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Konstantinos Denaxas, Spyros D Ladas, George P Karamanolis
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystemic autoimmune connective tissue disorder; in the gastrointestinal tract, the esophagus is the most commonly affected organ. Symptoms of esophageal disease are due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motor dysfunction. Since the development of high-resolution manometry (HRM), this method has been preferred for the study of SSc patients with esophageal involvement. Using HRM, classic scleroderma esophagus, defined as absent or ineffective peristalsis of the distal esophagus in combination with a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, was found in as many as 55% of SSc patients...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Ryoko Susukida, Rosa M Crum, Hwanhee Hong, Elizabeth A Stuart, Ramin Mojtabai
OBJECTIVES: Few head-to-head comparisons of cocaine dependence medications exist, and combining data from different randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is fraught with methodological challenges including limited generalizability of the RCT findings. This study applied a novel meta-analytic approach to data of cocaine dependence medications. METHODS: Data from 4 placebo-controlled RCTs (Reserpine, Modafinil, Buspirone, and Ondansetron) were obtained from the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (n = 456)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Sarah C O S Padilha, Suzane Virtuoso, Fernanda S Tonin, Helena H L Borba, Roberto Pontarolo
The aim of this study is to gather evidence of head-to-head double-blind randomized-controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of available treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers in ten electronic databases (PROSPERO register CRD42016043239). Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated according to the Jadad scale. Network meta-analyses were performed including double-blinded head-to-head trials comparing active allopathic drugs in patients (0-18 years old) diagnosed with ADHD...
February 19, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Kamal Dua, Dyandevi Mathure, Jyotsana R Madan, Kishore N Gujar, Ashok Tupsamundre, Hemant A Ranpise
Considering various merits associated with the nasal mucosa such large surface area, porous endothelial membrane, high blood flow, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, and ready accessibility leads to faster and higher drug absorption. Keeping these facts in mind, the objective of the present study was to develop Buspirone hydrochloride loaded niosomal in-situ nasal gel. Buspirone hydrochloride niosomal in-situ nasal gel was formulated, optimized and evaluated with the aim to deliver drug to the brain via intranasal route...
January 29, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Tugba Kilic, Maria Soler, Nafiseh Fahimi-Kashani, Hatice Altug, Sandro Carrara
The pharmaceutical industry is facing enormous challenges due to high drug attribution rates. For the past decades, novel methods have been developed for safety and efficacy testing, as well as for improving early development stages. In vitro screening methods for drug-receptor binding are considered to be good alternatives for decreasing costs in the identification of drug candidates. However, these methods require lengthy and troublesome labeling steps. Biosensors hold great promise due to the fact that label-free detection schemes can be designed in an easy and low-cost manner...
January 9, 2018: Biosensors
Adriaan Tuiten, Kim van Rooij, Jos Bloemers, Christoph Eisenegger, Jack van Honk, Rob Kessels, Sheryl Kingsberg, Leonard R Derogatis, Leo de Leede, Jeroen Gerritsen, Hans P F Koppeschaar, Berend Olivier, Walter Everaerd, Henderik W Frijlink, Daniël Höhle, Robert P J de Lange, Koen B E Böcker, James G Pfaus
BACKGROUND: In women, low sexual desire and/or sexual arousal can lead to sexual dissatisfaction and emotional distress, collectively defined as female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD). Few pharmaceutical treatment options are currently available. AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of 2 novel on-demand pharmacologic treatments that have been designed to treat 2 FSIAD subgroups (women with low sensitivity for sexual cues and women with dysfunctional over-activation of sexual inhibition) using a personalized medicine approach using an allocation formula based on genetic, hormonal, and psychological variables developed to predict drug efficacy in the subgroups...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Akash Jain, Maria Gray, Stephanie Slisz, Joseph Haymore, Neeraj Badjatia, Erik Kulstad
BACKGROUND: Shivering is common during targeted temperature management, and control of shivering can be challenging if clinicians are not familiar with the available options and recommended approaches. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to summarize the most relevant literature regarding various treatments available for control of shivering and suggest a recommended approach based on latest data. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar were used to identify studies for the literature review using the following keywords alone or in combination: "shivering treatment," "therapeutic hypothermia," "core temperature modulation devices," and "targeted temperature management...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Douglas A Drossman, Jan Tack, Alexander C Ford, Eva Szigethy, Hans Törnblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Central neuromodulators (antidepressants, antipsychotics and other CNS targeted medications) are increasingly used for treatment of functional GI disorders (FGIDs), now recognized as disorders of gut-brain interaction. However, the available evidence and guidance for the use of central neuromodulators in these conditions is scanty and incomplete. In this Rome Foundation Working Team report, a multidisciplinary team summarized available research evidence and clinical experience to provide guidance and treatment recommendations...
December 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
Stephanie Both
Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the recent literature and empirical studies on psychopharmacological approaches to treating female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD). Recent Findings: Several new drugs for FSIAD that are intended to increase sexual responsiveness by influencing central excitatory and inhibitory neuromodulatory processes are under development. Studies on flibanserin resulted in the first approved medication for the treatment of low sexual desire in premenopausal women...
2017: Current Sexual Health Reports
Harry A Croft
BACKGROUND: The neurobiology of sexual response is driven in part by dopamine and serotonin-the former modulating excitatory pathways and the latter regulating inhibitory pathways. Neurobiological underpinnings of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) are seemingly related to overactive serotonin activity that results in underactive dopamine activity. As such, pharmacologic agents that decrease serotonin, increase dopamine, or some combination thereof, have therapeutic potential for HSDD...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Wei Zheng, Xiao-Hong Li, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Azapirones, which are serotonin1A (5-HT1A ) receptor partial agonists, have been used as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia with mixed results. This is a meta-analysis of the efficacy and tolerability of azapirones for schizophrenia based on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). English and Chinese databases were systematically and independently searched by two investigators. Data were extracted and analyzed using the RevMan software (version 5.3). Seven RCTs (n = 368) of azapirones (buspirone in 6 RCTs and tandospirone in 1 RCT) were identified and analyzed...
January 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hiroyuki Arakawa
Developing mouse models for social communication deficits requires a better understanding of the nature of social investigatory processes between mice. Mice use different investigatory strategies based on a possibility of contacts with social sources. A detailed investigation of contact distance revealed strain differences in behavioral strategy between two male inbred C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) mouse strains. When direct physical contact with stimulus mice was restricted, BALB mice displayed lower social approaches than B6 mice, accompanied by heightened innate anxiety in an unfamiliar environment...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Flóra Gölöncsér, Mária Baranyi, Diána Balázsfi, Kornél Demeter, József Haller, Tamás F F Freund, Dóra Zelena, Beáta Sperlágh
Serotonergic and glutamatergic neurons of median raphe region (MRR) play a pivotal role in the modulation of affective and cognitive functions. These neurons synapse both onto themselves and remote cortical areas. P2X7 receptors (P2rx7) are ligand gated ion channels expressed by central presynaptic excitatory nerve terminals and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. P2rx7s are implicated in various neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. Here we investigated whether 5-HT release released from the hippocampal terminals of MRR is subject to modulation by P2rx7s...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sebastiano Alfio Torrisi, Salvatore Salomone, Federica Geraci, Filippo Caraci, Claudio Bucolo, Filippo Drago, Gian Marco Leggio
Background: Several efforts have been made to develop effective antipsychotic drugs. Currently, available antipsychotics are effective on positive symptoms, less on negative symptoms, but not on cognitive impairment, a clinically relevant dimension of schizophrenia. Drug repurposing offers great advantages over the long-lasting, risky and expensive, de novo drug discovery strategy. To our knowledge, the possible antipsychotic properties of buspirone, an azapirone anxiolytic drug marketed in 1986 as serotonin 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) partial agonist, have not been extensively investigated despite its intriguing pharmacodynamic profile, which includes dopamine D3 (D3R) and D4 receptor (D4R) antagonist activity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Anna R Reynolds, Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Medications development efforts for methamphetamine-use disorder have targeted central monoamines because these systems are directly involved in the effects of methamphetamine. Buspirone is a dopamine autoreceptor and D3 receptor antagonist and partial agonist at serotonin 1A receptors, making it a logical candidate medication for methamphetamine-use disorder. Buspirone effects on abuse-related behaviors of methamphetamine have been mixed in clinical and preclinical studies...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Carmen Gimeno, Marisa Luisa Dorado, Carlos Roncero, Nestor Szerman, Pablo Vega, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez, F Javier Alvarez
Patients with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders (AnxDs). "Co-occurring disorders" refers to the coexistence of an AUD and/or drug related disorders with another non-addictive psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatments and psychotherapy in patients with AUD and AnxD and to propose recommendations for the treatment of patients with comorbid AnxDs and AUDs. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical guidelines were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Miina Ruokolainen, Ville Miikkulainen, Mikko Ritala, Tiina Sikanen, Tapio Kotiaho, Risto Kostiainen
We present a new high-throughput platform for studying titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic oxidation reactions by performing reactions on a TiO2-coated surface, followed by direct analysis of oxidation products from the surface by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). For this purpose, we coated a round glass wafer with photocatalytically active anatase-phase TiO2 using atomic layer deposition. Approximately 70 aqueous 1 μL samples can be injected onto the rim of the TiO2-coated glass wafer, before the entire wafer is exposed to UV irradiation...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
H M Jang, S-E Jang, M J Han, D-H Kim
To better understand the role of gut microbiota in the anxiety, we isolated bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from the human faecal microbiota, investigated their inhibitory effects on the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, and examined the anxiolytic-like effect of Bifidobacterium adolescentis IM38 in mice treated with or without immobilisation stress using the elevated plus maze (EPM) task. Oral administration of IM38 at a dose of 1×10(9) cfu/mouse showed a significant anxiolytic-like effect both in mice exposed to immobilisation stress and in control mice using the EPM test (P<0...
October 3, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Elizabeth A Crocco, Sindy Jaramillo, Caroline Cruz-Ortiz, Katherine Camfield
Anxiety disorders are common in the elderly. Additionally, anxiety symptoms often accompany co-morbid psychiatric, medical, as well as neurodegenerative diseases in the older population. Anxiety in the elderly, often accompanied by depression, can lead to worsening physical, cognitive and functional impairments in this vulnerable population. Antidepressants are considered first line treatment. Both SSRIs and SNRIs are efficacious and well-tolerated in the elderly. Some SSRIs are strong inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 hepatic pathway whereas others have less potential for drug interaction...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Nitin Aggarwal, Prashanthi Nagavenkata Thota, Rocio Lopez, Scott Gabbard
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that Ineffective Esophageal Motility (IEM) is the manometric correlate of Functional Dysphagia (FD). Currently, there is no accepted therapy for either condition. Buspirone is a serotonin modulating medication and has been shown to augment esophageal peristaltic amplitude in healthy volunteers. We aimed to determine if buspirone improves manometric parameters and symptoms in patients with overlapping IEM/FD. METHODS: We performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-style trial of 10 patients with IEM/FD...
September 8, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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