Drablier, Joëlle Micallef, Jean-Louis Montastruc
INTRODUCTION: Antithrombotic drugs are known to increase the risk of gingival bleeding because they affect coagulation. However, other drugs could also be involved in gingival bleeding. AIM: We performed a pharmacoepidemiological study to identify the drugs most frequently "suspected" in the occurrence of gingival bleeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected reports of "gingival bleeding" from 1 January 1985 to 30 September 2014 in the French PharmacoVigilance Database...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655027/zolpidem-for-the-treatment-of-neurologic-disorders-a-systematic-review
#18
Martin N Bomalaski, Edward S Claflin, Whitney Townsend, Mark D Peterson
Importance: Given its selective action on the ω1 subtype of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor, zolpidem tartrate presents a potential treatment mechanism for other neurologic disorders. Objective: To synthesize studies that used zolpidem to treat neurologic disorders. Evidence Review: Eligibility criteria included any published English-language article that examined the use of zolpidem for noninsomnia neurologic disorders in humans for all dates up to March 20, 2015...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649875/potential-benefits-of-zolpidem-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#19
REVIEW
Afsaneh Noormandi, Maryam Shahrokhi, Hossein Khalili
It has been suggested that zolpidem may arouse patients with decreased level of consciousness. Zolpidem may partially or even completely reverse abnormal cell metabolism following brain damage. In this article, available evidences regarding effects of zolpidem on disorders of consciousness were reviewed. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar as online databases...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649864/the-french-addictovigilance-network-clinical-assessment-z-drugs-true-false-twins
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Morgane Rousselet, Fanny Feuillet, Marie Gerardin, Pascale Jolliet, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau
INTRODUCTION: In France, an addictovigilance network is responsible for evaluating drug dependence, by drawing on pharmacoepidemiological studies, clinical studies and by assessing healthcare professionals' reports on problematic consumption. METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine whether zolpidem and zopiclone have different dependence profiles, based on healthcare professionals' reports, and to identify various consumer dependence profiles among zolpidem users and among zopiclone users...
September 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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