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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901207/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-nano-based-films-for-buccal-delivery-of-zolpidem
#1
Bandar Essa Al-Dhubiab
Insomnia is becoming increasingly prevalent in the world general population. Therapies used by patients include over-the-counter therapies, herbal and dietary supplements, and pharmacological or nonpharmacological treatments. Among these, zolpidem is a pharmacological treatment popularly used for insomnia. Zolpidem is well tolerated and especially efficacious for initiation of sleep, and therefore is effective for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate zolpidem nanoparticle-impregnated buccal films to prolong the duration of its action...
November 28, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900070/potentially-inappropriate-medications-by-beers-criteria-in-older-outpatients-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#2
Yeon-Jung Lim, Ha-Yeon Kim, Jaekyung Choi, Ji Sun Lee, Ah-Leum Ahn, Eun-Jung Oh, Dong-Yung Cho, Hyuk-Jung Kweon
BACKGROUND: Prescription of inappropriate medicine to elderly patients is a major public health care concern. The Beers criteria have been commonly employed as a screening tool to identify the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). The present study investigated the prevalence of PIM use according to the Beers criteria as well as factors related to PIM use. METHODS: Data obtained from a retrospective survey included 25,810 outpatients aged ≥65 years from a university medical center in Seoul, Korea...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881622/stability-of-21-cocaine-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drug-analytes-in-spiked-meconium-at-three-temperatures
#3
Fang Wu, Stephanie J Marin, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In this study, the stability of 21 cocaine, opioid and benzodiazepine analytes in spiked meconium was investigated at three storage temperatures: 4°C, room temperature (RT), and 37°C (body temperature). The drugs/metabolites included were hydrocodone, hydromorphone, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), oxycodone, oxymorphone, cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, clonazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam and zolpidem...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866243/monitoring-of-adherence-to-headache-treatments-by-means-of-hair-analysis
#4
Anna Ferrari, Manuela Licata, Cecilia Rustichelli, Carlo Baraldi, Daniele Vandelli, Filippo Marchesi, Federica Palazzoli, Patrizia Verri, Enrico Silingardi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of hair analysis to monitor medication adherence in headache patients undergoing chronic therapy. For this purpose, the following parameters were analyzed: the detection rate of 23 therapeutic drugs in headache patients' hair, the degree of agreement between the self-reported drug and the drug found in hair, and whether the levels found in hair reflected the drug intake reported by the patients. METHODS: The study included 93 patients suffering from primary headaches declaring their daily intake of at least one of the following drugs during the 3 months before the hair sampling: alprazolam, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, clonazepam, delorazepam, diazepam, duloxetine, fluoxetine, flurazepam, levomepromazine, levosulpiride, lorazepam, lormetazepam, mirtazapine, paroxetine, quetiapine, sertraline, topiramate, trazodone, triazolam, venlafaxine, and zolpidem...
November 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866061/patterns-of-drugs-poisons-in-southern-area-of-south-korea-in-2014
#5
Eunmi Kim, Yonghoon Park, Hongil Ha, Heesun Chung
The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807161/bottom-up-versus-top-down-induction-of-sleep-by-zolpidem-acting-on-histaminergic-and-neocortex-neurons
#6
David S Uygun, Zhiwen Ye, Anna Y Zecharia, Edward C Harding, Xiao Yu, Raquel Yustos, Alexei L Vyssotski, Stephen G Brickley, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
: Zolpidem, a GABAA receptor-positive modulator, is the gold-standard drug for treating insomnia. Zolpidem prolongs IPSCs to decrease sleep latency and increase sleep time, effects that depend on α2 and/or α3 subunit-containing receptors. Compared with natural NREM sleep, zolpidem also decreases the EEG power, an effect that depends on α1 subunit-containing receptors, and which may make zolpidem-induced sleep less optimal. In this paper, we investigate whether zolpidem needs to potentiate only particular GABAergic pathways to induce sleep without reducing EEG power...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798072/impact-of-expanding-elisa-screening-in-duid-investigations-to-include-carisoprodol-meprobamate-and-zolpidem
#7
Aileen Lu, Karen S Scott, Aya Chan-Hosokawa, Barry K Logan
In 2013, the National Safety Council's Alcohol Drugs and Impairment Division added zolpidem and carisoprodol and its metabolite meprobamate to the list of Tier 1 drugs that should be tested for in all suspected drug impaired driving and motor vehicle fatality investigations. We describe the validation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for both drugs in whole blood, and the utilization of the ELISA to assess their positivity in a sample of 322 suspected impaired driving cases that was retrospectively screened using the validated assays...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784418/spontaneous-adverse-event-reports-associated-with-zolpidem-in-the-united-states-2003-2012
#8
Carmen K Wong, Nathaniel S Marshall, Ronald R Grunstein, Samuel S Ho, Romano A Fois, David E Hibbs, Jane R Hanrahan, Bandana Saini
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Stimulated reporting occurs when patients and healthcare professionals are influenced or "stimulated" by media publicity to report specific drug-related adverse reactions, significantly biasing pharmacovigilance analyses. Among countries where the non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug zolpidem is marketed, the US experienced a comparable surge of media reporting during 2006-09 linking the above drug with the development of complex neuropsychiatric sleep-related behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784413/eszopiclone-and-zolpidem-do-not-affect-the-prevalence-of-the-low-arousal-threshold-phenotype
#9
Patrick R Smith, Karen L Sheikh, Camille Costan-Toth, Derek Forsthoefel, Edward Bridges, Teotimo F Andrada, Aaron B Holley
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics (NBSH) reduce the occurrence of the low arousal threshold (LAT) phenotype. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) referred for polysomnography (PSG) had demographic and PSG data abstracted. LAT was estimated using PSG criteria. After adjusting for pretest probability (PTP) for OSA, we calculated the effect that premedication with NBSHs has on LAT prevalence...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752878/treatment-of-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Youngsin Jung, Erik K St Louis
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common parasomnia disorder affecting between 1 and 7 % of community-dwelling adults, most frequently older adults. RBD is characterized by nocturnal complex motor behavior and polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia. RBD is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. The approach to RBD management is currently twofold: symptomatic treatment to prevent injury and prognostic counseling and longitudinal follow-up surveillance for phenoconversion toward overt neurodegenerative disorders...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751669/review-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-sleep-medicines-in-older-adults
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
November 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748687/update-on-pharmacotherapy-for-stroke-and-traumatic-brain-injury-recovery-during-rehabilitation
#12
Joachim Liepert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates whether specific drugs are able to facilitate motor recovery after stroke or improve the level of consciousness, cognitive, or behavioral symptoms after traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: After stroke, serotonin reuptake inhibitors can enhance restitution of motor functions in depressed as well as in nondepressed patients. Erythropoietin and progesterone administered within hours after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury failed to improve the outcome...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740861/prevalence-and-concentrations-of-drugs-in-elderly-suspected-drugged-drivers
#13
Gudrun Høiseth, Linn Engeset Austdal, Elisabeth Wiik, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Jørg Mørland
Objective Elderly drivers are somewhat more likely to be involved in car crashes than middle aged drivers, but less likely to be involved than the younger drivers. This study aimed to assess the extent of drug use in elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers, with respect to which drugs were detected and at which concentrations. Methods Blood samples from elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers from February 1(st) 2012 to May 22(th) 2013 were identified from the database at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and were retrospectively analyzed for a broad repertoire of drugs relevant for impairment...
October 14, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711224/benzodiazepine-use-during-hospitalization-automated-identification-of-potential-medication-errors-and-systematic-assessment-of-preventable-adverse-events
#14
David Franklin Niedrig, Liesa Hoppe, Sarah Mächler, Heike Russmann, Stefan Russmann
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines and "Z-drug" GABA-receptor modulators (BDZ) are among the most frequently used drugs in hospitals. Adverse drug events (ADE) associated with BDZ can be the result of preventable medication errors (ME) related to dosing, drug interactions and comorbidities. The present study evaluated inpatient use of BDZ and related ME and ADE. METHODS: We conducted an observational study within a pharmacoepidemiological database derived from the clinical information system of a tertiary care hospital...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693801/the-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-2-gabaa-receptor-preferring-agonist-ns11394-aggravates-dystonia-in-the-phenotypic-dt-sz-model
#15
Christine Spröte, Franziska Richter, Anne Bauer, Julia Gerstenberger, Angelika Richter
Dystonia is a movement disorder, characterized by involuntary muscle contractions resulting in abnormal movements and/or postures. Antidystonic effects of benzodiazepines in patients with different types of dystonia could be replicated in the dt(sz) mutant hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia. Compounds with preferred binding at specific subunits of the gamma aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor may provide a more beneficial spectrum of effects in comparison with benzodiazepines. We therefore examined the effects of the α1β3γ2 GABAA receptor preferring compound zolpidem (2...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692272/hyperarousal-in-insomnia-and-hypnotic-dose-escalation
#16
T A Roehrs, T Roth
BACKGROUND: Given concerns about the abuse liability of hypnotics, this study assessed hyperarousal in people with insomnia and its relation to hypnotic self-administration over 12 months of nightly hypnotic use. METHODS: Ninety-five subjects with insomnia (age 32-64 years) underwent screening nocturnal polysomnogram (NPSG) and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) the following day and, then, were randomized to receive zolpidem 10 mg or placebo nightly for 12 months...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690067/patterns-of-psychiatric-outpatient-practice-in-taiwan-a-nationwide-survey
#17
Ying-Xiu Dai, Mu-Hong Chen, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Ming-Hwai Lin
(1) Background: Limited studies have utilized nationwide data to assess the patterns of psychiatric practice in other countries. In this study, data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan (NHIRD-TW) for 2012 was analyzed to determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan; (2) Methods: To determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan, the data were drawn from the datasets of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for 2012, with 619,760 records of outpatient visits representing 1/500 of all the claims in Taiwan for that year...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673636/effects-of-genetic-polymorphism-of-cyp2c19-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-zolpidem
#18
J Y Byeon, C M Lee, H J Lim, Y H Kim, D H Kim, S Y Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673090/poster-336-the-paradoxical-improvement-of-motor-and-speech-function-with-the-use-of-zolpidem-ambien-in-patients-with-anoxic-encephalopathy-and-tbi
#19
Jeffrey M Derbas, Anjum Sayyad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673076/poster-323-efficacy-of-intermittent-dosing-of-zolpidem-in-disorders-of-consciousness-a-case-report
#20
Carol L Li, Deep Garg, Blessen C Eapen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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