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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342452/estimated-effect-of-temperature-on-years-of-life-lost-a-retrospective-time-series-study-of-low-middle-and-high-income-regions
#1
Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Aditi Bunker, Vijendra Ingole, Thaddaeus Egondi, Daniel Oudin Åström, David M Hondula, Joacim Rocklöv, Barbara Schumann
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported a strong association between temperature and mortality. Additional insights can be gained from investigating the effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL), considering the life expectancy at the time of death. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to assess the association between temperature and YLL at seven low-, middle-, and high-income sites. METHODS: We obtained meteorological and population data for at least nine years from four Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in Kenya (western Kenya, Nairobi), Burkina Faso (Nouna), and India (Vadu), as well as data from cities in the United States (Philadelphia, Phoenix) and Sweden (Stockholm)...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342431/comparison-of-access-type-on-perioperative-outcomes-after-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#2
Jeffrey J Siracuse, Alik Farber, Jeffrey A Kalish, Douglas W Jones, Denis Rybin, Gheorghe Doros, Salvatore T Scali, Marc L Schermerhorn
OBJECTIVE: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) can be performed through percutaneous or surgical access. Our goal was to assess the difference in perioperative outcomes based on access type in a real-world setting. METHODS: The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database was queried for EVAR. Univariable analysis and multivariable analysis were used to determine the independent effect of access type. RESULTS: There were 8340 (64%) and 4747 (36%) EVAR procedures performed through percutaneous and surgical access (3395 [72%] transverse and 1352 [28%] vertical incisions)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342396/cross-domain-metric-and-multiple-kernel-learning-based-on-information-theory
#3
Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Chen Zhang, Yang Gao
Learning an appropriate distance metric plays a substantial role in the success of many learning machines. Conventional metric learning algorithms have limited utility when the training and test samples are drawn from related but different domains (i.e., source domain and target domain). In this letter, we propose two novel metric learning algorithms for domain adaptation in an information-theoretic setting, allowing for discriminating power transfer and standard learning machine propagation across two domains...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341863/distinct-gene-signatures-predict-insulin-resistance-in-young-mice-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#4
Katherine Chen, Alice Jih, Olivia Osborn, Sarah T Kavaler, Wenxian Fu, Roman Sasik, Rintaro Saito, Jane J Kim
Highly inbred C57BL/6 mice show wide variation in their degree of insulin resistance in response to diet-induced obesity even though they are almost genetically identical. Here we employed transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver in young mice to determine how gene expression patterns correlate with the later development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in adulthood. To accomplish this goal, we partially removed and banked tissues from pubertal mice...
January 8, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341605/prediction-of-active-site-and-distal-residues-in-e-coli-dna-polymerase-iii-alpha-polymerase-activity
#5
Ramya Parasuram, Timothy A Coulther, Judith M Hollander, Elise Keston-Smith, Mary Jo Ondrechen, Penny J Beuning
The process of DNA replication is carried out with high efficiency and accuracy by DNA polymerases. The replicative polymerase in E. coli is DNA Pol III, which is a complex of 10 different subunits that coordinates simultaneous replication on the leading and lagging strands. The 1160-residue Pol III alpha subunit is responsible for the polymerase activity and copies DNA accurately, making one error per 105 nucleotide incorporations. The goal of this research is to determine the residues that contribute to the activity of the polymerase subunit...
January 17, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340817/adenoma-detection-rate-metrics-in-colorectal-cancer-surveillance-colonoscopy
#6
Jamie M Tjaden, Jessica A Hause, Daniel Berger, Samantha K Duveneck, Shriram M Jakate, Bruce A Orkin, Elizabeth L Hubbard, Joshua E Melson
BACKGROUND: A target goal for screening adenoma detection rate (S-ADR) of ≥ 25% has been set to define high-quality colonoscopy performance. However, there is no current accepted target goal for ADR in colorectal cancer (CRC) surveillance. This makes quality assessment challenging when physicians perform cancer surveillance colonoscopy but minimal screening procedures. METHODS: In this cohort study, consecutive colonoscopies performed at either Rush University Medical Center or Rush Oak Park Hospital by a gastroenterologist or colorectal surgeon in average risk screening population and CRC surveillance population were reviewed retrospectively from 2006 to 2012 and prospectively from 2013 to 2016...
January 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340445/-health-universalism-in-argentina-between-2003-and-2015-assessments-and-challenges-based-in-a-macro-institutional-approach
#7
Magdalena Chiara, María Crojethovic, Ana Ariovich
Debates about universalism in health have been gaining ground in Latin America and have entered the policy agenda with differing results. Notwithstanding the country's federalism, the most profound changes that took place in Argentina in the last decade occurred in the arena of national politics. Based on the theoretical contributions of historical neo-institutionalism and implementation studies, this paper aims to analyze, from a macro institutional approach, the scope of the national policy regarding health universalization...
October 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339151/practical-considerations-for-obtaining-high-quality-quantitative-computed-tomography-data-of-the-skeletal-system
#8
REVIEW
Karen L Troy, W Brent Edwards
Quantitative CT (QCT) analysis involves the calculation of specific parameters such as bone volume and density from CT image data, and can be a powerful tool for understanding bone quality and quantity. However, without careful attention to detail during all steps of the acquisition and analysis process, data can be of poor- to unusable-quality. Good quality QCT for research requires meticulous attention to detail and standardization of all aspects of data collection and analysis to a degree that is uncommon in a clinical setting...
January 12, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339059/moving-toward-rapid-and-low-cost-point-of-care-molecular-diagnostics-with-a-repurposed-3d-printer-and-rpa
#9
Kamfai Chan, Pui-Yan Wong, Chaitanya Parikh, Season Wong
Traditionally, the majority of nucleic acid amplification-based molecular diagnostic tests are done in centralized settings. In recent years, point-of-care tests have been developed for use in low-resource settings away from central laboratories. While most experts agree that point-of-care molecular tests are greatly needed, their availability as cost-effective and easy-to-operate tests remains an unmet goal. In this article, we discuss our efforts to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification reaction-based test that will meet these criteria...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338784/advancing-sti-priorities-in-the-sdg-era-priorities-for-action
#10
EDITORIAL
Matthew F Chersich, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Greg Martin, Helen Rees
The Sustainable Development Goals present an opportunity to reimagine and then reconfigure the approach to controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The predilection of STIs for women and for vulnerable populations means that services that ameliorate STIs, by their nature, enhance equity, a key focus of the goals. Given the considerable breadth and depth of the goals, it is important to locate points of convergence between the SDGs and STIs, further craft synergies with HIV and select a few population groups and settings to prioritise...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338746/cost-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-africa-a-systematic-review-of-existing-literature
#11
REVIEW
Chipo Mutyambizi, Milena Pavlova, Lumbwe Chola, Charles Hongoro, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing recognition that non communicable diseases impose large economic costs on households, societies and nations. However, not much is known about the magnitude of diabetes expenditure in African countries and to the best of our knowledge no systematic assessment of the literature on diabetes costs in Africa has been conducted. The aim of this paper is to capture the evidence on the cost of diabetes in Africa, review the methods used to calculate costs and identify areas for future research...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338608/immunotherapy-of-cancer-targeting-cancer-during-active-disease-or-during-dormancy
#12
Syed Ammer Shah, Melika Zarei, Saeed H Manjili, Georgi Guruli, Xiang-Yang Wang, Masoud H Manjili
Immunotherapeutic targeting of advanced stage cancers has prolonged the survival of cancer patients, yet its curative efficacy is limited due to tumor immunoediting and escape. On the other hand, human vaccines have been able to eradicate smallpox and control several other infectious diseases. The success has resulted from the administration of vaccines in prophylactic settings, or during latency periods in order to protect an individual during future exposure to the disease rather than curing an established disease...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337604/the-current-status-of-outcomes-based-contracting-for-manufacturers-and-payers-an-amcp-membership-survey
#13
Amy Duhig, Soumi Saha, Stacie Smith, Stew Kaufman, Janet Hughes
BACKGROUND: As the United States health care system shifts from traditional volume-based payments to value-based payments, outcomes-based contracts (OBCs) are gaining popularity among payers and manufacturers as a mechanism for the shift toward value. Under this model, stakeholders hope to align drug payment and value to real-world performance metrics (e.g., biomarkers and health care resource utilization). OBJECTIVE: To understand the experiences, perceptions, and needs of payers and manufacturers related to OBCs...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337021/changing-physical-activity-behavior-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Blathin Casey, Susan Coote, Sara Hayes, Stephen Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on behavioural interventions for people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) that aim to change physical activity (PA) behaviour. To explore if these interventions are clinically-effective in improving PA, theory-based and employ established behaviour change techniques (BCTs). DATA SOURCES: A systematic electronic search was conducted on databases EBSCO (including AMED, Biomedical Reference Collection: Expanded, CINHAL, MEDLINE, PsycArticles, PsycInfo), PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from April 2017 to May 2017...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337001/antidepressant-treatment-duration-in-pediatric-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-how-long-is-long-enough
#15
Elizabeth E Hathaway, John T Walkup, Jeffrey R Strawn
Anxiety and depressive disorders are common in the pediatric primary care setting, and respond to both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment. However, there are limited data regarding the optimal treatment duration. This article systematically reviews guidelines and clinical trial data related to antidepressant treatment duration in pediatric patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The extant literature suggests 9-12 months of antidepressant treatment for youth with major depressive disorder...
January 11, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336098/increasing-the-knowledge-identification-and-treatment-of-osteoporosis-through-education-and-shared-decision-making-with-residents-living-in-a-retirement-village-community
#16
Jane Anderson-Wurf, Catherine Harding, Alexa Seal
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study explored whether individual goal setting in a retirement village setting could improve strategies to strengthen bones in an ageing population and help prevent osteoporosis. METHODS: A two-phased osteoporosis prevention program was developed, piloted and evaluated involving a group education session followed by the development of individualised Bone Plans based upon personal understanding of individual fracture risk and lifestyle factors...
January 16, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335235/va-fitheart-a-mobile-app-for-cardiac-rehabilitation-usability-study
#17
Alexis L Beatty, Sara L Magnusson, John C Fortney, George G Sayre, Mary A Whooley
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes for patients with ischemic heart disease or heart failure but is underused. New strategies to improve access to and engagement in CR are needed. There is considerable interest in technology-facilitated home CR. However, little is known about patient acceptance and use of mobile technology for CR. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a mobile app for technology-facilitated home CR and seek to determine its usability...
January 15, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334963/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-falls-prevention-community-of-practice-in-a-residential-aged-care-setting-a-realist-approach
#18
Jacqueline Francis-Coad, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Caroline Bulsara, Nicole Blackburn, Paola Chivers, Anne-Marie Hill
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major socio-economic problem among residential aged care (RAC) populations resulting in high rates of injury including hip fracture. Guidelines recommend that multifactorial prevention strategies are implemented but these require translation into clinical practice. A community of practice (CoP) was selected as a suitable model to support translation of the best available evidence into practice, as it could bring together like-minded people with falls expertise and local clinical knowledge providing a social learning opportunity in the pursuit of a common goal; falls prevention...
January 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334921/a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-adjunct-brief-social-network-intervention-in-opiate-substitution-treatment-services
#19
Ed Day, Alex Copello, Jennifer L Seddon, Marilyn Christie, Deborah Bamber, Charlotte Powell, Carmel Bennett, Shabana Akhtar, Sanju George, Andrew Ball, Emma Frew, Ilias Goranitis, Nick Freemantle
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3% of people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in the UK manage to achieve abstinence from prescribed and illicit drugs within three years of commencing treatment. Involvement of families and wider social networks in supporting psychological treatment may be an effective strategy in facilitating recovery, and this pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a social network-focused intervention for patients receiving OST. METHODS: A two-site, open feasibility trial randomised patients receiving OST for at least 12 months but still reporting illicit opiate use in the past 28 days to one of three treatments: 1) treatment as usual (TAU), 2) Brief Social Behaviour and Network Therapy (B-SBNT) + TAU, or 3) Personal Goal Setting (PGS) + TAU...
January 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334751/pursuing-excellence-in-ercp
#20
Jesús García-Cano, Francisco Domper
The term "ERCP cannulation" returns 1,563 items in Pubmed. In 1980 there were 7 papers, and 92 were included in 2015. Any gastroenterologist knows ERCP is often a complex procedure, at times with uncertain results, that unfortunately leads every so often to lawsuits. Most issues derive from attempts at biliary cannulation, despite the improved instruments available since the days of the first sphincterotomy back in 1974. The initial priority goal of ERCP learning is a satisfactory rate of choledochal cannulation...
January 16, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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