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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651146/the-effects-of-drinking-and-driving-laws-on-car-crashes-injuries-and-deaths-evidence-from-chile
#1
Sebastián Otero, Tomás Rau
This paper analyzes the effects of lowering the legal blood alcohol content limit for drivers from 0.05 to 0.03 grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood (g/dL) and increasing license suspension periods for offenders. We take advantage of a rich data set of administrative records that allow us to identify direct measures of accidents involving alcohol including fatalities and injuries. Results show a significant decrease of 32% in alcohol-related car accidents right after the law was approved but the effects moderate over time (15% after three years)...
June 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649065/poor-adherence-with-ace-inhibitors-is-a-risk-factor-of-cva-with-oral-hypoglycemic-agents-in-diabetic-patients
#2
Muhammad Tariq Aftab, Hasnain Abbas Dharamshi, Ahmed Faraz, Saba Shakeel, Osama Shakeel
Poor adherence with medicine declines the clinical outcome of pharmacotherapy. It may carry serious sequelae especially in case of antihypertensive drugs like cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This study has been planned to find the association of poor adherence with anti-hypertensive with CVA in diabetic and non- diabetic patients. One hundred CVA patients who were admitted through Emergency in Abbasi Shaheed hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, were recruited from Jun 2013 till Dec 2013. The criteria of inclusion was, diagnosed case of CVA, with primary hypertension, availability of patient's therapeutic record, consent of the patient or legal successor/heir...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648353/healthcare-contact-and-treatment-uptake-following-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-and-counseling-among-rural-appalachian-people-who-use-drugs
#3
Dustin B Stephens, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since 2009, Kentucky has led the United States in cases of acute HCV, driven largely by injection drug use in rural areas. Improved treatment regimens hold promise of mitigating the impact and transmission of HCV, but numerous barriers obstruct people who inject drugs (PWID) from receiving care, particularly in medically underserved settings. METHODS: 503 rural people who use drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and received HCV screening and post-test counseling...
June 22, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648227/the-management-privacy-and-medico-legal-issues-of-electronic-cpap-data-in-australia-and-new-zealand-electronic-cpap-data-management-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#4
John Swieca, Garun S Hamilton, Hailey Meaklim
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). CPAP monitoring systems allow tracking of patient CPAP adherence and treatment efficacy, by measuring residual sleep-disordered breathing, hours of CPAP use, and mask leak etc. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) published a position paper in 2013 highlighting issues of interpreting CPAP data such as a lack of consistency between CPAP manufacturers data algorithms, legal implications of CPAP data and implications for CPAP adherence...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648190/-drug-use-and-addictive-practices-in-france
#5
François Beck
In terms of drug use, legal substances, namely tobacco and alcohol, are the most commonly consumed. Cannabis is the most widely consumed illegal substance, followed by cocaine with ten times fewer users, far ahead of other products. This broad overview conceals numerous nuances explored by the French drug and drug addiction watch.
June 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648162/-treatment-of-acute-pain-in-opioid-addicts
#6
Henrik Rindom, Jette Højsted, Nina Brünés
The challenge of managing acute pain in opioid-addicted patients is a question of fully understanding the pharmacological effects of the illegal drugs and to prevent overdosing or withdrawal symptoms. It requires a thorough knowledge of the patient's daily consumption of legal and illegal drugs and an understanding obtained through an accepting and empathetic communication with the patient. Substitution management aims to prevent opioid withdrawal symptoms and is not a means of managing pain. When planning the pain management the patient must receive at least 25% of the daily methadone dose, recalculated into equipotent substitute morphine...
June 26, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647725/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients-and-cardiologists-experiences-of-the-informed-consent-process-in-northern-england-a-qualitative-study
#7
Joy Probyn, Joanne Greenhalgh, Janet Holt, Dwayne Conway, Felicity Astin
OBJECTIVE: Informed consent is central to ethical medical practice, but little is known about how the process takes place in clinical practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common revascularisation procedure. Studies report that patients overestimate benefits, forget the risks and are unaware of alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to describe PCI patients' and cardiologists' experiences of the informed consent process in acute care settings. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A qualitative study with a maximum variation sample of elective and acute PCI patients and cardiologists taking their consent, recruited from a district general hospital and tertiary centre...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647703/selling-a-gun-to-a-stranger-without-a-background-check-acceptable-behaviour
#8
David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael, Matthew Miller
OBJECTIVE: One way that guns get into the wrong hands is via gun sales without a background check. While the large majority of Americans support laws requiring universal background checks, no prior study has assessed whether Americans think it is acceptable behaviour to sell a gun to a stranger without a background check, whether or not there is a law against it. METHODS: We sponsored a nationally representative survey of over 3900 American adults, oversampling gun owners, using an online panel provided by the survey firm Growth for Knowledge...
June 24, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646808/traditional-uyghur-medicine-concepts-historical-perspective-and-modernization
#9
Adelijang Wusiman, Saifuding Abula, Mikeremu Shayibuzhati, Xiaoying Zhang
Context • Traditional Uyghur medicine (TUM) is rooted in ancient Uyghur medical theory that was developed with the combined essence of different traditional medicines, such as Han Chinese, Egyptian, ancient Greek, Arabian, Persian, and Indian medicines. Modern experimental methods and technologies for disease diagnoses have accelerated the modernization of Uyghur medicine. Objective • The research team intended to compile a comprehensive introduction to TUM and to determine the current state of research in the field to establish a basis for future modernization of Uygur medicine...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646668/%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-aspergillus-lacticoffeatus-a-promising-biocatalyst-for-the-synthesis-of-novel-prebiotics
#10
Beatriz B Cardoso, Sara C Silvério, Luís Abrunhosa, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes able to catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer reactions to produce lactose-based prebiotics with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus is described, for the first time, as an effective β-galactosidase producer. The extracellular enzyme production was evaluated in synthetic and alternative media containing cheese whey and corn steep liquor. Although β-galactosidase production occurred in all media (expect for the one composed solely by cheese whey), the highest enzymatic activity values (460U/mL) were obtained for the synthetic medium...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646400/a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#11
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
Humans make moral judgments every day, and research demonstrates that these evaluations are based on a host of related event features (e.g., harm, legality). In order to acquire systematic data on how moral judgments are made, our assessments need to be expanded to include real-life, ecologically valid stimuli that take into account the numerous event features that are known to influence moral judgment. To facilitate this, Knutson et al. (in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 378-384, 2010) developed vignettes based on real-life episodic memories rated concurrently on key moral features; however, the method is time intensive (~1...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646035/a-matter-of-life-and-death
#12
Justice Baker
Cases concerning the withdrawal or withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration from patients in a vegetative or minimally conscious state raise difficult medical, legal and ethical questions including the diagnosis and classification of disorders of consciousness, the legal processes to be followed, and the legal and ethical principles to be applied when making decisions. There is also an issue as to whether it is necessary or appropriate for such decisions to be taken by judges. This article, based on a lecture given in Oxford in October 2016, considers a number of these issues and concludes that any consideration of the question from the patient's point of view must include an objective analysis of what is in his or her best interests, as well as subjective expressions of wishes and feelings...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645062/acute-and-chronic-alcohol-use-correlated-with-methods-of-suicide-in-a-swiss-national-sample
#13
P Pfeifer, C Bartsch, A Hemmer, T Reisch
OBJECTIVES: Chronic and acute alcohol use are highly associated risk factors for suicides worldwide. Therefore, we examined suicide cases with and without alcohol use disorder (AUD) using data from the SNSF project "Suicide in Switzerland: A detailed national survey". Our investigations focus on correlations between acute and chronic alcohol use with reference to suicide and potential interactions with the methods of suicide. METHODS: We used data from the SNSF project in which all cases of registered completed suicide in Switzerland reported to any of the seven Swiss institutes of legal and forensic medicine between 2000 and 2010 were collected...
June 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644742/new-legal-requirements-for-submission-of-product-information-to-poisons-centres-in-eu-member-states
#14
Ronald de Groot, Pieter Brekelmans, Herbert Desel, Irma de Vries
In the past eight years, the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has been intensively involved in a European Commission led process to develop EU legislation on the information of hazardous products that companies have to notify to EU Poisons Centres (or equivalent "appointed bodies"). As a result of this process, the Commission adopted Regulation (EU) No 2017/542, amending the CLP Regulation by adding an Annex on harmonised product submission requirements. Harmonised mixture information requirements: Detailed and consistent information on the composition of the hazardous product will become available to EU Poisons Centres (PC)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644738/national-survey-and-analysis-of-barriers-to-the-utilisation-of-the-2005-mental-capacity-act-by-people-with-bipolar-disorder-in-england-and-wales
#15
Richard Morriss, Mohan Mudigonda, Peter Bartlett, Arun Chopra, Steven Jones
BACKGROUND: The Mental Capacity Act (2005) (MCA) provides a legal framework for advance planning for both health and welfare in England and Wales for people if they lose mental capacity, for example, through mania or severe depression. AIMS: To determine the proportion of people with bipolar disorder (BD) who utilise advance planning, their experience of using it and barriers to its implementation. METHODS: National survey of people with clinical diagnosis of BD of their knowledge, use and experience of the MCA...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644589/when-do-we-think-it-is-safe-to-drive-after-hand-surgery-current-practice-and-legal-perspective
#16
S F Murphy, J D Martin-Smith, W Martin-Smith, E O'Broin, A J P Clover
Patients recovering from hand surgery frequently ask when it is safe to drive and it is unclear where the responsibility lies; the surgeon, the patient or the insurance company. An eight-question survey looking at various aspects of clinical practice was circulated to consultant and trainee plastic and orthopaedic surgeons in Ireland and the UK. Of the 89 surgeons who replied, (53%) felt the decision when to drive was the patient's compared with the insurance company (40%) and the surgeon (7%). 80% advised patients to contact their insurance company...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644427/mental-diseases-and-criminal-offences-committed-by-persons-placed-at-the-forensic-department-of-the-penitentiary-in-zenica-federation-of-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#17
Edin Bjelošević, Adisa Krehmić, Halima Hadžikapetanović, Sanel Čoralić, Sonja Bjelošević
Aim To investigate an impact of various biological, psychological and social factors on perpetration of criminal offences by persons with mental disorders and to examine legal requirements for placement of persons with mental disorders, who committed criminal offences. Methods This retrospective, descriptive study based on the analysis of data collected from records of the Zenica Penitentiary, Forensic Department (age, qualifications, employment status, marital status, mental disorders, information related to earlier treatments, type of committed criminal offense, duration of the security measure of mandatory psychiatric treatment and custody) included 154 examinees...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644057/the-implementation-of-medical-monitoring-programs-following-potentially-hazardous-exposures-a-medico-legal-perspective
#18
David Vearrier, Michael I Greenberg
CONTEXT: Clinical toxicologists may be called upon to determine the appropriateness of medical monitoring following documented or purported exposures to toxicants in the occupational, environmental, and medical settings. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database using the Ovid(®) search engine for the following terms cross-referenced to the MeSH database: ("occupational exposures" OR "environmental exposures") AND ("physiologic monitoring" OR "population surveillance")...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644037/lower-risk-cannabis-use-guidelines-a-comprehensive-update-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#19
Benedikt Fischer, Cayley Russell, Pamela Sabioni, Wim van den Brink, Bernard Le Foll, Wayne Hall, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common in North America, especially among young people, and is associated with a risk of various acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. Cannabis control regimes are evolving, for example toward a national legalization policy in Canada, with the aim to improve public health, and thus require evidence-based interventions. As cannabis-related health outcomes may be influenced by behaviors that are modifiable by the user, evidence-based Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG)-akin to similar guidelines in other health fields-offer a valuable, targeted prevention tool to improve public health outcomes...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643444/how-media-exposure-relates-to-laypersons-understanding-of-psychopathy
#20
Michael E Keesler, David DeMatteo
While conceptualization of psychopathy has evolved, so too has the public's relationship with psychology changed. Concurrently, portrayal of psychopaths has made several shifts, both through nonfiction sources and in popular film and television. Psychopathic villains of the mid-20th century have made space for a growing cast of protagonist psychopaths. This study examined whether a relationship existed between exposure to fictional psychopaths and how lay individuals conceptualize psychopathy. Specifically, this study explored conceptualization differences based on exposure to antagonist versus protagonist fictional psychopaths...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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