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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818944/conversion-of-object-identity-to-object-general-semantic-value-in-the-primate-temporal-cortex
#1
Keita Tamura, Masaki Takeda, Rieko Setsuie, Tadashi Tsubota, Toshiyuki Hirabayashi, Kentaro Miyamoto, Yasushi Miyashita
At the final stage of the ventral visual stream, perirhinal neurons encode the identity of memorized objects through learning. However, it remains elusive whether and how object percepts alone, or concomitantly a nonphysical attribute of the objects ("learned"), are decoded from perirhinal activities. By combining monkey psychophysics with optogenetic and electrical stimulations, we found a focal spot of memory neurons where both stimulations led monkeys to preferentially judge presented objects as "already seen...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#2
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
August 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793881/patients-preferences-for-involvement-in-the-decision-making-process-for-treating-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Lydia Marahrens, Raimar Kern, Tjalf Ziemssen, Andreas Fritsche, Peter Martus, Focke Ziemssen, Daniel Roeck
BACKGROUND: To assess factors associated with the preferred role of the attending ophthalmologist in the decision-making processes before treating diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 810 adults attending secondary diabetes care centers (NCT02311504). Diabetes patients were classified using a validated questionnaire in an ophthalmologist-dominant decision-making (ODM), shared decision-making (SDM) and patient-dominant decision-making (PDM) style...
August 9, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782762/the-rsc-faraday-prize-lecture-of-1989-on-platinum
#4
John Meurig Thomas
In 1861, Michael Faraday gave one of his last Friday Evening Discourses at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, on platinum, which he described as "this beautiful, magnificent and valuable metal". More than a hundred and twenty years later (in 1989), the author re-enacted, at the Royal Institution, many of the demonstrations that Faraday carried out in his memorable Discourse. This article outlines many of Faraday's views on, and experiments with, platinum. It also describes the continuing importance and utilization of platinum, both as perceived in 1989 and from present perspectives...
August 7, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782371/patterns-of-fixation-during-face-recognition-differences-in-autism-across-age
#5
Jennifer Fedor, Andrew Lynn, William Foran, Jared DiCicco-Bloom, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Difficulties with face recognition increase from adolescence to adulthood in autism, reflecting a lack of typical late development. We examined whether this reflects differences in the development of patterns of fixation to eyes and mouths during face recognition. Children, adolescents, and adults (aged 7-30) with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test while gaze was recorded. Average duration and number of fixations were calculated for eyes and mouth regions of interest, defined individually for each face image in the task...
August 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768488/success-failure-condition-influences-attribution-of-control-negative-affect-and-shame-among-patients-with-depression-in-singapore
#6
Si-Ning Yeo, Hani Zainal, Catherine S Tang, Eddie M Tong, Cyrus S Ho, Roger C Ho
BACKGROUND: There remains a paucity of research on control attribution and depression within Asian populations. This study examines: (1) Success/Failure condition as a moderator between depression and negative affect or shame, and (2) differences in control attribution between patients with depression and healthy controls in Singapore. METHODS: Seventy one patients with depression and 71 healthy controls went through a digit-span memory task where they were randomized into either the Success or Failure condition...
August 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766399/monitoring-of-learning-for-emotional-faces-how-do-fine-grained-categories-of-emotion-influence-participants-judgments-of-learning-and-beliefs-about-memory
#7
Amber E Witherby, Sarah K Tauber
Researchers have evaluated how broad categories of emotion (i.e. positive and negative) influence judgments of learning (JOLs) relative to neutral items. Specifically, JOLs are typically higher for emotional relative to neutral items. The novel goal of the present research was to evaluate JOLs for fine-grained categories of emotion. Participants studied faces with afraid, angry, sad, or neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and with afraid, angry, or sad expressions (Experiment 2). Participants identified the expressed emotion, made a JOL for each, and completed a recognition test...
August 2, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765992/inhibition-in-movement-plan-competition-reach-trajectories-curve-away-from-remembered-and-task-irrelevant-present-but-not-from-task-irrelevant-past-visual-stimuli
#8
Tobias Moehler, Katja Fiehler
The current study investigated the role of automatic encoding and maintenance of remembered, past, and present visual distractors for reach movement planning. The previous research on eye movements showed that saccades curve away from locations actively kept in working memory and also from task-irrelevant perceptually present visual distractors, but not from task-irrelevant past distractors. Curvature away has been associated with an inhibitory mechanism resolving the competition between multiple active movement plans...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763377/unfamiliar-faces-in-recognition-memory-spaced-learning-enhances-subsequent-recognition-memory-by-reducing-repetition-priming
#9
Yanpei Wang, Qinfang Xu, Shuirong Liao, Demei Jia
Although the spacing effect is one of most robust effects in learning, its cognitive and neural mechanisms are still under investigation. Whether the spacing effect is achieved by reducing neural repetition priming or depends on learning experience is still unclear. In this event-related potential study, participants were asked to memorize 140 novel faces, half under the massed learning condition and the other half under the spaced learning condition. The afterwards recognition tests indicated that participants recognized more items under the spaced learning condition than under the massed learning condition...
July 31, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755695/preimaginal-exposure-to-azadirachtin-affects-food-selection-and-digestive-enzymes-in-adults-of-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae
#10
Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Maroua Ferdenache, Nadia Aribi
Among the plant derived product, azadirachtin, a neem-based insecticide, is exceptional in having a broad range of bioactivity including toxicity, growth, development and reproduction effects, repellency and antifeedancy. If considerable progress on the physiological and biological activities and agricultural application of azadirachtin has been achieved, its exact mechanism of action remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at assessing the lethal and sublethal behavioral and physiological effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750260/effects-of-dual-task-difficulty-in-motor-and-cognitive-performance-differences-between-adults-and-adolescents
#11
Pilar Bustillo-Casero, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Xavier García-Massó
In the present study our aim was to compare dual-task performance in thirteen adolescents and fifteen young adults while concurrently performing a cognitive and a motor task. The postural control variables were obtained under three different conditions: i) bipedal stance, ii) tandem stance and iii) unipedal stance. The cognitive task consisted of a backward digit span test in which the participants were asked to memorize a sequence of numbers and then repeat the number in reverse order at three different difficulty levels (i...
July 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747686/memory-and-perception-based-facial-image-reconstruction
#12
Chi-Hsun Chang, Dan Nemrodov, Andy C H Lee, Adrian Nestor
Visual memory for faces has been extensively researched, especially regarding the main factors that influence face memorability. However, what we remember exactly about a face, namely, the pictorial content of visual memory, remains largely unclear. The current work aims to elucidate this issue by reconstructing face images from both perceptual and memory-based behavioural data. Specifically, our work builds upon and further validates the hypothesis that visual memory and perception share a common representational basis underlying facial identity recognition...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744891/qualitative-research-using-realist-evaluation-to-explain-preparedness-for-doctors-memorable-firsts
#13
Janet Lefroy, Sarah Yardley, Ruth Kinston, Simon Gay, Stuart McBain, Robert McKinley
CONTEXT: Doctors must be competent from their first day of practice if patients are to be safe. Medical students and new doctors are acutely aware of this, but describe being variably prepared. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify causal chains of the contextual factors and mechanisms that lead to a trainee being capable (or not) of completing tasks for the first time. METHODS: We studied three stages of transition: anticipation; lived experience, and post hoc reflection...
July 26, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742315/w%C3%A5-adys%C3%A5-aw-biega%C3%A5-ski-md-1857-1917
#14
Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz
Dr W. Biegański was an eminent doctor of internal medicine mostly the acute infectious diseases and tuberculosis, he was scientist doing the research on the origin of the diseases and on the medical ethics, but more he was also a social activist taking care on the public health of the society in his time still living under the Russian rule. W. Biegański living on the XIX/XX century in small provincial town, grace to his knowledge, self education and energy created the important scientific center in the municipal small hospital...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736171/northern-elephant-seals-memorize-the-rhythm-and-timbre-of-their-rivals-voices
#15
Nicolas Mathevon, Caroline Casey, Colleen Reichmuth, Isabelle Charrier
The evolutionary origin of rhythm perception, a cognitive ability essential to musicality, remains unresolved [1-5]. The ability to perceive and memorize rhythmic sounds is widely shared among humans [6] but seems rare among other mammals [7, 8]. Although the perception of temporal metrical patterns has been found in a few species, this ability has only been demonstrated through behavioral training [9] (but see [10] for an example of spontaneous tempo coordination in a bonobo), and there is no experimental evidence to indicate its biological function...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#16
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719763/two-equals-one-two-human-actions-during-social-interaction-are-grouped-as-one-unit-in-working-memory
#17
Xiaowei Ding, Zaifeng Gao, Mowei Shen
Every day, people perceive other people performing interactive actions. Retaining these actions of human agents in working memory (WM) plays a pivotal role in a normal social life. However, whether the semantic knowledge embedded in the interactive actions has a pervasive impact on the storage of the actions in WM remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated two opposing hypotheses: (a) that WM stores the interactions individually (the individual-storage hypothesis) and (b) that WM stores the interactions as chunks (the chunk-storage hypothesis)...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719460/the-association-between-perceived-stress-and-low-back-pain-among-eldercare-workers-in-japan
#18
Yamato Tsuboi, Yuya Ueda, Fumihiro Naruse, Rei Ono
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between perceived stress and low back pain (LBP) among Japanese eldercare workers. METHODS: Self-reported questionnaires were completed regarding perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale-14), presence of memorable LBP in the preceding month, and other relevant factors (age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, job demands, job control, and social support) among 954 eldercare workers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)...
August 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716951/a-calcium-diacylglycerol-stimulated-protein-kinase-c-c-elegans-pkc-2-links-thermal-signals-to-learned-behavior-by-acting-in-a-sensory-neuron-and-intestinal-cells
#19
Marianne Land, Charles S Rubin
Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol (DAG) activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a C. elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc) and migrates along Tc within a 17-25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711391/a-memorable-cause-of-st-elevation
#20
Kamolyut Lapumnuaypol, Supakanya Wongrakpanich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
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