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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222348/effects-of-bamboo-charcoal-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-during-chicken-manure-composting
#1
Haichao Li, Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Yajun Zhang, Xun Qian, Jun Ma, Ranran Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang
Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21...
February 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222167/emergence-and-development-of-gut-motility-in-the-chicken-embryo
#2
N R Chevalier, V Fleury, S Dufour, V Proux-Gillardeaux, A Asnacios
The gastrointestinal tract transports the food bolus by peristalsis. Gut motility starts at an early age in the developing embryo, well before it is required for nutrition of the organism. We present a comprehensive kinematic study of the emergence and physiological development of gut motility in all regions of the lower digestive tract of the chicken embryo from embryonic days E5 through E9. We characterized motility emergence time, propagation patterns, speed, frequency and amplitude of peristalsis waves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222154/a-non-synonymous-snp-with-the-allele-frequency-correlated-with-the-altitude-may-contribute-to-the-hypoxia-adaptation-of-tibetan-chicken
#3
Sichen Li, Diyan Li, Xiaoling Zhao, Yan Wang, Huadong Yin, Lanyun Zhou, Chengling Zhong, Qing Zhu
The hypoxia adaptation to high altitudes is of considerable interest in the biological sciences. As a breed with adaptability to highland environments, the Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domestics), provides a biological model to search for genetic differences between high and lowland chickens. To address mechanisms of hypoxia adaptability at high altitudes for the Tibetan chicken, we focused on the Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), a key regulatory factor in hypoxia responses. Detected were polymorphisms of EPAS1 exons in 157 Tibetan chickens from 8 populations and 139 lowland chickens from 7 breeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222110/different-antibiotic-growth-promoters-induce-specific-changes-in-the-cecal-microbiota-membership-of-broiler-chicken
#4
Marcio C Costa, Jose A Bessegatto, Amauri A Alfieri, J Scott Weese, João A B Filho, Alexandre Oba
Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221989/evaluation-of-a-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-the-identification-of-salmonella-serovars-enteritidis-and-typhimurium-using-retail-and-abattoir-samples
#5
Dele Ogunremi, Susan Nadin-Davis, Andrée Ann Dupras, Imelda Gálvan Márquez, Katayoun Omidi, Louise Pope, John Devenish, Teresa Burke, Ray Allain, Daniel Leclair
A multiplex PCR was developed to identify the two most common serovars of Salmonella causing foodborne illness in Canada, namely, serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium. The PCR was designed to amplify DNA fragments from four Salmonella genes, namely, invA gene (211-bp fragment), iroB gene (309-bp fragment), Typhimurium STM 4497 (523-bp fragment), and Enteritidis SE147228 (612-bp fragment). In addition, a 1,026-bp ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragment universally present in bacterial species was included in the assay as an internal control fragment...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221975/fate-of-listeria-monocytogenes-pathogenic-yersinia-enterocolitica-and-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-gfp-in-ready-to-eat-salad-during-cold-storage-what-is-the-risk-to-consumers
#6
Karin Söderqvist, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Ivar Vågsholm, Lise-Lotte Fernström, Beatrix Alsanius, Lars Mogren, Sofia Boqvist
In this study, we investigated the fate of Listeria monocytogenes , pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica , and Escherichia coli O157:H7 gfp(+) inoculated in low numbers into ready-to-eat baby spinach and mixed-ingredient salad (baby spinach with chicken meat). Samples were stored at recommended maximum refrigerator temperature (8°C in Sweden) or at an abuse temperature (15°C) for up to 7 days. Mixed-ingredient salad supported considerable growth when stored at 15°C during shelf life (3 days), with populations of L...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221973/a-bioprocessed-polysaccharide-from-lentinus-edodes-mycelia-cultures-with-turmeric-protects-chicks-from-a-lethal-challenge-of-salmonella-gallinarum
#7
Dalmuri Han, Hyung Tae Lee, June Bong Lee, Yongbaek Kim, Sang Jong Lee, Jang Won Yoon
Our previous studies demonstrated that a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes mushroom mycelia cultures supplemented with black rice bran can protect mice against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and reduce the mortality from Salmonella Typhimurium infection through upregulated T-helper 1 immunity. Here, we report that a BPP from L. edodes mushroom mycelia liquid cultures supplemented with turmeric (referred to as BPP-turmeric) alters chicken macrophage responses against avian-adapted Salmonella Gallinarum and protects chicks against a lethal challenge from Salmonella Gallinarum...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221965/explanatory-variables-associated-with-campylobacter-and-escherichia-coli-concentrations-on-broiler-chicken-carcasses-during-processing-in-two-slaughterhouses
#8
Ewa Pacholewicz, Arno Swart, Jaap A Wagenaar, Len J A Lipman, Arie H Havelaar
This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover, information on batch characteristics, slaughterhouse practices, process performance, and environmental variables was collected through questionnaires, observations, and measurements, resulting in data on 19 potential explanatory variables...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221958/using-a-six-sigma-fishbone-analysis-approach-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-extreme-weather-events-on-salmonella-positives-in-young-chicken-slaughter-establishments
#9
John W Linville, Douglas Schumann, Christopher Aston, Stephanie Defibaugh-Chavez, Scott Seebohm, Lucy Touhey
A six sigma fishbone analysis approach was used to develop a machine learning model in SAS, Version 9.4, by using stepwise linear regression. The model evaluated the effect of a wide variety of variables, including slaughter establishment operational measures, normal (30-year average) weather, and extreme weather events on the rate of Salmonella -positive carcasses in young chicken slaughter establishments. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) verification carcass sampling data, as well as corresponding data from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, from September 2011 through April 2015, were included in the model...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221947/rapid-determination-of-trace-multiresidues-of-18-sulfonamides-in-chicken-eggs-using-a-modified-quechers-method-coupled-with-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography
#10
X U Xu, Yuan-Can Xiao, Feng-Zu Hu, Dan-Dan Geng
A modified QuEChERS method was used and an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for the rapid determination of 18 kinds of sulfonamide residues in chicken eggs. Sample preparation and cleanup conditions were carefully evaluated, and factors such as the adsorbent type and adsorption condition were key parameters in improving the cleanup. The modified QuEChERS method removed matrix interferences, and the sensitivity of the method increased about 5% for recovery and efficiency of the method...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221919/variation-in-campylobacter-multilocus-sequence-typing-subtypes-from-chickens-as-detected-on-three-plating-media
#11
M E Berrang, S R Ladely, R J Meinersmann, J E Line, B B Oakley, N A Cox
The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli detected on three selective Campylobacter plating media to determine whether each medium selected for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and 50 carcasses (representing 50 flocks) were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial broiler processing plant. Campylobacter was cultured and isolated from cecal contents and carcass rinses on Campy-Cefex, Campy Line, and RF Campylobacter jejuni/coli agars. When a positive result was obtained with all three media, one colony of the most prevalent morphology on each medium was selected for further analysis by full genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221913/an-immunoassay-for-quantification-of-contamination-by-raw-meat-juice-on-food-contact-surfaces
#12
Fur-Chi Chen, Sandria Godwin, Edgar Chambers
Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221884/neural-network-model-for-thermal-inactivation-of-salmonella-typhimurium-to-elimination-in-ground-chicken-acquisition-of-data-by-whole-sample-enrichment-miniature-most-probable-number-method
#13
T P Oscar
Predictive models are valuable tools for assessing food safety. Existing thermal inactivation models for Salmonella and ground chicken do not provide predictions above 71°C, which is below the recommended final cooked temperature of 73.9°C for chicken. They also do not predict when all Salmonella are eliminated without extrapolating beyond the data used to develop them. Thus, a study was undertaken to develop a model for thermal inactivation of Salmonella to elimination in ground chicken at temperatures above those of existing models...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221883/enrichment-amplification-and-sequence-based-typing-of-salmonella-enterica-and-other-foodborne-pathogens
#14
Tom Edlind, Jeffrey D Brewster, George C Paoli
Detection of Salmonella enterica in foods typically involves microbiological enrichment, molecular-based assay, and subsequent isolation and identification of a pure culture. This is ideally followed by strain typing, which provides information critical to the investigation of outbreaks and the attribution of their sources. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is the "gold standard" for S. enterica strain typing, but its limitations have encouraged the search for alternative methods, including whole genome sequencing...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221337/modulation-of-digital-flexor-tendon-healing-by-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-gene-transfection-in-a-chicken-model
#15
W F Mao, Y F Wu, Q Q Yang, Y L Zhou, J B Tang
A major challenge in tendon injury is the weak intrinsic healing capacity of tendon, which may cause re-rupture after surgery. Growth factors are believed to be critical during tendon healing. This study aimed to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors on tendon healing and molecular events involved in a chicken model. One hundred and twenty eight deep flexor tendons in the long toes of chickens were completely transected and injected with 2 × 10(9) particles of AAV2-VEGF or saline before surgically repaired...
February 21, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221105/zoonotic-transmission-of-mcr-1-colistin-resistance-gene-from-small-scale-poultry-farms-vietnam
#16
Nguyen Vinh Trung, Sébastien Matamoros, Juan J Carrique-Mas, Nguyen Huu Nghia, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Tran Thi Bich Chieu, Ho Huynh Mai, Willemien van Rooijen, James Campbell, Jaap A Wagenaar, Anita Hardon, Nguyen Thi Nhu Mai, Thai Quoc Hieu, Guy Thwaites, Menno D de Jong, Constance Schultsz, Ngo Thi Hoa
We investigated the consequences of colistin use in backyard chicken farms in Vietnam by examining the prevalence of mcr-1 in fecal samples from chickens and humans. Detection of mcr-1-carrying bacteria in chicken samples was associated with colistin use and detection in human samples with exposure to mcr-1-positive chickens.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220659/in-situ-self-assembled-reduced-graphene-oxide-aerogel-embedded-with-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-for-the-high-efficiency-separation-of-ovalbumin
#17
Lei Chen, Dong-Hua Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ya-Ning Wang, Zhang-Run Xu
A three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel with embedded nickel oxide nanoparticles was prepared by a one-step self-assembly reaction in a short time. The nanoparticles could be captured into the interior of reduced graphene oxide network during the formation of the three-dimensional architecture. The composite exhibited porosity, good biocompatibility and abundant metal affinity binding sites. The aerogel was used to isolate ovalbumin selectively from egg white, and favorable adsorption was achieved at pH 3...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219475/effects-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-creatine-pyruvate-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-and-energy-status-in-embryos-and-broiler-chickens
#18
M M Zhao, T Gao, L Zhang, J L Li, P A Lv, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
The effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on the hatchability, growth performance and energy status of embryos and broilers (Arbor Acres) were investigated. Five treatments were arranged as non-injected treatment (Control), 0.6 ml physiological saline (0.75%) injected treatment (Saline), and IOF treatments injected with 0.6 ml physiological saline (0.75%) containing 3, 6 or 12 mg CrPyr (CrPyr3, CrPyr6 or CrPyr12) into the amnion per fertile egg on day 17.5 of incubation. After hatching, 80 male chicks from each treatment with similar weight close to the average BW of their pooled group were selected and randomly assigned into eight replicates of 10 chicks each...
February 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219352/retinoic-acid-promotes-expression-of-germline-specific-genes-in-chicken-blastoderm-cells-by-stimulating-smad1-5-phosphorylation-in-a-feeder-free-culture-system
#19
Xiaochuan Tang, Shiyong Xu, Hongpeng Zhang, Qing Chen, Rongyang Li, Wangjun Wu, Minli Yu, Honglin Liu
BACKGROUND: Producing transgenic chickens with chicken blastodermal cells (cBCs) is inefficient due to the extremely low germline transmission capacity of cBCs. As chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been reported as an efficient method for producing transgenic chickens, the inefficiency of cBCs could potentially be resolved by inducing them to differentiate into germ cells. However, whether chemical inducers are able to enhance cBCs germline competence in vitro is unknown and the molecular mechanisms of differentiation of chicken pluripotent cells into germ cells are poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219238/public-health-risk-of-arsenic-species-in-chicken-tissues-from-live-poultry-markets-of-guangdong-province-china
#20
Yuanan Hu, Wenfeng Zhang, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Arsenic-based feed additives, such as roxarsone (ROX), are still legally and widely used in food animal production in many countries. This study was conducted to systematically characterize the content and speciation of arsenic in chicken tissues from live poultry markets and in commercial chicken feeds in Guangdong, a major poultry production and consumption province in China, and to assess the corresponding public health risk. The total arsenic contents in the commercial feeds could be modeled as a mixture of two log-normal distributions (geometric means: 0...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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