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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348583/rapid-updating-of-spatial-working-memory-across-saccades
#1
Paul J Boon, Silvia Zeni, Jan Theeuwes, Artem V Belopolsky
Each time we make an eye movement, positions of objects on the retina change. In order to keep track of relevant objects their positions have to be updated. The situation becomes even more complex if the object is no longer present in the world and has to be held in memory. In the present study, we used saccadic curvature to investigate the time-course of updating a memorized location across saccades. Previous studies have shown that a memorized location competes with a saccade target for selection on the oculomotor map, which leads to saccades curving away from it...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346995/difference-between-memory-and-prediction-in-linear-recurrent-networks
#2
Sarah Marzen
Recurrent networks are trained to memorize their input better, often in the hopes that such training will increase the ability of the network to predict. We show that networks designed to memorize input can be arbitrarily bad at prediction. We also find, for several types of inputs, that one-node networks optimized for prediction are nearly at upper bounds on predictive capacity given by Wiener filters and are roughly equivalent in performance to randomly generated five-node networks. Our results suggest that maximizing memory capacity leads to very different networks than maximizing predictive capacity and that optimizing recurrent weights can decrease reservoir size by half an order of magnitude...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346019/independent-attention-mechanisms-control-the-activation-of-tactile-and-visual-working-memory-representations
#3
Tobias Katus, Martin Eimer
Working memory (WM) is limited in capacity, but it is controversial whether these capacity limitations are domain-general or are generated independently within separate modality-specific memory systems. These alternative accounts were tested in bimodal visual/tactile WM tasks. In Experiment 1, participants memorized the locations of simultaneously presented task-relevant visual and tactile stimuli. Visual and tactile WM load was manipulated independently (one, two, or three items per modality), and one modality was unpredictably tested after each trial...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340716/congenital-blindness-limits-allocentric-to-egocentric-switching-ability
#4
Gennaro Ruggiero, Francesco Ruotolo, Tina Iachini
Many everyday spatial activities require the cooperation or switching between egocentric (subject-to-object) and allocentric (object-to-object) spatial representations. The literature on blind people has reported that the lack of vision (congenital blindness) may limit the capacity to represent allocentric spatial information. However, research has mainly focused on the selective involvement of egocentric or allocentric representations, not the switching between them. Here we investigated the effect of visual deprivation on the ability to switch between spatial frames of reference...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336443/actuating-and-memorizing-bilayer-hydrogels-for-a-self-deformed-shape-memory-function
#5
Li Wang, Yukun Jian, Xiaoxia Le, Wei Lu, Chunxin Ma, Jiawei Zhang, Youju Huang, Chih-Feng Huang, Tao Chen
A general strategy for fabricating a double layer self-deformed shape memory hydrogel which includes a thermo-responsive actuating layer and a pH-responsive memorizing layer is presented. Compared with traditional shape memory polymer systems, the temporary shape of the hydrogel could be generated by a thermo-responsive actuating layer upon the trigger of heat without the need for an external force, which could be further memorized by the pH-responsive memorizing layer.
January 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330327/signal-complexity-of-human-intracranial-eeg-tracks-successful-associative-memory-formation-across-individuals
#6
Timothy C Sheehan, Vishnu Sreekumar, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Memory performance is highly variable between individuals. Most studies examining human memory, however, have largely focused on the neural correlates of successful memory formation within individuals, rather than the differences between them. As such, what gives rise to this variability is poorly understood. Here, we examined intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings captured from 43 participants (23 male) implanted with subdural electrodes for seizure monitoring as they performed a paired-associates verbal memory task...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329367/effects-of-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-on-episodic-memory-formation-and-retrieval
#7
Angela Medvedeva, Maurizio Materassi, Victorita Neacsu, Jesssica Beresford-Webb, Aya Hussin, Naghma Khan, Felix Newton, Giulia Galli
In the past decade, several studies have investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on episodic memory abilities. However, the specific conditions under which tDCS affects memory remain largely unclear. Here, we report data from 4 experiments aimed at investigating the effects of anodal tDCS over the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) on verbal episodic memory. We evaluated tDCS-induced effects as a function of time of administration, nature of the memory encoding task, and age of the participants...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324597/internal-podalic-version-and-breech-extraction-enhancing-realistic-sensations-in-a-simulation-model
#8
Jérôme M J Cornette, Jan S Erkamp
BACKGROUND: Experience with internal podalic version and breech extraction is diminishing, especially in the younger generation of obstetricians. Simulation training is essential to teach and maintain these skills. INSTRUMENT: We present a mannequin-based simulation method that enhances realistic sensations during training. EXPERIENCE: By positioning the fetal mannequin into a thin plastic bag filled with water, the impression of palpating, grabbing, and pulling the fetal feet through the plastic bag is similar to reaching feet through intact membranes...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322192/a-memorable-touch
#9
Ajay Kailas, Leonard J Hoenig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316244/hemispatial-neglect-and-serial-order-in-verbal-working-memory
#10
Sophie Antoine, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Hichem Slama, Mario Bonato, Ann Tousch, Myrtille Dewulf, Jean-Christophe Bier, Wim Gevers
Working memory refers to our ability to actively maintain and process a limited amount of information during a brief period of time. Often, not only the information itself but also its serial order is crucial for good task performance. It was recently proposed that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition. Here, we compared performance of a group of right hemisphere-damaged patients with hemispatial neglect to healthy controls in verbal working memory tasks. Participants memorized sequences of consonants at span level and had to judge whether a target consonant belonged to the memorized sequence (item task) or whether a pair of consonants were presented in the same order as in the memorized sequence (order task)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315837/an-artificial-flexible-visual-memory-system-based-on-an-uv-motivated-memristor
#11
Shuai Chen, Zheng Lou, Di Chen, Guozhen Shen
For the mimicry of human visual memory, a prominent challenge is how to detect and store the image information by electronic devices, which demands a multifunctional integration to sense light like eyes and to memorize image information like the brain by transforming optical signals to electrical signals that can be recognized by electronic devices. Although current image sensors can perceive simple images in real time, the image information fades away when the external image stimuli are removed. The deficiency between the state-of-the-art image sensors and visual memory system inspires the logical integration of image sensors and memory devices to realize the sensing and memory process toward light information for the bionic design of human visual memory...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294552/-clinical-effect-of-electroencephalographic-biofeedback-therapy-in-treatment-of-memory-disorders-in-patients-with-acute-severe-toxic-encephalopathy
#12
M L Sun, D M Shi, J Wang, N Y Li, Y Tong
Objective: To investigate the clinical effect and safety of electroencephalographic biofeedback therapy in improving memory disorders in patientsin the recovery stage of acute severe toxic encephalopathy. Methods: A total of 52 patients in the recovery stage of acute severe toxic encephalopathy who were hospitalized in our hospital from March 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group with 27 patients and control group with 25 patients. Both groups were given the drugs to promote the metabolism of brain cells,and the patients in the observation group were given electroencephalographic biofeedback therapy in addition...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288047/sway-regularity-and-sway-activity-in-older-adults-upright-stance-are-differentially-affected-by-dual-task
#13
Margarita Drozdova-Statkevičienė, Vida Janina Česnaitienė, Kazimieras Pukėnas, Oron Levin, Nerijus Masiulis
Age-related changes in postural control are attributed to visual, vestibular and proprioceptive dysfunctions, muscle weakness, and reduced availability of neural resources required for efficient balance control. Concurrent performance of complex cognitive tasks while standing or walking is expected to increase balance instability due to under-recruitment of brain resources and insufficient allocation of attention to the postural task. Both balance instability and attentional control of movements can, nonetheless, be determined from the center of pressure (CoP) measurements by examining the effects of dual-task on the amount of sway activity (as measured by CoP velocity - Vcop) and the statistical regularity of the CoP trajectory (the wavelet entropy of the signal - WEcop)...
December 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283588/do-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-apella-know-the-contents-of-memory-traces-a-study-of-metamemory-for-compound-stimuli
#14
Saho Takagi, Kazuo Fujita
Whereas evidence has accumulated that nonhuman animals have access to the strength of their memory trace, it is unclear whether such metamemory contains components, as proposed by Hampton (2005). We assessed whether capuchin monkeys could recognize details of memorized items using a delayed matching-to-sample task. We used compound stimuli separable into 2 dimensions, "what" and "where." Two monkeys were trained to memorize both "what" and "where" a sample was and answer both/either "what" and/or "where" the sample was depending on each task after a delay...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248569/molecular-characterization-and-gene-expression-of-synaptosome-associated-protein-25-snap-25-in-the-brain-during-both-seaward-and-homeward-migrations-of-chum-salmon-oncorhynchus-keta
#15
Takashi Abe, Yui Minowa, Hideaki Kudo
It is generally accepted that information about some of the odorants in the natal streams of anadromous Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) is imprinted during their seaward migration, and that anadromous Pacific salmon use olfaction to identify their natal streams during the homeward migration. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the various pre-synaptic functions that are important for olfactory imprinting and memory retrieval in the salmon brain. Synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) mediates pre-synaptic vesicle exocytosis and regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247695/neural-activity-associated-with-rhythmicity-of-song-in-juvenile-male-and-female-zebra-finches
#16
Jennifer Lampen, J Devin McAuley, Soo-Eun Chang, Juli Wade
Rhythm is an important aspect of both human speech and birdsong. Adult zebra finches show increased neural activity following exposure to arrhythmic compared to rhythmic song in regions similar to the mammalian auditory association cortex and amygdala. This pattern may indicate that birds are detecting errors in the arrhythmic song relative to their learned song template or to more general expectations of song structure. Here we exposed juvenile zebra finches to natural conspecific song (rhythmic) or song with altered inter-syllable intervals (arrhythmic) prior to or during template formation, or afterward as males are matching vocal production to a memorized song template (sensorimotor integration)...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244813/a-different-view-on-the-necker-cube-differences-in-multistable-perception-dynamics-between-asperger-and-non-asperger-observers
#17
Jürgen Kornmeier, Rike Wörner, Andreas Riedel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: During observation of the Necker cube perception becomes unstable and alternates repeatedly between a from-above-perspective ("fap") and a from-below-perspective ("fbp") interpretation. Both interpretations are physically equally plausible, however, observers usually show an a priori top-down bias in favor of the fap interpretation. Patients with Autism spectrum disorder are known to show an altered pattern of perception with a focus on sensory details. In the present study we tested whether this altered perceptual processing affects their reversal dynamics and reduces the perceptual bias during Necker cube observation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244750/higa-a-running-history-information-guided-genetic-algorithm-for-protein-ligand-docking
#18
Boxin Guan, Changsheng Zhang, Yuhai Zhao
Protein-ligand docking is an essential part of computer-aided drug design, and it identifies the binding patterns of proteins and ligands by computer simulation. Though Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) has demonstrated excellent performance in terms of protein-ligand docking problems, it can not memorize the history information that it has accessed, rendering it effort-consuming to discover some promising solutions. This article illustrates a novel optimization algorithm (HIGA), which is based on LGA for solving the protein-ligand docking problems with an aim to overcome the drawback mentioned above...
December 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244188/-the-lights-of-the-electric-octopus-have-been-switched-off-visual-and-political-culture-in-edwardian-london
#19
James Thompson
This article reconstructs the visual culture of politics in Edwardian London through a study of the 1907 London County Council election. It moves beyond the memorable account given in Graham Wallas's Human Nature in Politics to examine the actors, especially associations and newspapers, that participated in the election. Drawing upon newspapers, election addresses, cartoon, leaflets, and posters, the article argues that Edwardian London was a prime site in the application of new media for political communication...
December 13, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242975/reinterpretation-in-visual-imagery-is-possible-without-visual-cues-a-validation-of-previous-research
#20
Kevin L Kamermans, Wim Pouw, Fred W Mast, Fred Paas
Is visual reinterpretation of bistable figures (e.g., duck/rabbit figure) in visual imagery possible? Current consensus suggests that it is in principle possible because of converging evidence of quasi-pictorial functioning of visual imagery. Yet, studies that have directly tested and found evidence for reinterpretation in visual imagery, allow for the possibility that reinterpretation was already achieved during memorization of the figure(s). One study resolved this issue, providing evidence for reinterpretation in visual imagery (Mast and Kosslyn, Cognition 86:57-70, 2002)...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Research
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