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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734347/different-approaches-to-study-protein-films-at-air-water-interface
#1
EDITORIAL
María José Gálvez-Ruiz
In this review classical studies on insoluble liquid monolayers formed by proteins are examined and compared. It has been focused the attention on the information that it is possible to obtain from the π-a isotherms recorded by compression of the monolayers. In recent decades new techniques have developed, mainly microscopy, that provide valuable information on the behavior and structure of fluid films. However, frequently the data are difficult to interpret and require a previous thermodynamic study of them on the basis of the surface tension (or surface pressure) as a function of the molecular area measurement...
July 15, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734207/in-silico-designing-of-therapeutic-protein-enriched-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-for-the-dietary-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#2
Sunil L, Prasanna Vasu
Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) account for 40-45% of total essential amino acids. BCAA stimulates protein synthesis primarily in skeletal muscles, and it can directly transport to circulatory blood stream bypassing the liver. Hence, a protein enriched with BCAA is an important therapeutic target for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease. The present study is to design a synthetic protein enriched with BCAA and the challenge is to maximize the BCAA content, keeping the balanced ratio of leucine, isoleucine, valine - 2: 1: 1...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733469/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-breast-cancer-and-bone-metastases-striking-the-right-balance
#3
Catherine Zabkiewicz, Jeyna Resaul, Rachel Hargest, Wen Jiang, Lin Ye
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-β super family, and are essential for regulation of foetal development, tissue differentiation and homeostasis, and a multitude of cellular functions. Naturally, this has led to the exploration of aberrance in this highly regulated system as a key factor in tumourigenesis. Originally identified for their role in osteogenesis and bone turnover, attention has been turned to the potential role of BMPs in tumour metastases to, and progression within, the bone niche...
July 21, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733457/role-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-in-sprouting-angiogenesis-differential-bmp-receptor-dependent-signaling-pathways-balance-stalk-vs-tip-cell-competence
#4
Andreas Benn, Christian Hiepen, Marc Osterland, Christof Schütte, An Zwijsen, Petra Knaus
Before the onset of sprouting angiogenesis, the endothelium is prepatterned for the positioning of tip and stalk cells. Both cell identities are not static, as endothelial cells (ECs) constantly compete for the tip cell position in a dynamic fashion. Here, we show that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 and BMP6 are proangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo and that the BMP type I receptors, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)3 and ALK2, play crucial and distinct roles in this process. BMP2 activates the expression of tip cell-associated genes, such as DLL4 (delta-like ligand 4) and KDR (kinase insert domain receptor), and p38-heat shock protein 27 (HSP27)-dependent cell migration, thereby generating tip cell competence...
July 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732066/inhibition-of-pulmonary-%C3%AE-carotene-15-15-oxygenase-expression-by-glucocorticoid-involves-ppar%C3%AE
#5
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. A balance between the actions of retinoids and glucocorticoids (GCs) promotes normal lung development and, in particular, alveolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#6
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731702/drude-polarizable-force-field-for-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-saturated-and-unsaturated-zwitterionic-lipids
#7
Hui Li, Janamejaya Chowdhary, Lei Huang, Xibing He, Alexander D MacKerell, Benoît Roux
Additive force fields are designed to account for induced electronic polarization in a mean-field average way using effective empirical fixed charges. The limitation of this approximation is cause for serious concerns, particularly in the case of lipid membranes, where the molecular environment undergoes dramatic variations over microscopic length scales. A polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator offers a practical and computationally efficient framework for an improved representation of electrostatic interactions in molecular simulations...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731682/cold-adaptation-of-triosephosphate-isomerase
#8
Johan Åqvist
The main problem for enzymes from psychrophilic species, that need to work near the freezing point of liquid water, is the exponential decay of reaction rates as the temperature is lowered. Cold-adapted enzymes have solved this problem by shifting the activation enthalpy-entropy balance for the catalyzed reaction compared to their mesophilic orthologs. To understand the structural basis of this universal feature it is necessary to examine pairs of such orthologous enzymes, with known 3D structures, at the microscopic level...
July 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731677/an-evaluation-of-optimal-pegylation-strategies-for-maximizing-the-lymphatic-exposure-and-antiviral-activity-of-interferon-after-subcutaneous-administration
#9
Linda J Chan, Orlagh M Feeney, Nathania J Leong, Victoria M Mcleod, Christopher J H Porter, Charlotte C Williams, Lisa M Kaminskas
Interferon α2 is an antiviral/antiproliferative protein that is currently used to treat hepatitis C infections and several forms of cancer. Two PEGylated variants of interferon α2 (containing 12 and 40 kDa PEGs) are currently marketed and display longer plasma circulation times than unmodified interferon. With increasing realization that the lymphatic system plays an important role in the extrahepatic replication of the hepatitis C virus and in the metastatic dissemination of cancers, this study sought to evaluate PEGylation strategies to optimally enhance the antiviral activity and plasma and lymphatic exposure of interferon after subcutaneous administration in rats...
July 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730509/effect-of-a-2000-m-running-test-on-antioxidant-and-cytokine-response-in-plasma-and-circulating-cells
#10
Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Lorena Funes, Miguel Sánchez-Martos, Pascual Martinez-Peinado, José M Sempere, Antoni Pons, Vicente Micol, Enrique Roche
Exercise intensity usually correlates with increased oxidative stress and enhanced cytokine production. However, it is unknown if all types of exercise that induce muscle damage can cause a parallel response in the oxidation balance and cytokine production. To this end, the effect of a 2000-m running test in a group of volunteers that regularly train in aerobic routines was studied. Different circulating parameters were measured, oxidative stress markers (protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzyme activity, and cytokine levels in plasma as well as in the main circulating cells of blood samples obtained in basal conditions and after test execution...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729444/an-atoh1-s193a-phospho-mutant-allele-causes-hearing-deficits-and-motor-impairment
#11
Wei Rose Xie, Hsin-I Jen, Michelle L Seymour, Szu-Ying Yeh, Fred A Pereira, Andrew K Groves, Tiemo J Klisch, Huda Y Zoghbi
Atoh1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is essential for the genesis, survival, and maturation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations, including those involved in proprioception, interoception, balance, respiration, and hearing. Such diverse functions require fine regulation at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here we show that serine 193 (S193) is phosphorylated in Atoh1's bHLH domain in vivo Knock-in mice of both sexes bearing a GFP-tagged phospho-dead S193A allele on a null background (Atoh1(S193A/lacZ) ) exhibit mild cerebellar foliation defects, motor impairments, and also partial pontine nucleus migration defects, cochlear hair cell degeneration, and profound hearing loss...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729416/cib2-negatively-regulates-oncogenic-signaling-in-ovarian-cancer-via-sphingosine-kinase-1
#12
Wenying Zhu, Kate E Jarman, Noor A Lokman, Heidi A Neubauer, Lorena T Davies, Briony L Gliddon, Houng Taing, Paul A B Moretti, Martin K Oehler, Melissa R Pitman, Stuart M Pitson
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a key regulator of the cellular balance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival sphingolipids. Oncogenic signaling by SK1 relies on its localization to the plasma membrane, which is mediated by the calcium and integrin binding protein CIB1 via its Ca(2+)-myristoyl switch function. Here we show that another member of the CIB family, CIB2, plays a surprisingly opposite role to CIB1 in the regulation of SK1 signalling. CIB2 bound SK1 on the same site as CIB1, yet it lacks the Ca(2+)-myristoyl switch function...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728855/tissue-plasminogen-activator-tpa-signal-sequence-enhances-immunogenicity-of-mva-based-vaccine-against-tuberculosis
#13
Yiming Kou, Yongqing Xu, Zhilei Zhao, Jie Liu, Yang Wu, Qingrui You, Linli Wang, Feng Gao, Linjun Cai, Chunlai Jiang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem worldwide, and the only available vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), has shown highly variable efficacy in adults against TB. New vaccines are urgently needed, and the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine has emerged as one of the most promising candidates based on many preclinical and early clinical studies over the past few years. However, the maximum tolerable dose and strength of induced immune responses have limited the protective effect of MVA-based prophylactic vaccines...
July 17, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728376/effect-of-condensed-tannins-containing-ficus-infectoria-and-psidium-guajava-leaf-meal-mixture-supplementation-on-nutrient-metabolism-methane-emission-and-performance-of-lambs
#14
A K Pathak, Narayan Dutta, A K Pattanaik, V B Chaturvedi, K Sharma
Objective: The study was conducted to examine the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) supplementation on nutrient metabolism, methane emission and performance of lambs. Methods: Twenty four lambs of ~ 6 months age (average body weight 10.1±0.60 kg) were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2 containing 0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 percent CT through LMM, respectively) consisting of 6 lambs each in a completely randomized design...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728363/effect-of-different-levels-of-protein-concentrates-supplementation-on-the-growth-performance-plasma-amino-acids-profile-and-mtor-cascade-genes-expression-in-early-weaned-yak-calves
#15
Quhani Peng, Nazir Ahmad Khan, B Xue, T H Yan, Z S Ahmad Wang
Objective: Yak is anone of the most important livestock species in the alpine-meadow grasslands of Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. WeThis study evaluated the effects of different levels of protein concentrate supplementation on the growth performance of yak calves, and correlated the growth rate to the changes occurring in the plasma- amino acids, and -insulin profile, and to the signaling activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade, in order to characterize the mechanism through which the protein synthesis can be improved in early weaned yaks...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727135/the-role-of-metalloproteinases-in-endometrial-remodelling-during-menstrual-cycle
#16
Barbara Grzechocińska, Filip Dąbrowski, Anna Cyganek, Grzegorz Panek, Mirosław Wielgoś
Endometrium is the only tissue in the human body subject to cyclic transformations under the influence of ovarian steroid hormones. As estradiol and progesterone balance throughout the physiological menstrual cycle changes, so does the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs). These endopeptides are responsible for keeping the balance between the process of synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, MMP's take part in sustaining physiological stability of the endometrium. A number of MMPs found in the endometrial tissue and their activity is related to menstrual cycle phase...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727059/dynamics-of-nitrogen-retention-at-two-feeding-levels-in-gestating-parity-2-and-3-sows
#17
E G Miller, C L Levesque, N L Trottier, C F M de Lange
Parity-2 ( = 39) and -3 ( = 28; same sows from parity-2 sows) Yorkshire sows were used to measure whole body protein deposition (Pd) during gestation (maternal and pregnancy-associated) at 2 feeding levels to test the hypothesis that the pattern of whole body and maternal Pd during gestation does not differ when feeding either 15% above or 15% below estimated ME requirements, both exceeding AA requirements. Initial BW and backfat (BF) at d 26 ± 0.3 of gestation were 195.4 ± 5.2 kg and 15.1 ± 0.5 mm, and 223...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727048/nutrient-composition-digestible-and-metabolizable-energy-content-and-prediction-of-energy-for-animal-protein-byproducts-in-finishing-pig-diets
#18
B J Kerr, R Jha, P E Urriola, G C Shurson
An industry survey and animal experiment were conducted to evaluate compositional variability and DE and ME content of animal protein byproducts and to generate equations to predict DE and ME content based on chemical analysis. For the 220 samples collected, the greatest concentration of CP was observed in blood meal (BM) and the least in meat and bone meal (MBM) and the greatest concentration of ether extract was in meat meal and the least in BM, with ash content greatest in MBM and least in BM, with Ca and P levels being 36...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726991/high-sulfate-water-consumption-determines-intake-and-metabolic-responses-to-protein-supplementation-in-lambs-consuming-low-quality-forage
#19
A López, J I Arroquy, A V Juárez Sequeira, N DiLorenzo, M C Barrionuevo, R A Distel
Twenty Hampshire lambs (31 ± 4 kg BW) in individual metabolism cages were used in a 10-treatment by 2-period ( = 4) trial to evaluate the interaction between protein supplementation and sulfate water on intake and metabolic responses when lambs were fed low-quality grass hay (; 6.4% CP, 79.5% NDF). The treatment structure was a 2 × 5 factorial: 2 water qualities (WQ; low-sulfate [LS] and high-sulfate [HS]; 442 and 8,358 mg/kg total dissolved solids, respectively) and 5 soybean meal levels (SBM; 0%, 0.25%, 0...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726929/sesamin-prevents-apoptosis-and-inflammation-after-experimental-myocardial-infarction-by-jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#20
Di Fan, Zheng Yang, Yuan Yuan, Qing-Qing Wu, Man Xu, Ya-Ge Jin, Qi-Zhu Tang
Myocardial infarction is a devastating event, especially when reperfusion is not performed. The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. This study focused on the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of sesamin on ligation of the left anterior descending artery in an experimental mouse model and the potential mechanism underlying the activation of JNK and NF-κB pathways. Mice with MI induced by surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation were treated with sesamin by gavage for 1 week...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
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