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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156216/covert-retrieval-in-working-memory-impacts-the-phenomenological-characteristics-remembered-during-episodic-memory
#1
Vanessa M Loaiza, Borislava M Borovanska
Much research has investigated the qualitative experience of retrieving events from episodic memory (EM). The present study investigated whether covert retrieval in WM increases the phenomenological characteristics that participants find memorable in EM using tasks that distract attention from the maintenance of memoranda (i.e., complex span; Experiment 1) relative to tasks that do not (i.e., short or long list lengths of simple span; Experiments 1 and 2). Participants rated the quality of the phonological, semantic, and temporal-contextual characteristics remembered during a delayed memory characteristics questionnaire (MCQ)...
November 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154615/differential-discounting-and-present-impact-of-past-information
#2
Laura Brandimarte, Joachim Vosgerau, Alessandro Acquisti
How does information about a person's past, accessed now, affect individuals' impressions of that person? In 2 survey experiments and 2 experiments with actual incentives, we compare whether, when evaluating a person, information about that person's past greedy or immoral behaviors is discounted similarly to information about her past generous or moral behaviors. We find that, no matter how far in the past a person behaved greedily or immorally, information about her negative behaviors is hardly discounted at all...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154187/compositional-inductive-biases-in-function-learning
#3
Eric Schulz, Joshua B Tenenbaum, David Duvenaud, Maarten Speekenbrink, Samuel J Gershman
How do people recognize and learn about complex functional structure? Taking inspiration from other areas of cognitive science, we propose that this is achieved by harnessing compositionality: complex structure is decomposed into simpler building blocks. We formalize this idea within the framework of Bayesian regression using a grammar over Gaussian process kernels, and compare this approach with other structure learning approaches. Participants consistently chose compositional (over non-compositional) extrapolations and interpolations of functions...
November 16, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134484/the-role-of-feedback-in-implicit-and-explicit-artificial-grammar-learning-a-comparison-between-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-adults
#4
Rachel Schiff, Ayelet Sasson, Galit Star, Shani Kahta
The importance of feedback for learning has been firmly established over the past few decades. The question of whether feedback plays a significant role in the statistical learning abilities of adults with dyslexia, however, is currently unresolved. Here, we examined the role of feedback in grammaticality judgment, type of structural knowledge, and confidence rating in both typically developed and dyslexic adults. We implemented two artificial grammar learning experiments: implicit and explicit. The second experiment was directly analogous to the first experiment in all respects except training format: the standard memorization instruction was replaced with an explicit rule-search instruction...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123562/the-role-of-occupational-and-physiotherapy-in-multi-modal-approach-to-tackling-delirium-in-the-intensive-care
#5
REVIEW
Jenny Rains, Nigel Chee
The presence of delirium within critical care remains a long-standing challenge for patients and clinicians alike. A myriad of pre-disposing and precipitating factors lead to this patient cohort being high risk for developing delirium during their critical care stay. Until now, non-pharmacological management of these patients usually encompasses a 'bundle' of principles to reduce delirium days. These bundles have limited focus on the entire multi-disciplinary team (including occupational therapists and physiotherapists) who could assist with the reduction of delirium...
November 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121587/social-attention-directs-working-memory-maintenance
#6
Qi-Yang Nie, Xiaowei Ding, Jianyong Chen, Markus Conci
Visual working memory (vWM) performance is enhanced when a memorized object is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue effect is typically observed with a predictive (80% valid), retrospective cue. The current study examined whether a nonpredictive (50% valid) retro-cue can similarly enhance internal memory representations in cases where the cue conveys social signals. To this end, gaze cues were presented during the retention interval of a change-detection task, which are capable to engender a mutual attentional focus of two individuals towards one location...
November 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116978/-you-re-not-trying-to-save-somebody-from-death-learning-as-becoming-in-palliative-care
#7
Frances Kilbertus, Rola Ajjawi, Douglas B Archibald
PURPOSE: Learning can be conceptualized as a process of "becoming," considering individuals, workplace participation, and professional identity formation. How postgraduate trainees learn palliative care, encompassing technical competence, compassion, and empathy, is not well understood or explained by common conceptualizations of learning as "acquisition" and "participation." Learning palliative care, a practice that has been described as a cultural shift in medicine challenging the traditional role of curing and healing, provided the context to explore learning as "becoming...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112025/the-impact-of-adverse-events-on-clinicians-what-s-in-a-name
#8
Albert W Wu, Jo Shapiro, Reema Harrison, Susan D Scott, Cheryl Connors, Linda Kenney, Kris Vanhaecht
Unanticipated patient adverse events can also have a serious negative impact on clinicians. The term second victim was coined to highlight the experience of health professionals with these events and the need to effectively support them. However, there is some controversy over use of the term second victim. This article explores terminology used to describe the professionals involved in adverse events and services to support them. There is a concern that use of the term victim may connote passivity or stigmatize involved clinicians...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111783/would-you-say-yes-in-the-evening-time-of-day-effect-on-response-bias-in-four-types-of-working-memory-recognition-tasks
#9
Koryna Lewandowska, Barbara Wachowicz, Tadeusz Marek, Halszka Oginska, Magdalena Fafrowicz
Across a wide range of tasks, cognitive functioning is affected by circadian fluctuations. In this study, we investigated diurnal variations of working memory performance, taking into account not only hits and errors rates, but also sensitivity (d') and response bias (c) indexes (established by signal detection theory). Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed four experimental tasks twice - in the morning and in the evening (approximately 1 and 10 h after awakening). All tasks were based on Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm version dedicated to study working/short-term memory distortions...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107771/overlapping-frontoparietal-networks-for-tactile-and-visual-parametric-working-memory-representations
#10
Yuan-Hao Wu, Işıl Uluç, Timo Torsten Schmidt, Kathrin Tertel, Evgeniya Kirilina, Felix Blankenburg
Previous working memory (WM) research based on non-human primate electrophysiology and human EEG has shown that frontal brain regions maintain frequencies of flutter stimulation across different sensory modalities by means of a supramodal parametric WM code. These findings imply that frontal regions encode the memorized frequencies in a sensory-unspecific, quantitative format. Here, we explored which brain regions maintain information about frequencies provided by different sensory modalities at the level of activity pattern across fMRI voxel populations...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105666/-low-or-reduced-semantics-of-the-doses-of-new-oral-anticoagulants
#11
Andrea Rubboli
The four new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban are marketed in two doses each for the prevention of stroke and/or systemic thromboembolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The meaning and indications for use of the lower dose compared with the higher dose are, however, different between the thrombin-inhibitor dabigatran on the one hand and the activated factor X (Xa) inhibitors on the other. These differences stem from the different design of the registration studies where NOACs were compared with warfarin for the prevention of stroke and/or systemic thromboembolism in patients with NVAF...
September 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096681/slowmo-a-digital-therapy-targeting-reasoning-in-paranoia-versus-treatment-as-usual-in-the-treatment-of-people-who-fear-harm-from-others-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Philippa A Garety, Thomas Ward, Daniel Freeman, David Fowler, Richard Emsley, Graham Dunn, Elizabeth Kuipers, Paul Bebbington, Helen Waller, Kathryn Greenwood, Mar Rus-Calafell, Alison McGourty, Amy Hardy
BACKGROUND: Paranoia is one of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and is associated with significant distress and disruption to the person's life. Developing more effective and accessible psychological interventions for paranoia is a clinical priority. Our research team has approached this challenge in two main ways: firstly, by adopting an interventionist causal approach to increase effectiveness and secondly, by incorporating user-centred inclusive design methods to enhance accessibility and usability...
November 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096051/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-novel-neural-immediate-early-genes-possibly-differentially-contributing-to-foraging-related-learning-and-memory-processes-in-the-honeybee
#13
A Ugajin, H Uchiyama, T Miyata, T Sasaki, S Yajima, M Ono
Despite possessing a limited number of neurones compared to vertebrates, honeybees show remarkable learning and memory performance, an example being 'dance communication'. In this phenomenon, foraging honeybees learn the location of a newly discovered food source and transmit the information to nestmates by symbolic abdomen vibrating behaviour, leading to navigation of nestmates to the new food source. As an initial step toward understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the sophisticated learning and memory performance of the honeybee, we focused on the neural immediate early genes (IEGs), which are specific genes quickly transcribed after neural activity without de novo protein synthesis...
November 2, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094991/when-shorter-delays-lead-to-worse-memories-task-disruption-makes-visual-working-memory-temporarily-vulnerable-to-test-interference
#14
Benchi Wang, Jan Theeuwes, Christian N L Olivers
Evidence shows that visual working memory (VWM) is strongly served by attentional mechanisms, whereas other evidence shows that VWM representations readily survive when attention is being taken away. To reconcile these findings, we tested the hypothesis that directing attention away makes a memory representation vulnerable to interference from the test pattern, but only temporarily so. When given sufficient time, the robustness of VWM can be restored so that it is protected against test interference. In 5 experiments, participants remembered a single grating for a later memory test...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070629/object-maintenance-beyond-their-visible-parts-in-working-memory
#15
Siyi Chen, Thomas Töllner, Hermann J Müller, Markus Conci
Completion of a partially occluded object requires that a representation of the whole is constructed based on the information provided by the physically specified parts of the stimulus. Such processes of amodal completion rely on the generation and maintenance of a mental image that renders the completed object in visual working memory (VWM). The present study examined this relationship between VWM storage and processes of object completion. We recorded event-related potentials to track VWM maintenance by means of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) during a change detection task in which to-be-memorized composite objects (notched shapes abutting an occluding shape) were primed to induce either a globally completed object or a non-completed, mosaic representation...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055685/moments-of-disaster-response-in-the-emergency-department-ed
#16
Karen S Hammad, Paul Arbon, Kristine Gebbie, Alison Hutton
BACKGROUND: We experience our lives as a series of memorable moments, some good and some bad. Undoubtedly, the experience of participating in disaster response, is likely to stand out as a memorable moment in a nurses' career. This presentation will describe five distinct moments of nursing in the emergency department (ED) during a disaster response. METHODS: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological approach informed by van Manen underpins the research process. Thirteen nurses from different countries around the world participated in interviews about their experience of working in the ED during a disaster...
November 2017: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049936/memorable-objects-are-more-susceptible-to-forgetting-evidence-for-the-inhibitory-account-of-retrieval-induced-forgetting
#17
I Reppa, K E Williams, E R Worth, W J Greville, J Saunders
Retrieval of target information can cause forgetting for related, but non-retrieved, information - retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The aim of the current studies was to examine a key prediction of the inhibitory account of RIF - interference dependence - whereby 'strong' non-retrieved items are more likely to interfere during retrieval and therefore, are more susceptible to RIF. Using visual objects allowed us to examine and contrast one index of item strength -object typicality, that is, how typical of its category an object is...
October 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049595/to-search-or-to-like-mapping-fixations-to-differentiate-two-forms-of-incidental-scene-memory
#18
Kyoung Whan Choe, Omid Kardan, Hiroki P Kotabe, John M Henderson, Marc G Berman
We employed eye-tracking to investigate how performing different tasks on scenes (e.g., intentionally memorizing them, searching for an object, evaluating aesthetic preference) can affect eye movements during encoding and subsequent scene memory. We found that scene memorability decreased after visual search (one incidental encoding task) compared to intentional memorization, and that preference evaluation (another incidental encoding task) produced better memory, similar to the incidental memory boost previously observed for words and faces...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034225/the-perception-of-a-three-dimensional-printed-heart-model-from-the-perspective-of-different-stakeholders-a-complex-case-of-truncus-arteriosus
#19
Giovanni Biglino, Sarah Moharem-Elgamal, Matthew Lee, Robert Tulloh, Massimo Caputo
The case of an 11-year-old male patient with truncus arteriosus is presented. The patient has a right aortic arch, a repaired truncus arteriosus, pulmonary artery stenosis, as well as conduit stenosis, with a complex surgical plan being discussed. In order to gather additional insight into the patient's anatomy prior to the surgery and to facilitate communication with the patient's parents, a three-dimensional (3D) model of his heart and main vessels was created from computed tomography data. Feedback was collected from different stakeholders...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033330/exocrine-gland-secreting-peptide-1-is-a-key-chemosensory-signal-responsible-for-the-bruce-effect-in-mice
#20
Tatsuya Hattori, Takuya Osakada, Takuto Masaoka, Rumi Ooyama, Nao Horio, Kazutaka Mogi, Miho Nagasawa, Sachiko Haga-Yamanaka, Kazushige Touhara, Takefumi Kikusui
The Bruce effect refers to pregnancy termination in recently pregnant female rodents upon exposure to unfamiliar males [1]. This event occurs in specific combinations of laboratory mouse strains via the vomeronasal system [2, 3]; however, the responsible chemosensory signals have not been fully identified. Here we demonstrate that the male pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) is one of the key factors that causes pregnancy block. Female mice exhibited high pregnancy failure rates upon encountering males that secreted different levels of ESP1 compared to the mated male...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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