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protein balance

Satoko Noguchi, Junichi Saito, Tomoyuki Kudo, Eiji Hashiba, Kazuyoshi Hirota
Background: We have reviewed four cases of Kawasaki disease treated with plasma exchange with 5% albumin in electrolyte-balanced solution, according to the recommended guidelines for Kawasaki disease in the intensive care unit, as their responses to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were poor. Case presentation: The four cases were aged between 5 months and 3 years and weighted between 6.4 and 15.6 kg. The plasma levels of C-reactive protein were significantly decreased after plasma exchange ( p  < 0...
2018: JA Clin Rep
François Ancien, Fabrizio Pucci, Maxime Godfroid, Marianne Rooman
The classification of human genetic variants into deleterious and neutral is a challenging issue, whose complexity is rooted in the large variety of biophysical mechanisms that can be responsible for disease conditions. For non-synonymous mutations in structured proteins, one of these is the protein stability change, which can lead to loss of protein structure or function. We developed a stability-driven knowledge-based classifier that uses protein structure, artificial neural networks and solvent accessibility-dependent combinations of statistical potentials to predict whether destabilizing or stabilizing mutations are disease-causing...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liliana L Cubas-Gaona, Elisabet Diaz-Beneitez, Marina Ciscar, José F Rodríguez, Dolores Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family and is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease (IBD) that affects domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus ). IBD or Gumboro disease leads to high morbidity and mortality of infected animals, and is responsible for major economic losses to the poultry industry world-wide. IBD is characterized by a massive loss of IgM-bearing B lymphocytes and the destruction of the bursa of Fabricius. The molecular bases of the IBDV pathogenicity are still poorly understood, nonetheless, an exacerbated cytokine immune response and B cell depletion due to apoptosis are considered main factors contributing to the severity of the disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans.  However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies.  We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Carla A Piccinato, Rosa M Neme, Natália Torres, Elivane da Silva Victor, Heloísa F Brudniewski, Júlio C Rosa E Silva, Rui A Ferriani
The cellular function in endometriosis lesions depends on a highly estrogenic milieu. Lately, it is becoming evident that, besides the circulating levels of estrogens, the balance of synthesis versus inactivation (metabolism) of estrogens by intralesion steroid-metabolizing enzymes also determines the local net estrogen availability. In order to extend the knowledge of the role of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in endometriosis, we investigated the gene and protein expression of a key uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) for estrogen glucuronidation, UGT1A1, in eutopic endometrial samples obtained from nonaffected and endometriosis-affected women and also from endometriotic lesions...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Richard S Marshall, Richard D Vierstra
Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to recycle intracellular constituents, which are essential for developmental and metabolic transitions; for efficient nutrient reuse; and for the proper disposal of proteins, protein complexes, and even entire organelles that become obsolete or dysfunctional. One major route is autophagy, which employs specialized vesicles to encapsulate and deliver cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for breakdown. In the past decade, the mechanics of autophagy and the scores of components involved in autophagic vesicle assembly have been documented...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Silvia Ravera, Maria Grazia Signorello, Martina Bartolucci, Sara Ferrando, Lucia Manni, Federico Caicci, Daniela Calzia, Isabella Panfoli, Alessandro Morelli, Giuliana Leoncini
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Energy demand in human platelets is very high, to carry out their functions. As for most human cells, the aerobic metabolism represents the primary energy source in platelets, even though mitochondria are negligibly represented. Following the hypothesis that other structures could be involved in chemical energy production, in this work, we have investigated the functional expression of an extramitochondrial aerobic metabolism in platelets. RESULTS: Oximetric and luminometric analyses showed that platelets consume large amounts of oxygen and produce ATP in the presence of common respiring substrates, such as pyruvate + malate or succinate, although morphological electron microscopy analysis showed that these contain few mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Susan E Hagen, Kun Liu, Yafei Jin, Lolita Piersimoni, Philip C Andrews, Hollis D Showalter
Two novel cyclic quaternary amine crosslinking probes are synthesized for structural mass spectrometry of protein complexes in solution and for analysis of protein interactions in organellar and whole cell extracts. Each exhibits high aqueous solubility, excellent protein crosslinking efficiencies, low collision induced dissociation (CID) energy fragmentation efficiencies, high stoichiometries of reaction, increased charges of crosslinked peptide ions, and maintenance of overall surface charge balance of crosslinked proteins...
March 14, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Garyk Brixi
Treatment of acute malnutrition typically requires the provision of ready-to-use food (RUF). Common RUF is effective but expensive, being manufactured from costly ingredients, and shipped worldwide from few global suppliers. I developed a linear programming tool to create RUF optimized for low cost using locally grown crops while maintaining necessary nutritional goals and other constraints. My tool utilizes a database of the nutritional value, price, and water efficiency of suitable ingredients and allows adjustment of constraints, including nutrients, flavour, and crop water efficiency...
March 14, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Michael Huy Cuong Pham, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Alternative splicing (AS) of protein-coding messenger RNAs is an essential regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic gene expression that controls the proper function of proteins. It is also implicated in the physiological regulation of mitochondria and various ion channels. Considering that mis-splicing can result in various human diseases by modifying or abrogating important physiological protein functions, a fine-tuned balance of AS is essential for human health. Accumulated data highlight the importance of alternatively spliced isoforms in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, immune and infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic conditions...
March 13, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Shuping Peng, Lihua Cao, Shiwei He, Yancheng Zhong, Haotian Ma, Yanru Zhang, Cijun Shuai
Bone regeneration is very important for the recovery of some diseases including osteoporosis and bone fracture trauma. It is a multiple-step- and multiple-gene-involved complex process, including the matrix secretion and calcium mineralization by osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the absorption of calcium and phosphorus by osteoclasts differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a family of transcripts longer than 200 nt without or with very low protein-coding potential...
2018: Stem Cells International
Etta Y L Liu, Miranda L Xu, Yan Jin, Qiyun Wu, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Genistein, 4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, is a major isoflavone in soybean, which is known as phytestrogen having known benefit to brain functions. Being a common phytestrogen, the possible role of genistein in the brain protection needs to be further explored. In cultured PC12 cells, application of genistein significantly induced the expression of neurofilaments (NFs), markers for neuronal differentiation. In parallel, the expression of tetrameric form of proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked acetyl-cholinesterase (G4 AChE), a key enzyme to hydrolyze acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, was induced in a dose-dependent manner: this induction included the associated protein PRiMA...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Melissa Conte, Josselin Lupette, Khawla Seddiki, Coline Meï, Lina J Dolch, Valerie Gros, Caroline Barette, Fabrice Rébeillé, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal
Microalgae are a promising feedstock for the production of triacylglycerol (TAG) for a variety of potential applications, ranging from food and human health to biofuels and green chemistry. However, obtaining high TAG yields is challenging. A phenotypic assay for accumulation of oil droplets was developed to screen a library of 1,200 drugs, annotated with pharmacology information, to select compounds that trigger TAG accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum. Using this screen, we identified 34 molecules acting in a dose-dependent manner...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Mohamed A Abu El Maaty, Fadi Almouhanna, Stefan Wölfl
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was originally identified in HL-60 cells as the vitamin D₃ upregulated protein 1, and is now known to be involved in diverse cellular processes, such as maintenance of glucose homeostasis, redox balance, and apoptosis. Besides the initial characterization, little is known about if and how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [1,25(OH)₂D₃] induces TXNIP expression. We therefore screened multiple cancerous cell lines of different tissue origins, and observed induction, repression, or no change in TXNIP expression in response to 1,25(OH)₂D₃...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
E E Connor, Y Zhou, G E Liu
Olfactory receptors are G-protein coupled chemoreceptors expressed on millions of olfactory sensory neurons within the nasal cavity. These receptors detect environmental odorants and signal the brain regarding the location of feed, potential mates, and the presence of possible threats (e.g., predators or chemical toxins). Olfactory receptors also are present in organs outside of the nasal cavity where they bind to molecules such as nutrients and metabolites from the animal's internal environment to elicit physiological responses, including changes in gut motility, ventilation rate, and cellular migration...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Joshua J Waterfall, Paul S Meltzer
Disruptions in the antagonistic balance between the chromatin-modifying Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins drive many malignancies. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Banito et al. describe how the SS18-SSX oncogenic fusion protein in synovial sarcoma directly co-opts these complexes to drive gene dysregulation and sustain the transformed state.
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Caoileann H Murphy, Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Cameron J Mitchell, Nathan M Kolar, Louise M Burke, John A Hawley, Amira Kassis, Leonidas G Karagounis, Kelvin Li, Chelsea King, Marc Hellerstein, Stuart M Phillips
We determined how the pattern of protein intake and resistance training (RT) influenced longer-term (2-wk) integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) during energy restriction (ER). MyoPS and proteome kinetics were measured during 2-wk of ER alone and 2-wk of ER plus RT (ER + RT) in overweight/obese older men. Participants were randomized to consume dietary protein in a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein/meal x 4 meals) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein/meal) pattern (n = 10/group). Participants ingested D2 O during the consecutive 2-wk periods, and skeletal muscle biopsies and serum were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of ER and ER + RT...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Trisha M Finlay, Alexandra L Palmer, Shalina S Ousman
Neutrophils are essential in the fight against invading pathogens. They utilize antimicrobial effector mechanisms such as phagocytosis, release of proteases and other antimicrobial products, robust oxidative bursts, and NETs to combat infections. Neutrophils also modulate immune responses through the production of eicosanoids, cytokines and chemokines as well as via direct communication with other immune cells. This system of high intensity offense against pathogens is exquisitely balanced through regulation to limit damage to host tissue...
March 13, 2018: Immunology
Jichen Bao, Mingtao Huang, Dina Petranovic, Jens Nielsen
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory to produce recombinant proteins. However, S. cerevisiae naturally secretes only a few proteins, such as invertase and the mating alpha factor, and its secretory capacity is limited. It has been reported that engineering protein anterograde trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus by the moderate overexpression of SEC16 could increase recombinant protein secretion in S. cerevisiae. In this study, the retrograde trafficking in a strain with moderate overexpression of SEC16 was engineered by overexpression of ADP-ribosylation factor GTP activating proteins, Gcs1p and Glo3p, which are involved in the process of COPI-coated vesicle formation...
March 12, 2018: AMB Express
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