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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649209/map-learning-with-a-3d-printed-interactive-small-scale-model-improvement-of-space-and-text-memorization-in-visually-impaired-students
#1
Stéphanie Giraud, Anke M Brock, Marc J-M Macé, Christophe Jouffrais
Special education teachers for visually impaired students rely on tools such as raised-line maps (RLMs) to teach spatial knowledge. These tools do not fully and adequately meet the needs of the teachers because they are long to produce, expensive, and not versatile enough to provide rapid updating of the content. For instance, the same RLM can barely be used during different lessons. In addition, those maps do not provide any interactivity, which reduces students' autonomy. With the emergence of 3D printing and low-cost microcontrollers, it is now easy to design affordable interactive small-scale models (SSMs) which are adapted to the needs of special education teachers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646241/never-forget-a-name-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-person-memory
#2
Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Yin Wang, Chi T Ngo, Ingrid R Olson
Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#3
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631530/intentional-preparation-of-auditory-attention-switches-explicit-cueing-and-sequential-switch-predictability
#4
Julia C Seibold, Sophie Nolden, Josefa Oberem, Janina Fels, Iring Koch
In an auditory attention-switching paradigm, participants heard two simultaneously spoken number-words, each presented to one ear, and decided if the target number was smaller or larger than five by pressing a left or right key. An instructional cue in each trial indicated which feature had to be used to identify the target-number (e.g. female voice). Auditory attention-switch costs were found when this feature changed compared to when it repeated in two consecutive trials. Earlier studies employing this paradigm showed mixed results when they examined whether such cued auditory attention-switches can be prepared actively during the cue-stimulus-interval...
June 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628557/excessive-hemodynamic-activity-in-the-superior-frontal-cortex-during-the-flanker-task-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Kota Suzuki, Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Yuhei Oi, Yushiro Yamashita, Takaaki Goto, Masumi Inagaki
Near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown excessive prefrontal activity responsible for coping with interference. However, it is possible that the previous results were influenced by verbal, reading, and memory developments. The flanker task is an interference task that does not require a verbal response, reading, or memorization. We examined activity in the superior frontal cortex (SFC) during the flanker task in 12 children with ADHD and 14 children with typical development using near-infrared spectroscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627239/complex-multicellular-functions-at-a-unicellular-eukaryote-level-learning-memory-and-immunity
#6
György Csaba
According to experimental data, eukaryote unicellulars are able to learn, have immunity and memory. Learning is carried out in a very primitive form, and the memory is not neural but an epigenetic one. However, this epigenetic memory, which is well justified by the presence and manifestation of hormonal imprinting, is strong and permanent in the life of cell and also in its progenies. This memory is epigenetically executed by the alteration and fixation of methylation pattern of genes without changes in base sequences...
June 19, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626259/lao-language-version-of-the-revised-hasegawa-s-dementia-scale
#7
Sengchanh Kounnavong, Khouanchay Soundavong, Syda Xayavong, Nialoun Vongpraserth, Phongsavang Bounsavath, Souphatsone Houatthongkham, Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Yu Mon Saw, Eiko Yamamoto, Kenji Toba, Nobuyuki Hamajima
With the aging of society, the number of elderly with reduced cognitive function has been increasing worldwide. As a test to measure the cognitive function, the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R) has been used in Japan, Korea, and China. Since there was no HDS-R version for Laotians, the questionnaire and manual were developed through the cooperation of Lao and Japanese researchers. Back-translation was conducted to confirm the accuracy of the translation. The score on the 9-item HDS-R ranges 0 to 30 points, and reduced cognitive function is usually defined as a score of 20 points or lower...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626237/cd4-t-cells-memorize-obesity-and-promote-weight-regain
#8
Jianghuan Zou, Beibei Lai, Mingzhu Zheng, Qin Chen, Shujun Jiang, Anying Song, Zan Huang, Peiliang Shi, Xin Tu, Di Wang, Linrong Lu, Zhaoyu Lin, Xiang Gao
Body weight regain often causes failure of obesity therapies while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that immune cells, especially CD4+ T cells, mediate the 'memory' of previous obese status. In a weight gain-loss-regain model, we found that C57BL/6J mice with an obesity history showed a much faster rate of body weight regain. This obesity memory could last for at least 2 months after previously obese mice were kept at the same body weight as non-obese mice. Surprisingly, such obesity memory was abrogated by dexamethasone treatment, whereas immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) and H2A(-/-) mice failed to establish such memory...
June 19, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625355/meta-reasoning-monitoring-and-control-of-thinking-and-reasoning
#9
REVIEW
Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A Thompson
Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619233/do-we-have-distinct-systems-for-immediate-and-delayed-actions-a-selective-review-on-the-role-of-visual-memory-in-action
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Schenk, Constanze Hesse
The perception-action model with its assumptions of distinct visual pathways for perception and visuomotor control has been highly influential but also contentious. The controversy largely focused on the evidence from studies on perceptual illusions and this scientific field has been reviewed quite a few times in recent years. In contrast another aspect of the model, namely the role of visual memory in action control, received comparatively little attention. With respect to visual memory the perception-action model proposes that only the perceptual or ventral stream can maintain a sustained representation of the visual world while the visuomotor system or dorsal stream has to rely on currently available visual information...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602364/diagnosis-and-management-of-heart-failure-in-older-adults
#11
REVIEW
Gurusher Panjrath, Ali Ahmed
Aging is characterized by heterogeneity, both in health and illness. Older adults with heart failure often have preserved ejection fraction and atypical and delayed clinical manifestations. After diagnosis of heart failure is established, a cause should be sought. The patient's comorbidities may provide clues. An elevated jugular venous pressure is the most reliable clinical sign of fluid volume overload and should be carefully evaluated. Left ventricular ejection fraction must be determined to assess prognosis and guide therapy...
July 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602110/using-a-music-video-parody-to-promote-breastfeeding-and-increase-comfort-levels-among-young-adults
#12
Erin L Austen, Julie Beadle, Sionnach Lukeman, Ellen Lukeman, Nicola Aquino
BACKGROUND: North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. METHODS: Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594618/complaints-processes-moving-forwards
#13
Sam Foster
Sam Foster, Chief Nurse at Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, discusses the issue of complaints handling, and shares a new approach aimed at making training on the process more memorable.
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593106/a-post-hoc-summary-of-a-memorable-annual-meeting-the-27th-annual-nasbs-meeting-march-1-5-2017-the-roosevelt-hotel-new-orleans-louisiana-united-states
#14
Jacques J Morcos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592696/visual-working-memory-enhances-the-neural-response-to-matching-visual-input
#15
Surya Gayet, Matthias Guggenmos, Thomas B Christophel, John-Dylan Haynes, Chris L E Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Philipp Sterzer
Visual working memory (VWM) is used to maintain visual information available for subsequent goal-directed behavior. The content of VWM has been shown to affect the behavioral response to concurrent visual input, suggesting that visual representations originating from VWM and from sensory input draw upon a shared neural substrate (i.e., a sensory recruitment stance on VWM storage). Here, we hypothesized that visual information maintained in VWM would enhance the neural response to concurrent visual input that matches the content of VWM...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584250/the-progression-pattern-of-male-hyrax-songs-and-the-role-of-climactic-ending
#16
Vlad Demartsev, Amiyaal Ilany, Arik Kershenbaum, Yair Geva, Ori Margalit, Inbar Schnitzer, Adi Barocas, Einat Bar-Ziv, Lee Koren, Eli Geffen
The study of animal vocal signals can either focus on the properties of distinct vocal elements or address the signal as a whole. Although some attention has been given to the continuous progression patterns of bird songs, such patterns in mammalian vocalisations have been largely overlooked. We examined temporal changes in structural and acoustic parameters in male rock hyrax songs. We found a gradual increase in call frequency and amplitude towards the song ending, as well as an abrupt increase in bout syntactic complexity, peaking in the last quintile of a song...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569756/neuronal-population-coding-of-perceived-and-memorized-visual-features-in-the-lateral-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Diego Mendoza-Halliday, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
The primate lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) encodes visual stimulus features while they are perceived and while they are maintained in working memory. However, it remains unclear whether perceived and memorized features are encoded by the same or different neurons and population activity patterns. Here we record LPFC neuronal activity while monkeys perceive the motion direction of a stimulus that remains visually available, or memorize the direction if the stimulus disappears. We find neurons with a wide variety of combinations of coding strength for perceived and memorized directions: some neurons encode both to similar degrees while others preferentially or exclusively encode either one...
June 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566662/practical-management-of-deep-cutaneous-fungal-infections
#18
Tomotaka Sato
Understanding deep cutaneous fungal infection requires not only reading many case reports and checking the typical clinical images of skin lesions, but also managing the patients properly to prevent misdiagnosis. Herein, I review my recent experiences with eight typical cases of deep cutaneous infections (including protothecosis and nocardiosis) in Japan. It is very important to do the four management processes; namely, KOH direct microscopic examination, skin biopsy, fungal culture, and microscopic examination of the histopathological specimen of PAS and Grocott staining...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562457/the-educational-climate-inventory-measuring-students-perceptions-of-the-preclerkship-and-clerkship-settings
#19
Edward Krupat, Nicole J Borges, Richard D Brower, Paul M Haidet, W Scott Schroth, Thomas J Fleenor, Sebastian Uijtdehaage
PURPOSE: To develop an instrument to assess educational climate, a critical aspect of the medical school learning environment that previous tools have not explored in depth. METHOD: Fifty items were written, capturing aspects of Dweck's performance-learning distinction, to distinguish students' perceptions of the educational climate as learning/mastery oriented (where the goal is growth and development) versus performance oriented (where the goal is appearance of competence)...
May 30, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554087/negative-emotion-enhances-mnemonic-precision-and-subjective-feelings-of-remembering-in-visual-long-term-memory
#20
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images...
May 26, 2017: Cognition
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