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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161567/the-biology-of-rem-sleep
#1
REVIEW
John Peever, Patrick M Fuller
Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160555/the-effect-of-sleep-disorders-sedating-medications-and-depression-on-cognitive-processing-therapy-outcomes-a-fuzzy-set-qualitative-comparative-analysis
#2
Patricia L Haynes, Sarah E Emert, Dana Epstein, Suzanne Perkins, Sairam Parthasarathy, James Wilcox
Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an effortful process requiring engagement in cognitive restructuring. Sleep disorders may lead to avoidance of effortful tasks and cognitive performance deficits. We explored whether sleep disorders, as assessed by polysomnography, were consistently associated with treatment response in combination with other factors. This study included 32 U.S. veterans who were examined both before and after CPT for combat-related PTSD. We employed a novel, case-comparative technique, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), to identify combinations of fuzzy and crisp factors (recipes) that achieve a clinically significant outcome...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160415/interregional-correlations-of-glucose-metabolism-between-the-basal-ganglia-and-different-cortical-areas-an-ultra-high-resolution-pet-mri-fusion-study-using-18f-fdg
#3
J H Kim, Y D Son, J M Kim, H K Kim, Y B Kim, C Lee, C H Oh
Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158955/correlation-of-self-reported-outcome-measures-and-the-selective-functional-movement-assessment-sfma-an-exploration-of-validity
#4
Mark Riebel, Michael Crowell, Jeffrey Dolbeer, Eliza Szymanek, Don Goss
Background/Purpose: The Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA) is a clinical model used to assist diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders by identifying dysfunctions in movement patterns. Based on the premise that addressing movement dysfunction is associated with an improvement in patient outcomes, the validity of the SFMA would be strengthened by observed improvement in self-reported function being associated with change in movement patterns. The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of the SFMA by determining if a correlation exists between a change in self-reported outcome measures and attributes of the assessment...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158954/the-relationship-between-segmental-rolling-ability-and-lumbar-multifidus-activation-time
#5
Nicole Clark, Michael L Voight, Ashley M Campbell, Sherry Pierce, Pat Sells, Ryan Cook, Clint Henley, Lindsey Schiller
Background: Segmental rolling has been utilized as an assessment and intervention tool to identify and affect dysfunction of the upper quarter, core, and lower quarter. One theory to explain dysfunctional segmental rolling is a lack of segmental spinal control / stabilization. Faulty muscle firing sequencing has been related to poor spinal stability, however to date, no assessment tool exists to evaluate a patient's motor coordination of local and global musculature. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal sequence of lumbar multifidus activation associated with anterior deltoid activation, and to determine if faulty sequencing was associated with the inability to segmentally roll in subjects without mobility restrictions...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158952/the-impact-of-attentional-focus-on-the-treatment-of-musculoskeletal-and-movement-disorders
#6
Christopher Hunt, Arsenio Paez, Eric Folmar
Treatment plans employed by physical therapists involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation may follow a conventional medical-model approach, isolating care at the tissue level but neglecting consideration for neurocognitive contributions to recovery. Understanding and integration of motor learning concepts into physical therapy practice is integral for influencing the human movement system in the most effective manner. One such motor learning concept is the use of verbal instruction to influence the attentional focus of the learner...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157811/bud-extracts-from-salix-caprea-l-inhibit-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-and-catecholamines-secretion-in-mouse-chromaffin-cells
#7
Chiara Calorio, Dario Donno, Claudio Franchino, Valentina Carabelli, Andrea Marcantoni
BACKGROUND: Salix caprea L. is an ornamental plant with prominent antioxidant activity. In the last decades Salix caprea bud extracts (SCBEs) have been used for the treatment of oxidative stress related disorders. PURPOSE: A large part of cellular functions depends on the amount of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration which in turn is mainly determined by Ca(2+) ions movements across plasma membrane as well as by Ca(2+) released from the stores. For better evaluating the mechanism of action of SCBEs, we focused on the effect of SCBEs on voltage gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) functioning and related catecholamines secretion in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs)...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157804/anti-parkinsonian-effects-of-%C3%AE-amyrin-are-regulated-via-lgg-1-involved-autophagy-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Chia-Cheng Wei, Chun-Han Chang, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is associated with aging and is characterized as a movement disorder. Currently, there is still no complete therapy for PD. In recent years, the identification and characterization of medicinal plants to cure or treat PD has gained increasing scientific interest. PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, β-amyrin, which is found in many medicinal plants for its anti-Parkinsonian effects, using Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157315/botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections-as-monotherapy-for-upper-limb-essential-tremor-using-kinematics
#9
Olivia Samotus, Niraj Kumar, Philippe Rizek, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: There is a significant need for a targeted therapy for essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET, and the ones prescribed are often not well-tolerated, so that many patients remain untreated. Recent work has shown that, unlike previous experience, kinematically guided individualized botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections provide benefit along with minimal weakness. Ours is the first long-term (96-week) safety and efficacy study of BoNT-A as monotherapy for ET using kinematically driven injection parameters...
November 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156690/abnormal-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-associated-with-rapid-eye-movement-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-patients
#10
Qian Ran, Jia Chen, Chuan Li, Li Wen, Faguo Yue, Tongsheng Shu, Jianxun Mi, Guangxian Wang, Lei Zhang, Dong Gao, Dong Zhang
Purpose: Chronic primary insomnia (CPI) is the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide. CPI manifests as difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, and daytime impairment and is often accompanied by cognitive problems such as poor academic performance, poor attention, and decreased memory. The most popular explanation of insomnia is hyperarousal or increased activities of neurons. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep detected by polysomnography (PSG) exhibits a positive relationship with brain homeostasis and can be helpful for optimally preparing an organism for emotional and social function...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155762/high-throughput-analysis-of-locomotor-behavior-in-the-drosophila-island-assay
#11
Ilse Eidhof, Michaela Fenckova, Dei M Elurbe, Bart van de Warrenburg, Anna Castells Nobau, Annette Schenck
Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies contribute to the identification of (candidate) disease genes for movement disorders and other neurological diseases at an increasing speed. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie these disorders. The genetic, molecular, and behavioral toolbox of Drosophila melanogaster makes this model organism particularly useful to characterize new disease genes and mechanisms in a high-throughput manner. Nevertheless, high-throughput screens require efficient and reliable assays that, ideally, are cost-effective and allow for the automatized quantification of traits relevant to these disorders...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155752/sagittal-plane-kinematic-gait-analysis-in-c57bl-6-mice-subjected-to-mog35-55-induced-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Maximillian Dj Fiander, Matthew Aj Chedrawe, Anna-Claire Lamport, Turgay Akay, George S Robertson
Kinematic gait analysis in the sagittal plane has frequently been used to characterize motor deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe the application of these techniques to identify gait deficits in a mouse model of MS, known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Paralysis and motor deficits in mice subjected to EAE are typically assessed using a clinical scoring scale. However, this scale yields only ordinal data that provides little information about the precise nature of the motor deficits...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155342/predictors-before-and-after-multimodal-rehabilitation-for-pain-acceptance-and-engagement-in-activities-at-a-one-year-follow-up-for-patients-with-whiplash-associated-disorders-wad-a-study-based-on-the-swedish-quality-registry-for-pain-rehabilitation-sqrp
#13
Anne Söderlund, Monika Löfgren, Britt-Marie Stålnacke
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that pain acceptance strategies related to psychological flexibility are important in the presence of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, the predictors of these strategies have not been studied extensively in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to predict chronic pain acceptance and engagement in activities at one-year follow-up with pain intensity, fear of movement, perceived responses from significant others, outcome expectancies, and demographic variables in patients with WAD before and after multimodal rehabilitation (MMR)...
November 16, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154293/the-changing-landscape-of-parkinson-epidemiologic-research
#14
Honglei Chen
Despite recent successes in understanding the genetics of Parkinson's disease (PD), the causes of late-onset sporadic PD remain elusive. Many of the epidemiologic findings on PD etiology have been challenged by alternative explanations such as reverse causation. This is mainly because PD often takes decades to develop before it can be diagnosed late in life. Convincing evidence shows that this prodromal stage of PD is characterized by various prodromal symptoms such as olfactory impairment and rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154262/review-of-scapular-movement-disorders-among-office-workers-having-ergonomic-risk
#15
Ö Depreli, E Angın
BACKGROUND: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most common health problems which affect millions of office workers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine scapular positioning at rest and different anatomical planes, the assessment of pain, postural changes and the functionality of upper extremity that is caused by the lack of ergonomic principles among office workers of civil servants in TRNC (Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus). METHODS: One hundred and eighty-three individuals participated in the study and 2 groups were created by grand scores of Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153996/clinical-presentation-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-and-anti-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies-in-children-a-series-of-24-cases
#16
Bahadir Konuskan, Mirac Yildirim, Haluk Topaloglu, Ilknur Erol, Ulkuhan Oztoprak, Huseyin Tan, Rahsan Gocmen, Banu Anlar
OBJECTIVE: The symptomatology and paraclinical findings of antibody-mediated encephalitis, a relatively novel disorder, are still being characterized in adults and children. A high index of suspicion is needed in order to identify these cases among children presenting with various neurological symptoms. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical, demographic and laboratory findings and outcome of children with anti-NMDAR and anti-VGKC encephalitis for any typical or distinctive features...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153981/movement-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-algerian-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
S A Hatteb, S Daoudi
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system. Except for cerebellar tremor, occurence of other movement disorders remains rare. Our study aimed to evaluate their prevalence in our population of patients with multiple sclerosis, and to compare it with literature data. Our results showed higher prevalence compared to European studies, raising the question of mechanisms of the disorder. MRI correlation was also studied, in 3 cases over 8 and a possible correlation was found...
November 16, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153236/nonsurgical-management-of-pediatric-temporomandibular-joint-dysfunction
#18
REVIEW
Steven John Scrivani, Shehryar Nasir Khawaja, Paula Furlan Bavia
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a subgroup of craniofacial pain problems involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated head and neck musculoskeletal structures. These disorders are subclassified into TMJ articular disorders and masticatory muscle disorders. Patients with TMD most commonly present with pain, restricted or asymmetric mandibular motion, and TMJ sounds during mandibular movements. The prevalence tends to increase with age. Management of TMJ articular disorders consists of a combination of patient education, home-care plan, biobehavioral therapy, physical therapy, orthotic jaw appliance therapy, pharmacotherapy, and/or surgery...
February 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152685/cerebral-palsy-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Sheffali Gulati, Vishal Sondhi
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormalities of muscle tone, movement and motor skills, and is attributed to injury to the developing brain. The clinical features of this entity evolve over time and the specific CP syndrome may be recognizable only after 3-5 y of age; although suggestive signs and symptoms may be present at an earlier age. The management involves neurological rehabilitation (addressing muscle tonal abnormalities, and devising physical and occupational therapies) and diagnosis and management of co-morbidities (including epilepsy, impairment of cognition, vision, hearing, and disturbances of growth and gastrointestinal function)...
November 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152666/neuroanatomical-background-and-functional-considerations-for-stereotactic-interventions-in-the-h-fields-of-forel
#20
REVIEW
Clemens Neudorfer, Mohammad Maarouf
The H fields of Forel constitute an intricate neuroanatomical structure that occupies a central position within the posterior subthalamus. Anatomically, it features a dense concentration of fiber bundles including corticofugal, pallidothalamic, cerebellothalamic and other projections that connect functionally relevant areas of the brain. Functionally, the fields of Forel are embedded within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit and constitute the main link between the striatopallidal system and the thalamocortical network...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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