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Haruhiko Yasumuro, Yuzuru Ikeda
We investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive abilities of pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, which were reared from day seven in four different environments: isolated, poor, standard, and enriched. First, we used "prawn-in-the-tube" to test whether environmental enrichment affects the ontogeny of learning and memory of S. pharaonis. The results showed that cuttlefish could usually learn the task regardless of their age and environment. At early age (74 - 81 d), cuttlefish from the isolated environment memorized the task for 24h...
May 5, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Katy Börner, Adam H Simpson, Andreas Bueckle, Robert L Goldstone
Most maps of science use a network layout; few use a landscape metaphor. Human users are trained in reading geospatial maps, yet most have a hard time reading even simple networks. Prior work using general networks has shown that map-based visualizations increase recall accuracy of data. This paper reports the result of a comparison of two comparable renderings of the UCSD map of science that are: the original network layout and a novel hexmap that uses a landscape metaphor to layout the 554 subdisciplines grouped into 13 color-coded disciplines of science...
February 2018: Scientometrics
Jiangyi Xia, Giulia Galli, Leun J Otten
Older individuals' difficulty in remembering events from a particular time and place may be explained by changes in retrieval-related control processes. We investigated how aging affects neural activity leading up to a retrieval probe and how such activity relates to later performance. Electrical brain activity was recorded while healthy younger and older humans memorized visual word pairs consisting of an object word (e.g., doll) preceded by a location word (e.g., garden). Only object words were presented during the memory test, the task being to decide whether an object had been presented earlier and, if so, what location had been paired with it...
April 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Valentina Sulpizio, Maddalena Boccia, Cecilia Guariglia, Gaspare Galati
Humans, like animals, rely on an accurate knowledge of one's spatial position and facing direction to keep orientated in the surrounding space. Although previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that scene-selective regions (the parahippocampal place area or PPA, the occipital place area or OPA and the retrosplenial complex or RSC), and the hippocampus (HC) are implicated in coding position and facing direction within small-(room-sized) and large-scale navigational environments, little is known about how these regions represent these spatial quantities in a large open-field environment...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alexander Kirmsse, Hubert D Zimmer, Ullrich K H Ecker
In contrast to long-term memory, age-related association deficits in working memory are found only inconsistently. The authors hypothesized that type of binding is critical for the occurrence of such deficits. Relational binding abilities (associating separate visual units) should degrade with age, whereas more automatic conjunctive binding abilities (associating features within an object) should not. They contrasted associative memory and item memory using a change-detection task with colors and shapes in younger (18-33 years) and older (64-82 years) healthy adults...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
Danish Imtiaz, Arshia Khan, Adriana Seelye
The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Daniel Schmidtke, Sandra Ammersdörfer, Marine Joly, Elke Zimmermann
A recent study suggests that a specific, touchscreen-based task on visual object-location paired-associates learning (PAL), the so-called Different PAL (dPAL) task, allows effective translation from animal models to humans. Here, we adapted the task to a nonhuman primate (NHP), the gray mouse lemur, and provide first evidence for the successful comparative application of the task to humans and NHPs. Young human adults reach the learning criterion after considerably less sessions (one order of magnitude) than young, adult NHPs, which is likely due to faster and voluntary rejection of ineffective learning strategies in humans and almost immediate rule generalization...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Suhan Senova, Antoine Chaillet, Andres M Lozano
Pharmacological neuromodulation strategies have shown limited efficacy in treating memory deficits related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite encouraging results from a few preclinical studies, clinical trials investigating open-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) for AD have not been successful. Recent refinements in understanding the various phases of memory processes, animal studies investigating phase-specific modulation of hippocampal activity during memorization, and clinical studies using closed-loop DBS strategies to treat patients with movement disorders, all point to the need to investigate closed-loop fornical DBS strategies to better understand memory dynamics and potentially treat memory deficits in AD preclinical models...
May 4, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Matteo Valsecchi, Natale Stucchi, Lisa Scocchia
We investigated how the approximate perceived numerosity of ensembles of visual elements is modulated by the numerosity of previously viewed ensembles depending on whether the first ensemble is held in visual working memory or not. We show that the numerosity of the previously seen ensemble has a repulsive effect, that is, a stimulus with high numerosity induces an underestimation of the following one and vice versa. This repulsive effect is present regardless of whether the first stimulus is memorized or not...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Charlene Williams, Susan Perlis, John Gaughan, Sangita Phadtare
Learner-centered pedagogical methods that are based on clinical application of basic science concepts through active learning and problem solving are shown to be effective for improving knowledge retention. As the clinical relevance of biochemistry is not always apparent to health-profession students, effective teaching of medical biochemistry should highlight the implications of biochemical concepts in pathology, minimize memorization, and make the concepts memorable for long-term retention. Here, we report the creation and successful implementation of a flipped jigsaw activity that was developed to stimulate interest in learning biochemistry among medical students...
May 6, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Hannah Hausman, Matthew G Rhodes
Prior research suggests that people can learn more from reading a text when they attempt to answer pretest questions first. Specifically, pretests on factual information explicitly stated in a text increases the likelihood that participants can answer identical questions after reading than if they had not answered pretest questions. Yet, a central goal of education is to develop deep conceptual understanding. The present experiments investigated whether conceptual pretests facilitate learning concepts from reading texts...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Meng Zhang, Lin Liu
To unravel the true nature of glass transition, broader insights into glass forming have been gained by examining the stress-driven glassy systems, where strong shear thinning, i.e., a reduced viscosity under increasing shear rate, is encountered. It is argued that arbitrarily small stress-driven shear rates would "melt" the glass and erase any memory of its thermal history. In this work, we report a glass transition memorized by the enthalpy-entropy compensation in strongly shear-thinned supercooled metallic liquids, which coincides with the thermal glass transition in both the transition temperature and the activation Gibbs free energy...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Theresa K Kelly, Somayeh Ahmadiantehrani, Adam Blattler, Sarah E London
Ethologists discovered over 100 years ago that some lifelong behavioural patterns were acquired exclusively during restricted developmental phases called critical periods (CPs). Developmental song learning in zebra finches is one of the most striking examples of a CP for complex learned behaviour. After post-hatch day 65, whether or not a juvenile male can memorize the song of a 'tutor' depends on his experiences in the month prior. If he experienced a tutor, he can no longer learn, but if he has been isolated from hearing a tutor the learning period is extended...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kevin Juang, Joel Greenstein
OBJECTIVE: We developed a new authentication system based on passphrases instead of passwords. Our new system incorporates a user-generated mnemonic picture displayed during login, definition tooltips, error correction to reduce typographical errors, a decoy-based input masking technique, and random passphrase generation using either a specialized wordlist or a sentence template. BACKGROUND: Passphrases exhibit a greater level of security than traditional passwords, but their wider adoption has been hindered by human factors issues...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
William R Aue, Jessica M Fontaine, Amy H Criss
What properties of a word make it easy or difficult to remember? Word frequency and context variability are separate, closely related word properties that have disparate influences on memorability. The influence of word frequency changes depending on the memory task, with high-frequency words tending to be recalled better and low-frequency words to be recognized better. Conversely, low-context-variability words tend to be remembered better across tasks. One proposed explanation for the low-variability advantage is that low-variability words are easier to associate with the experimental context, given that they are associated with fewer extra-experimental contexts...
April 30, 2018: Memory & Cognition
C Ferrari, Z Cattaneo, V Oldrati, L Casiraghi, F Castelli, E D'Angelo, T Vecchi
Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum is not only involved in motor functions, but it significantly contributes to sensory and cognitive processing as well. In particular, it has been hypothesized that the cerebellum identifies recurrent serial events and recognizes their violations. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the role of the cerebellum in short-term memory of visual sequences. In two experiments, we found that TMS over the right cerebellar hemisphere impaired participants' ability to recognize the correct order of appearance of geometrical stimuli varying in shape and/or size...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yue Zhao, Hoi Kei Kuan, Joyce O K Chung, Cecilia K Y Chan, William H C Li
BACKGROUND: The investigation of learning approaches in the clinical workplace context has remained an under-researched area. Despite the validation of learning approach instruments and their applications in various clinical contexts, little is known about the extent to which an individual item, that reflects a specific learning strategy and motive, effectively contributes to characterizing students' learning approaches. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to measure nursing students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum using the Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire (ALWQ)...
April 16, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Lison Fanuel, Gaën Plancher, Noé Monsaingeon, Barbara Tillmann, Sophie Portrat
The present study investigated the time course of refreshing in young and old adults by analyzing the influence of memory load on response times for the processing of concurrent information. One to five squares sequentially displayed in random locations had to be memorized. Before the serial recall of the squares' locations, participants performed self-paced parity judgments on sequentially presented numbers. Trials without squares-not requiring memorization, but only parity judgments-constituted the control condition...
April 30, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Majdi Chaari, Afef Fekih, Abdennour C Seibi, Jalel Ben Hmida
The ability to train a network without memorizing the input/output data, thereby allowing a good predictive performance when applied to unseen data, is paramount in ANN applications. In this paper, we propose a frequency-domain approach to evaluate the network initialization in terms of quality of training, i.e., generalization capabilities. As an alternative to the conventional time-domain methods, the proposed approach eliminates the approximate nature of network validation using an excess of unseen data...
April 16, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Sebastian Schneegans, Paul M Bays
Short-term memories are thought to be maintained in the form of sustained spiking activity in neural populations. Decreases in recall precision observed with increasing number of memorized items can be accounted for by a limit on total spiking activity, resulting in fewer spikes contributing to the representation of each individual item. Longer retention intervals likewise reduce recall precision, but it is unknown what changes in population activity produce this effect. One possibility is that spiking activity becomes attenuated over time, such that the same mechanism accounts for both effects of set size and retention duration...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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