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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145563/neuronal-dnmt1-deficiency-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#1
Emily C Bruggeman, John T Garretson, Rui Wu, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue
Aberrant neuronal DNA methylation patterns have been implicated in the promotion of obesity development, but the role of neuronal DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts; enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation) in energy balance remains poorly understood. We investigated whether neuronal Dnmt1 regulates normal energy homeostasis and obesity development using a novel Dnmt1 knockout mouse model, Dnmt1fl/fl Synapsin1Cre (ND1KO), which specifically deletes Dnmt1 in neurons.Neuronal Dnmt1 deficiency reduced adiposity in chow-fed mice and attenuated obesity in HFD-fed male mice...
November 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143938/short-hairpin-rna-interference-targeting-interleukin-1-receptor-type-i-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-attenuates-hypertension-in-rats
#2
Peng Lu, Shu-Jun Jiang, Hong Pan, Ai-Li Xu, Gui-Hua Wang, Chun-Lei Ma, Zhen Shi
Blood pressure is controlled by tonic sympathetic activities, excessive activation of which contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension. Interleukin (IL)-1β in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is involved in sympathetic overdrive and hypertension. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) gene silencing in the PVN on hypertension. Recombinant lentivirus vectors expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting IL-1R1 (Lv-shR-IL-1R1) or a control shRNA were microinjected into PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive WKY rats...
November 16, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143882/enzymatic-properties-of-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidases
#3
REVIEW
Rui Zhang, Junpei Zhou, Zhifeng Song, Zunxi Huang
β-N-Acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases) hydrolyse N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides and proteins. These enzymes produce N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and have a wide range of promising applications in the food, energy, and pharmaceutical industries, such as synergistic degradation of chitin with endo-chitinases and using GlcNAc to produce sialic acid, bioethanol, single-cell proteins, and pharmaceutical therapeutics. GlcNAcases also play an important role in the dynamic balance of cellular O-linked GlcNAc levels, catabolism of ganglioside storage in Tay-Sachs disease, and bacterial cell wall recycling and flagellar assembly...
November 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143709/acute-and-chronic-cold-exposure-differentially-affects-the-browning-of-porcine-white-adipose-tissue
#4
Y Gao, N R Qimuge, J Qin, R Cai, X Li, G Y Chu, W J Pang, G S Yang
Piglets are characteristically cold intolerant and thus susceptible to high mortality. However, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can induce non-shivering thermogenesis as a potential strategy to facilitate the animal's response to cold. Whether cold exposure can induce browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) in piglets in a similar manner as it can in humans remains largely unknown. In this study, piglets were exposed to acute cold (4°C, 10 h) or chronic cold exposure (8°C, 15 days), and the genes and proteins of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and independent thermogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipogenic and lipolytic processes were analysed...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143690/standardisation-of-the-japanese-diet-for-use-in-animal-experiments
#5
Saeko Sugawara, Yui Mizowaki, Yui Iwagaki, Yu Sakamoto, Kazushi Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
The aim of this study was to develop a purified diet that mimics the characteristics of the Japanese diet using readily available materials with a simpler composition and a focus on quality, with the goal of facilitating performance of studies on the Japanese diet worldwide. The utility of the new diet was examined as a mimic of the standard Japanese diet for use in animal experiments. We examined whether a key characteristic of the Japanese diet of being less likely to cause obesity could be reproduced. The mimic diet had a balance of protein, fat and carbohydrate based on the 1975 Japanese diet, which is the least likely to cause obesity, and materials chosen with reference to the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS)...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143601/morphological-description-and-dna-barcoding-study-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum-chenopodiaceae-collected-in-kazakhstan
#6
Yuliya Genievskaya, Saule Abugalieva, Aibatsha Zhubanysheva, Yerlan Turuspekov
BACKGROUND: Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.) is an annual shrub-like plant adapted to the mobile sand dunes in desert and semi-desert regions of Asia. It has a balanced nutrient composition with relatively high concentration of lipids and proteins, which results in its nutrition being similar to legumes. Sand rice's proteins contain the full range of essential amino acids. However, calories content is more similar to wheat. These features together with desert stress resistance make sand rice a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142505/targeting-deubiquitinating-enzymes-in-cancer-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Hu Lei, Huizhuang Shan, Yingli Wu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare but accounted for tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, relapse and therapeutic resistance. Ubiquitination and deubiquitination of stemness-related proteins are essential for CSC maintenance and differentiation, even leading to execute various stem cell fate choices. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), specifically disassembling ubiquitin chains, are important to maintain the balance between ubiquitination and deubiquitination. In this review, we have focused on the DUBs regulation of stem cell fate determination...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142415/are-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolites-the-protective-effect-of-4-hydroxytyrosol-on-human-red-blood-cell-membranes-and-oxidative-damage-4-hydroxyalkenals-compatible-in-hypertriglyceridemic-patients
#8
Giuseppe Gallo, Rosalinda Bruno, Adele Taranto, Guglielmo Martino
Background: Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are demonstrated in plasma of uremic patients. A study showed that the comparison of erythrocytes of healthy and diseased patients (obese, hypertensive, and Type 2 diabetics) with age is associated to a disturbed oxidant/antioxidant balance when obesity is associated with hypertension. 4-hydroxytyrosol is shown to significantly protect red blood cells (RBCs) from oxidative damage (4-HNE). In literature, there are partial discussions on the role of lipids and their oxidation products...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142131/single-dose-trivalent-vesiculovax-vaccine-protects-macaques-from-lethal-ebolavirus-and-marburgvirus-challenge
#9
Demetrius Matassov, Chad E Mire, Theresa Latham, Joan B Geisbert, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Krystle N Agans, Dean J Kobs, Morgan Q S Wendling, Amanda Burnaugh, Thomas L Rudge, Carol L Sabourin, Michael A Egan, David K Clarke, Thomas W Geisbert, John H Eldridge
Previous studies demonstrated that a single intramuscular (IM) dose of an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vector (Vesiculovax™, rVSV-N4CT1) expressing the glycoprotein (GP) from the Mayinga strain of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) protected nonhuman primates (NHP) from lethal challenge with EBOV Kikwit and Makona strains. Here we studied the immunogenicity of an expanded range of attenuated rVSV vectors expressing filovirus GP in mice. Based on data from those studies an optimal attenuated tri-valent rVSV vector formulation was identified which included rVSV vectors expressing EBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) or Angola strain of Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) GPs...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142022/balance-between-cytosolic-and-chloroplast-translation-affects-leaf-variegation
#10
Ruijuan Wang, Jun Zhao, Min Jia, Ni Xu, Shuang Liang, Jingxia Shao, Yafei Qi, Xiayan Liu, Lijun An, Fei Yu
The development of functional chloroplasts relies on the fine coordination of expressions of both nuclear and chloroplast genomes. We have been using the Arabidopsis yellow variegated (var2) leaf variegation mutant as a tool to dissect the regulation of chloroplast development. In this work, we screened for var2 genetic enhancer modifiers termed enhancer of variegation (evr) mutants and report the characterization of the first EVR locus, EVR1. We showed that EVR1 encodes the cytosolic 80S ribosome 40S small subunit protein RPS21B and the loss of EVR1 causes the enhancement of var2 leaf variegation...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141912/wh2-and-proline-rich-domains-of-wasp-family-proteins-collaborate-to-accelerate-actin-filament-elongation
#11
Peter Bieling, Scott D Hansen, Orkun Akin, Tai-De Li, Carl C Hayden, Daniel A Fletcher, R Dyche Mullins
WASP-family proteins are known to promote assembly of branched actin networks by stimulating the filament-nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex. Here, we show that WASP-family proteins also function as polymerases that accelerate elongation of uncapped actin filaments. When clustered on a surface, WASP-family proteins can drive branched actin networks to grow much faster than they could by direct incorporation of soluble monomers. This polymerase activity arises from the coordinated action of two regulatory sequences: (i) a WASP homology 2 (WH2) domain that binds actin, and (ii) a proline-rich sequence that binds profilin-actin complexes...
November 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141557/halilectin-3-a-lectin-from-the-marine-sponge-haliclona-caerulea-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-breast-cancer-mcf7-cells-through-caspase-9-pathway-and-lc3-ii-protein-expression-haliclona-caerulea-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-breast-cancer
#12
Paula A Videira, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento-Neto, Maria Guadalupe Cabral, Romulo Farias Carneiro, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda, Zelia Silva, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Alexandre Holanda Sampaio, Edson Holanda Teixeira
BACKGROUND: An ideal strategy for cancer treatment is the specific induction of tumor cell death, sparing normal cells. Marine sponges are rich biological reservoirs of biomolecules, especially lectins, which have attracted considerable attention due to potential biological effect on human cells. Lectins are proteins that bind specific carbohydrate signatures and some gained further interest for their capacity to bind tumor associated carbohydrates antigens and induce tumor cell apoptosis...
November 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141136/systemic-mrna-delivery-to-the-lungs-by-functional-polyester-based-carriers
#13
Yunfeng Yan, Hu Xiong, Xinyi Zhang, Qiang Cheng, Daniel John Siegwart
Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently come into focus as an emerging therapeutic class with great potential for protein replacement therapy, cancer immunotherapy, regenerative medicine, vaccines, and gene editing. However, the lack of effective and safe delivery methods impedes the broad application of mRNA-based therapeutics. Here, we report a robust approach to develop efficient polymeric delivery carriers for mRNA. Lead polyesters were identified by in vitro screening of a 480-member combinatorially modified poly(trimethylolpropane allyl ether-co-suberoyl chloride) library for the delivery of luciferase encoding mRNA (Luc mRNA) to IGROV1 cells...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140821/retarding-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-use-of-modalities-that-counter-acid-retention
#14
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acid retention because of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases tissue acidity and accelerates progression of CKD, whereas reduction in acid retention slows progression of CKD. Herein, we describe the mechanisms through which increased tissue acidity worsens CKD, modalities for countering acid retention and their impact on progression of CKD, and current recommendations for therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in animals and humans show that increased tissue acidity raises the renal levels of endothelin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ammoniagenesis, thereby worsening renal fibrosis and causing progression of CKD...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139542/temporal-and-spatial-expression-patterns-of-hedgehog-receptors-in-the-developing-inner-and-middle-ear
#15
Jeong-Oh Shin, Harinarayana Ankamreddy, Naga Mahesh Jakka, Seokwon Lee, Un-Kyung Kim, Jinwoong Bok
The mammalian inner ear is a complex organ responsible for balance and hearing. Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a member of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins, has been shown to play important roles in several aspects of inner ear development, including dorsoventral axial specification, cochlear elongation, tonotopic patterning, and hair cell differentiation. Hh proteins initiate a downstream signaling cascade by binding to the Patched 1 (Ptch1) receptor. Recent studies have revealed that other types of co-receptors can also mediate Hh signaling, including growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1), cell-adhesion molecules-related/down-regulated by oncogenes (Cdon), and biregional Cdon binding protein (Boc)...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138870/insig2-rs7566605-single-nucleotide-variant-and-global-dna-methylation-index-levels-are-associated-with-weight-loss-in-a-personalized-weight-reduction-program
#16
Francesca Pirini, Sebastian Rodriguez-Torres, Bola Grace Ayandibu, María Orera-Clemente, Alberto Gonzalez-de la Vega, Fahcina Lawson, Roland J Thorpe, David Sidransky, Rafael Guerrero-Preston
Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with lipid metabolism and energy balance are implicated in the weight loss response caused by nutritional interventions. Diet‑induced weight loss is also associated with differential global DNA methylation. DNA methylation has been proposed as a predictive biomarker for weight loss response. Personalized biomarkers for successful weight loss may inform clinical decisions when deciding between behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between global DNA methylation, genetic variants associated with energy balance and lipid metabolism, and weight loss following a non‑surgical weight loss regimen...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138867/effect-of-xanthohumol-on-th1-th2-balance-in-a-breast-cancer-mouse-model
#17
Wenchao Zhang, Yanlong Pan, Panhong Gou, Cheng Zhou, Lianqing Ma, Qiming Liu, Yuping Du, Jinbo Yang, Qin Wang
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylflavonoid found in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus, exhibits a variety of biological activities. Numerous studies have reported that XN inhibits the growth of many types of cancer cells, but the effects of XN on tumor immunity have not yet been studied. We explored the effect of XN on Th1/Th2 balance and the underlying mechanism based on a BALB/c-4T1 breast cancer mouse model. The results showed that XN significantly slowed down tumor growth and inhibited expression of antitumor proliferation protein Ki-67 as well as breast cancer-specific marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3)...
November 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138682/mir-128-is-implicated-in-stress-responses-by-targeting-mafg-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#18
Rocco Caggiano, Fabio Cattaneo, Ornella Moltedo, Giovanni Esposito, Cinzia Perrino, Bruno Trimarco, Rosario Ammendola, Raffaella Faraonio
MAFG (v-Maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog G) is a bZIP-type transcriptional regulator that belongs to the small MAF (sMAFs) protein family. By interacting with other bZIP transcription factors, sMAFs can form homo- and heterodimers governing either repressive or activating transcriptional functions. As heterodimeric partner of Nrf2, MAFG positively influences the ARE-dependent antioxidant/xenobiotic pathways, at least in condition of a correct MAFG:Nrf2 balance. MicroRNAs (miRs) participate to different regulatory networks being involved as fine-tuning regulators of gene expression...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138676/resveratrol-modulation-of-protein-expression-in-parkin-mutant-human-skin-fibroblasts-a-proteomic-approach
#19
Daniele Vergara, Antonio Gaballo, Anna Signorile, Anna Ferretta, Paola Tanzarella, Consiglia Pacelli, Marco Di Paola, Tiziana Cocco, Michele Maffia
In this study, we investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis the effects of resveratrol treatment on skin primary fibroblasts from a healthy subject and from a parkin-mutant early onset Parkinson's disease patient. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most frequently mutated gene in hereditary Parkinson's disease. Functional alteration of parkin leads to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins accountable for the neurodegenerative process...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138400/accessibility-of-the-histone-h3-tail-in-the-nucleosome-for-binding-of-paired-readers
#20
Jovylyn Gatchalian, Xiaodong Wang, Jinzen Ikebe, Khan L Cox, Adam H Tencer, Yi Zhang, Nathaniel L Burge, Luo Di, Matthew D Gibson, Catherine A Musselman, Michael G Poirier, Hidetoshi Kono, Jeffrey J Hayes, Tatiana G Kutateladze
Combinatorial polyvalent contacts of histone-binding domains or readers commonly mediate localization and activities of chromatin-associated proteins. A pair of readers, the PHD fingers of the protein CHD4, has been shown to bivalently recognize histone H3 tails. Here we describe a mechanism by which these linked but independent readers bind to the intact nucleosome core particle (NCP). Comprehensive NMR, chemical reactivity, molecular dynamics, and fluorescence analyses point to the critical roles of intra-nucleosomal histone-DNA interactions that reduce the accessibility of H3 tails in NCP, the nucleosomal DNA, and the linker between readers in modulating nucleosome- and/or histone-binding activities of the readers...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
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