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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136575/the-correlation-between-concentrations-of-zolpidem-and-benzodiazepines-in-segmental-hair-samples-and-use-patterns
#1
Hyojeong Kim, Sangeun Lee, Sanghwan In, Meejung Park, Sungnam Cho, Junguk Shin, Hunjoo Lee, Eunyoung Han
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between histories of zolpidem and benzodiazepines use and their concentrations in hair as determined by segmental hair analysis, that is, by analyzing hair samples taken 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, and 5-6cm etc. and 0-3cm from the scalp, and whole hair. Of the 23 hair samples examined, 18 were collected from patients in a rehabilitation program and five were from patients that had taken zolpidem only once by prescription. All 23 patients provided written informed consent after reviewing the research plan, described their zolpidem and benzodiazepines use histories accurately, and provided hair samples, which were weighed, washed, cut into lengths of <1mm, and extracted in 100% methanol for 16h (diazepam-d5 was used as an internal standard)...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128111/nocturnal-phantom-shock-cessation-with-zolpidem
#2
L McLean House, Rachel E McKay, John Thomas Eagan, Zachary L McCormick
A 77 year old man with a biventricular ICD-pacemaker complained of painful, electric jolts disturbing him nightly from sleep. Extensive work-up including device interrogation revealed no defibrillations or arrhythmia, and he was subsequently diagnosed with phantom shocks (PS). His nightly PS symptoms terminated after starting zolpidem 10 mg each night. To date, literature review reveals fifteen articles reporting 163 phantom shock (PS) cases. PS affects 5-9% of ICD recipients. Risk factors include psychiatric disease, atrial fibrillation, NYHA functional status III or greater, prior shock storm, and intraoperative awareness during ICD placement, with defibrillation threshold testing...
November 8, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123484/zolpidem-administration-and-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-control-study-in-taiwan
#3
Shih-Wei Lai, Cheng-Li Lin, Kuan-Fu Liao
Background/Objectives: Previous studies showed that zolpidem use could be associated with increased cancer risk, but the role of zolpidem on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remains undetermined. The study purpose was to examine the association between HCC risk and zolpidem use in Taiwan. Methods: Using the database from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we designed a case-control study which consisted of 77986 subjects aged 20 years or older with newly diagnosed HCC as the case group, and 77986 subjects without HCC as the control group, from 2000 to 2011...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120927/improve-postoperative-sleep-what-can-we-do
#4
Xian Su, Dong-Xin Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed evidences regarding occurrence, risk factors, harmful effects, prevention, and management of sleep disturbances in patients after surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Normal sleep is important to maintain physical and mental health. Sleep disturbances frequently occur in patients after surgery. Factors associated with the development of postoperative sleep disturbances include old age, preoperative comorbidity, type of anesthesia, severity of surgical trauma, postoperative pain, environment stress, as well as other factors leading to discomfort of patients...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112763/insight-into-reduction-of-wakefulness-by-suvorexant-in-patients-with-insomnia-analysis-of-wake-bouts
#5
Vladimir Svetnik, Ellen S Snyder, Peining Tao, Thomas E Scammell, Thomas Roth, Christopher Lines, W Joseph Herring
Objectives: To examine the duration and frequency of wake bouts underlying the wakefulness-after-sleep-onset (WASO) reduction with suvorexant. Methods: We analyzed polysomnogram recordings from clinical trials involving 1518 insomnia patients receiving suvorexant (40/30mg, 20/15mg) or placebo to determine: 1) the number of, and time spent in, long or short wake bouts, 2) the association between sleep quality and bout characteristics. We also compared wake and sleep bout characteristics of suvorexant in insomnia patients versus zolpidem in healthy subjects undergoing experimentally-induced transient insomnia...
November 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101905/conversion-factors-for-assessment-of-driving-impairment-after-exposure-to-multiple-benzodiazepines-z-hypnotics-or-opioids
#6
Maren Cecilie Strand, Jørg Mørland, Lars Slørdal, Bettina Riedel, Cato Innerdal, Trond Aamo, Grete Mathisrud, Vigdis Vindenes
AIMS: Norway has introduced legal concentration limits in blood for 28 non-alcohol drugs in driving under the influence cases. As of 2016 this legislation also regulates the assessment of combined effects of multiple benzodiazepines and opioids. We herein describe the employed methodology for the equivalence tables for concentrations of benzodiazepines/z-hypnotics and opioids implemented in the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. METHODS: Legislative limits corresponding to impairment at blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0...
October 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077902/z-drugs-and-risk-for-falls-and-fractures-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Nir Treves, Amichai Perlman, Lital Kolenberg Geron, Angham Asaly, Ilan Matok
Objective: zolpidem, zopiclone, eszopiclone and zaleplon, also known as 'Z-drugs', are commonly used as alternatives to benzodiazepines (BZDs) to treat insomnia. Z-drugs are often perceived as safer than BZDs. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the association between Z-drugs and fracutres, falls and injuries. Methods: a systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and ClinicalTials.gov. Pooled effect-sizes were calculated comparing Z-drugs users with non-users, using fixed and random-effect models with corresponding 95% confidence of intervals (CI)...
October 25, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076441/-systematic-review-of-the-side-effects-of-benzodiazepines
#8
A Seldenrijk, R Vis, M Henstra, K Ho Pian, D van Grootheest, T Salomons, F Overmeire, M de Boer, T Scheers, R Doornebal-Bakker, E Ruhé, C Vinkers
- Benzodiazepines are used frequently, despite the risk of severe side effects.- The Generic module 'Side effects; prevention, monitoring and treatment of side effects of drugs for psychiatric disorders' will be published soon. This contains recommendations for reduction in the risk for falls and fractures, cognitive problems and dependency related to the use of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs (zopiclone, zolpidem).- Prescribing physicians and pharmacists are compulsorily required to provide extensive information to patients on the anticipated effects and side effects of benzodiazepines, and on the limited prescription period...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057572/simultaneous-analysis-by-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-and-uhplc-ms-ms-for-the-determination-of-sedative-hypnotics-and-sleep-inducers-in-adulterated-products
#9
Ji Hyun Lee, Han Na Park, Ji Yeon Choi, Nam Sook Kim, Hyung-Joon Park, Seong Soo Park, Sun Young Baek
Adulterated products are continuously detected in society and cause problems. In this study, we developed and validated a method for determining synthetic sedative-hypnotics and sleep inducers, including barbital, benzodiazepam, zolpidem, and first-generation antihistamines, in adulterated products using Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, target compounds were confirmed using a combination of retention time, mass tolerance, mass accuracy, and fragment ions...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040550/rescue-of-cell-death-and-inflammation-of-a-mouse-model-of-complex-1-mediated-vision-loss-by-repurposed-drug-molecules
#10
Alfred K Yu, Sandipan Datta, Marissa Z McMackin, Gino A Cortopassi
Inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies, such as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) are caused by mutant mitochondrial proteins that lead to defects in mitochondrial complex 1-driven ATP synthesis, and cause specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Complex 1 defects also occur in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), in which there is specific RGC loss. The treatment of mitochondrial optic neuropathy in the US is only supportive. The Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4 KO) mouse is a mitochondrial complex 1-deficient model that leads to RGC loss and rapid vision loss and allows for streamlined testing of potential therapeutics...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027336/trends-in-utilization-of-benzodiazepine-and-z-drugs-in-israel
#11
Erez Berman, Sara Eyal, Eli Marom
BACKGROUND: Studies on benzodiazepine (BZDs) as well as Zopiclone and Zolpidem (Z-drugs) utilization are important for estimating the prevalence of medical conditions, providing the basis for pharmacovigilance, and identifying temporal trends of consumption. Such studies that involve the Israeli population have not been conducted yet. PURPOSE: Identify trends over time in utilization of BZDs and Z-drugs in a nationwide population in Israel. METHODS: Data on BZD and Z-drugs utilization (for all indications) for the period 2005 to 2013 were obtained from pharmaceutical companies that distribute BZDs in Israel...
October 13, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993837/gaba-receptors-and-the-pharmacology-of-sleep
#12
W Wisden, X Yu, N P Franks
Current GABAergic sleep-promoting medications were developed pragmatically, without making use of the immense diversity of GABAA receptors. Pharmacogenetic experiments are leading to an understanding of the circuit mechanisms in the hypothalamus by which zolpidem and similar compounds induce sleep at α2βγ2-type GABAA receptors. Drugs acting at more selective receptor types, for example, at receptors containing the α2 and/or α3 subunits expressed in hypothalamic and brain stem areas, could in principle be useful as hypnotics/anxiolytics...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987270/involvement-of-nitrergic-system-in-anticonvulsant-effect-of-zolpidem-in-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-evaluation-of-inos-and-cox-2-genes-expression
#13
Seyyed Majid Eslami, Maryam Ghasemi, Taraneh Bahremand, Majid Momeny, Mahdi Gholami, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
This study aims to investigate the role of zolpidem in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) and probable mechanisms involved in seizure threshold alteration. In the present study, lithium chloride (127mg/kg) was administered 20h prior to pilocarpine (60mg/kg) to induce SE in adult male Wistar rats. Different doses of zolpidem (0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10mg/kg) were injected 30min before pilocarpine administration. Furthermore, to find out whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the observed effect, L-arginine and L-NAME were injected 15min before zolpidem...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985436/lc-ms-ms-with-post-column-reagent-addition-for-the-determination-of-zolpidem-and-its-metabolite-zolpidem-phenyl-4-carboxylic-acid-in-oral-fluid-after-a-single-dose
#14
Xueyi Feng, Ping Xiang, Hang Chen, Min Shen
A rapid, selective and sensitive LC-MS-MS method with a post-column addition of acetonitrile was developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of zolpidem and its major metabolite, zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid (ZPCA), in oral fluid. Preliminary sample treatment was limited to a simple dilution of 1 mL oral fluid specimen aliquots with methanol. Chromatography was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 MGII column (250 × 2.0 mm, 5 μm i.d., Shiseido, Tokyo, Japan) with isocratic elution using a water-acetonitrile mobile phase with 0...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946439/ultrasonic-assisted-fabrication-of-starch-mwcnt-glucose-nanocomposites-for-drug-delivery
#15
Shadpour Mallakpour, Leila Khodadadzadeh
The principal focus of this investigation is to prepare starch nanocomposite (NC) films containing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and apply these NCs for drug delivery. Firstly, to raise the hydrophilicity of carboxyl functionalized MWCNT, the surface of them was modified with d-glucose (Gl) as a low cost and environmentally friendly biomolecule. Different percentages of MWCNT-Gl (0.5, 1 and 2wt%) were embedded in starch matrix through sonochemical method as an economical, fast, eco-friendly, and effective method...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929924/the-search-for-a-subtype-selective-pet-imaging-agent-for-the-gabaa-receptor-complex-evaluation-of-the-radiotracer-11-c-ado-in-nonhuman-primates
#16
Shu-Fei Lin, Frederic Bois, Daniel Holden, Nabeel Nabulsi, Richard Pracitto, Hong Gao, Michael Kapinos, Jo-Ku Teng, Anupama Shirali, Jim Ropchan, Richard E Carson, Charles S Elmore, Neil Vasdev, Yiyun Huang
The myriad physiological functions of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex comprising of the GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC groups. The various GABAA subunits with region-specific distributions in the brain subserve different functional and physiological roles. For example, the sedative and anticonvulsive effects of classical benzodiazepines are attributed to the α1 subunit, and the α2 and α3 subunits mediate the anxiolytic effect. To optimize pharmacotherapies with improved efficacy and devoid of undesirable side effects for the treatment of anxiety disorders, subtype-selective imaging radiotracers are required to assess target engagement at GABA sites and determine the dose-receptor occupancy relationships...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921528/practitioner-review-treatment-of-chronic-insomnia-in-children-and-adolescents-with-neurodevelopmental-disabilities
#17
REVIEW
Oliviero Bruni, Marco Angriman, Fabrizio Calisti, Alessandro Comandini, Giovanna Esposito, Samuele Cortese, Raffaele Ferri
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, in particular insomnia, represent a common problem in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs). Currently, there are no approved medications for insomnia in children by the US Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency and therefore they are prescribed off-label. We critically reviewed pediatric literature on drugs as well as nonpharmacological (behavioral) interventions used for sleep disturbances in children with NDDs. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid (including PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(®) , and Embase), and Web of Knowledge databases were searched through February 12, 2017, with no language restrictions...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917695/the-impact-of-gabaergic-drugs-on-tms-induced-brain-oscillations-in-human-motor-cortex
#18
Isabella Premoli, Til O Bergmann, Matteo Fecchio, Mario Rosanova, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) have so far been assessed either by TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), mostly reflecting phase-locked neuronal activity, or time-frequency-representations (TFRs), reflecting oscillatory power arising from a mixture of both evoked (i.e., phase-locked) and induced (i.e., non-phase-locked) responses. Single-pulse TMS of the human primary motor cortex induces a specific pattern of oscillatory changes, characterized by an early (30-200 ms after TMS) synchronization in the α- and β-bands over the stimulated sensorimotor cortex and adjacent lateral frontal cortex, followed by a late (200-400 ms) α- and β-desynchronization over the stimulated and contralateral sensorimotor cortex...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901969/disorders-of-consciousness-after-severe-brain-injury-therapeutic-options
#19
Caroline Schnakers, Martin M Monti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Very few options exist for patients who survive severe traumatic brain injury but fail to fully recover and develop a disorder of consciousness (e.g. vegetative state, minimally conscious state). RECENT FINDINGS: Among pharmacological approaches, Amantadine has shown the ability to accelerate functional recovery. Although with very low frequency, Zolpidem has shown the ability to improve the level of consciousness transiently and, possibly, also in a sustained fashion...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893667/amnestic-drugs-in-the-odor-span-task-effects-of-flunitrazepam-zolpidem-and-scopolamine
#20
Mark Galizio, Michael Mathews, Madeleine Mason, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Paul Soto
The odor span task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure designed to provide an analysis of working memory capacity in rodents. The procedure takes place in an arena apparatus and rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli in the form of scented lids with the selection of new stimuli reinforced. This procedure makes it possible to study drug effects as a function of the number of stimuli to remember. In the present study, the non-selective positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulator flunitrazepam impaired odor span performance at doses that did not affect a control odor discrimination...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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