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Hannah Gordon Leker, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
Previous evidence has identified potential racial disparities in access to community water and sewer service in peri-urban areas adjacent to North Carolina municipalities. We performed the first quantitative, multi-county analysis of these disparities. Using publicly available data, we identified areas bordering municipalities and lacking community water and/or sewer service in 75 North Carolina counties. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between race and access to service in peri-urban areas, controlling for population density, median home value, urban status, and percent white in the adjacent municipality...
2018: PloS One
John T Doyle, Larry Kindness, James Realbird, Margaret J Eggers, Anne K Camper
Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Drug use during pregnancy constitutes a major preventable worldwide public health issue. Birth defects, growth retardation and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with tobacco, alcohol or drugs of abuse exposure during pregnancy. Besides these adverse health effects, drug use during pregnancy also raises legal and social concerns. Identification and quantification of drug markers in maternal and newborn biological samples offers objective evidence of exposure and complements maternal questionnaires...
March 21, 2018: Bioanalysis
Darius M Moshfeghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the common areas of medicolegal risk during retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. RECENT FINDINGS: Most malpractice risk in ROP comes from systemic errors that ultimately result in failure to screen the patient in a timely fashion, resulting in failures to intervene and/or refer in a timely fashion. Currently, the emphasis is engaging the family members, the hospital staff, and clinic staff to pro-actively manage ROP patients and ensure that they are screened in a timely fashion...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
V Capo-Chichi, E Ouendo, F Champagne
As part of the fight against HIV-AIDS, an effort was made at the ethical component, namely that there are legal texts, institutional and ethical. There are ethics committees (three) that give reasoned opinions on study protocols and are endeavoring to raise awareness of the actors. But we note that there is not yet a real ownership and adoption of ethical practice by them. This study targeted research projects on HIV-AIDS and centers supported PLHIV in order to analyze ethical issues : 1) the method of recruitment of participants and beneficiaries ; 2) obtaining informed consent from them ; 2) measures of confidentiality and anonymity ; 3) the integrity of staff of these projects and centers and conflicts of interest...
May 22, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
N M Kedoté, A Salami, J P Tsala Tsala, M A Grimaud, M Bergeron, Benjamin Fayomi
This paper presents the overview of the legal and institutional frameworks of research with human beings in sub-Saharan Africa, in particular in Benin, Cameroon and Nigeria. Concerning the methodology, a literature review focused on the regulations of institutional frameworks was done. Then, 28 semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of ethics committees to assess their composition and their mode of operation. Finally, we describe the existing courses in research ethics included in programs of first, second and third cycles in major universities from concerned countries...
May 22, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Philip Thierno Mbaye
With the evolution of new technologies, ensuring the protection of the patient's rights becomes more and more difficult. The new methods of diagnosis and treatment of the disease although powerful, have finally get throught the patient deep inside his intimacy, requiring a real legal framework in order to preserve medical confidentiality. The apprehension that is made of it depends on the social and cultural realities of the geographical framework in which one can situate oneself. While it is true that in Western societies the legal consecration and the application of medical secrecy has been the subject of numerous jurisprudence, this is not the case in African societies where the notion of secrecy is perceived otherwise...
May 22, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Claire Joachim, Laurène Mazeau
Modern law is composed dominantly of new fields of complex legislations such as biotechnologies laws, environmental laws or intellectual property. But a particular legal area stigmatizes more than the others this increasing complexity: the water protection laws.Due to its origins deeply established in the European culture, but also due to ethical, political, economical and social issues, water protection laws appear to be the typical representation of links between risk and complexity. The European water protection law is deeply complex on two scales...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Aurélie Mahalatchimy, Anne-Marie Duguet
To encourage and maximise the use of human biological material in Europe, the European Commission instigated a main Directive in 2004 (Directive 2004/23/EC), four technical ones in 2006 (Commission Directives 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC) and in 2015 (Commission Directives (EU) 2015/565 and (EU) 2015/566). They encourage the donation of tissues and cells for transplant purposes in the safeguard of public health. Another major aim of Directive 2004/23/EC is to guarantee recipients' safety in transplantation. Hence, measures for accreditation of establishments storing, preparing and distributing tissues and cells are required to be implemented in Members States' jurisdictions...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Nathalie Devillier
In the field of health, IoT devices, mobile apps, and online communities generate an enormous amount of data. However, health data benefit from a precise legal definition and protection as sensitive data, whereas well-being data have no specific legal regime. Since those data may contribute to identify individuals' health status, there are potential breaches to confidentiality and privacy. Recent European cases (ECHR and ECJ) reaffirms citizens' fundamental rights to privacy and family life, and to an effective remedy...
October 27, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag
The use of health data is increasingly seen as a central issue for research and also for care. The generation of these data is an added value for the conduct of large-scale studies, it is even considered as an (r) evolution in the methodology of research or even for personalized medicine. Several factors have influenced the acceleration in the use of health data (advances in genetics, technology and diversification of sources) leading to a re-questioning of the legal principles for the protection of health data in both French law and European law...
October 27, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Israël Nisand
The status of the embryo has kept evolving in our minds since we have been able to see it, examine it in detail, determine its normality and competence and above all since we have been able to care for it in utero. The embryo and the fœtus have become patients. But not entirely like others. If they are too ill, we have the right to end their lives, active euthanasia, which is not possible in other branches of medicine. The legal status of the embryo and the fœtus, which is constantly evolving, cannot be confused with the essence of the embryo and the fœtus which is of a philosophical, even theological, nature, but certainly not legal...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Alexandra Mendoza-Caminade
Although research on human biological material has long been the subject of much controversy, the question of the embryo is an extremely delicate subject.Concerns are strong about the possibilities of conducting research on embryonic matter, and the difficulties in defining the legal rules applicable to the embryo are also found in research and intellectual property. The field of patentability depends on the notion retained about the embryo because of a principle prohibiting the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Xavier Bioy, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag
The bioethics laws since their first adoption in 1994 until the latest proposals, have been widely commented and analyzed, regarding the provisions related to the legal qualification and the legal status of the embryo and of the embryonic stem cells. The legal issues raised by these hesitations imply instability for both researchers and health professionals about what they can and cannot do when it comes to the embryo and its cells. Thus, while the protection of the embryo was the subject of a consensus until the end of the 2000s, it now appears as the object of a political will, from researchers and state agencies, to support this research...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Daniel Vigneau
For a long time, the legal condition of the child conceived, the embryo or the human fœtus, to use the language of biomedicine, was dominated by two main principles : one, having its roots in Roman law, made it possible to count it, by anticipation, among beings with a legal existence, so as to grant it its rights, as if it was already born (the infans conceptus maxim) : the other, protecting its life in utero, and so its chances of being born, by the penal incrimination of abortion. The legalisation of abortion by the ?Veil? law of 17 January 1975 upset this traditional approach of the law...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Bérengère Legros
The hesitations on the legal classification of the embryo lead to the doctrinal realization, that there is a certainty about its status, or, that it hasn't got any which allows the creator of the standard to reify it.The access to the claims which are based on specific interests seem to be at the heart of justifications to new legal rules concerning the embryo, even if It seems there are underlying specific interests.Confronted to the state disengagement in favour of these interests, the embryo, as far as French law is concerned, the embryo falls only under a limited protection which is destined to lose authority...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Astrid Marais
By allowing a woman to terminate the life of the embryo, the law of 17 January 1975 leads us to ask the question about how to qualify the embryo. Is it a thing or a person ? Subordinate to the birth of a viable, living being, the embryo can have no acknowledged legal personality. Its particularity must nevertheless be noted : it is the only thing in law that is likely to become a person. So, conjugated in the present (The reality of the present : the embryo is a thing), the embryo is without doubt a thing.This qualification is implicit and results from an a contrario interpretation of article 16 CC...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Wanda Mastor
On the boundaries of life and, as a result, almost a question of metaphysics, still dividing science and continually fuelling debates, one question does seem to be legally insoluble, ie the question of the status of the human embryo. A comparatist look allows us to put into perspective the various national postures with regard to the embryo in order to confront them, by putting forward the areas where they converge or diverge. Although a very global approach allows us to note certain similarities, a more precise study of the question of abortion in particular reflects the evidence of the contextualisation of the embryo...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Claire Neirinck
The legal qualification of the embryo does not pose any particular difficulties : this human being is a bodily thing of human nature, devoid of legal personality.However the freezing affects its humanity : it is no more than a thing made in laboratory, out of time. Stored in liquid nitrogen, it does not die, so storage must be ended.As long as they respond to a specific parental project, the one for which they were made and kept, the frozen embryos are identified by this given project.They are unique and not interchangeable...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Martina Larsson, Pollyanna Cohen, Gayle Hann, Sarah M Creighton, Deborah Hodes
This pilot study researched the attitudes towards and the knowledge of female genital mutilation (FGM) in adult women with FGM and their partners. The participant population consisted of English-speaking women and men over 18 years old attending specialist FGM clinics in two London hospitals. The participants completed a questionnaire on the attitudes and the knowledge of FGM, which were adapted with permission from the United Nations Children's Fund and the United States Agency for International Development household surveys...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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