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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641332/executive-dysfunctions-predict-self-restricted-driving-habits-in-elderly-people-with-or-without-alzheimer-s-dementia
#1
Ilsemarie Kurzthaler, Georg Kemmler, Michaela Defrancesco, Bernadette Moser, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker, Elisabeth M Weiss
Introduction The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of specific cognitive functions on self-restricted driving habits in healthy elderly drivers and patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Method Our study population included 35 cognitively healthy controls, 10 MCI patients, and 16 patients with AD. All participants completed a neuropsychological examination and a self-reported questionnaire assessing driving habits and patterns. Results In challenging driving conditions, patients with MCI or AD showed significantly more driving self-restriction than healthy subjects (effect size d=1...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641047/the-interaction-of-distress-tolerance-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-the-prediction-of-symptom-reduction-across-cbt-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Danielle Katz, Neil A Rector, Judith M Laposa
Distress tolerance (DT) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) have been identified as transdiagnostic processes that predict symptom severity across a range of distinct anxiety disorders. However, the joint effect of these two variables on therapeutic outcome has not yet been examined. It is possible that DT and IU may both impact on treatment response to cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in clients with anxiety, as clients with weak DT and strong IU may be less likely to engage in exposure and cognitive restructuring tasks across treatment due to their associated distress...
June 22, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637142/feasibility-of-a-cognitive-strategy-training-intervention-for-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Erin R Foster, Daniel Spence, Joan Toglia
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of a novel client-centered cognitive strategy training intervention for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a case series of seven people with PD without dementia but with subjective cognitive decline. The intervention involved ≥5 treatment sessions at the participant's home. Participant acceptance and engagement were assessed by the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ), Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), enjoyment and effort ratings, and homework completion...
February 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636768/driving-aggression-and-anxiety-intersections-assessment-and-interventions
#4
Heidi M Zinzow, Stephanie M Jeffirs
OBJECTIVE: Driving aggression and anxiety are significant contributors to risky driving and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), which are leading causes of U.S. morbidity and mortality. Even though aggression and anxiety can be conceptualized as related features of the fight-or-flight response, literature on these topics has not been integrated. Driving aggression and anxiety are also transdiagnostic constructs that span multiple psychiatric disorders. Assessment and treatment of these complex problems must be understood to reduce the public health burden of MVCs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636694/placebo-response-and-practice-effects-in-schizophrenia-cognition-trials
#5
Richard S E Keefe, Vicki G Davis, Philip D Harvey, Alexandra S Atkins, George M Haig, Owen Hagino, Stephen Marder, Dana C Hilt, Daniel Umbricht
Importance: Patients' previous experience with performance-based cognitive tests in clinical trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia can create practice-related improvements. Placebo-controlled trials for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia are at risk for these practice effects, which can be difficult to distinguish from placebo effects. Objectives: To conduct a systematic evaluation of the magnitude of practice effects on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia and to examine which demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics were associated with improvement in placebo conditions...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636585/microbiome-a-potential-component-in-the-origin-of-mental-disorders
#6
George B Stefano, Radek Ptacek, Jiri Raboch, Richard M Kream
It is not surprising to find microbiome abnormalities present in psychiatric disorders such as depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, etc. Evolutionary pressure may provide an existential advantage to the host eukaryotic cells in that it survives in an extracellular environment containing non-self cells (e.g., bacteria). This phenomenon is both positive and negative, as with other intercellular processes. In this specific case, the phenomenal amount of information gained from combined bacterial genome could enhance communication between self and non-self cells...
June 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636141/binocular-facilitation-of-cone-specific-visual-evoked-potentials-in-colour-deficiency
#7
Jeff Rabin, Andrew Kryder, Dan Lam
BACKGROUND: Neural compensatory mechanisms have been proposed, which preserve the binocular visual field in glaucoma, as well as cognition in Alzheimer's disease and motor function in Parkinson's disease. It is conceivable that comparable mechanisms operate to preserve function in congenital and/or dystrophic disease. In hereditary colour vision deficiency (CVD), we observed significant facilitation in the amplitude of the binocular cone-specific visual evoked potential (VEP) compared to the monocular amplitude for the cone type corresponding to the CVD...
June 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636108/understanding-the-influences-and-impact-of-patient-clinician-communication-in-cancer-care
#8
Jennifer Elston Lafata, Laura A Shay, Jodi M Winship
BACKGROUND: Patient-clinician communication is thought to be central to care outcomes, but when and how communication affects patient outcomes is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We propose a conceptual model and classification framework upon which the empirical evidence base for the impact of patient-clinician communication can be summarized and further built. DESIGN: We use the proposed model and framework to summarize findings from two recent systematic reviews, one evaluating the use of shared decision making (SDM) on cancer care outcomes and the other evaluating the role of physician recommendation in cancer screening use...
June 21, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635986/optimism-symptom-distress-illness-appraisal-and-coping-in-patients-with-advanced-stage-cancer-diagnoses-undergoing-chemotherapy-treatment
#9
Catherine Sumpio, Sangchoon Jeon, Laurel L Northouse, M Tish Knobf
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationships between optimism, self-efficacy, symptom distress, treatment complexity, illness appraisal, coping, and mood disturbance in patients with advanced-stage cancer.
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
. SETTING: Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven in Connecticut, an outpatient comprehensive cancer center.
. SAMPLE: A convenience sample of 121 adult patients with stages III-IV cancer undergoing active chemotherapy...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635973/deconstructing-decisions-to-initiate-maintain-or-discontinue-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-mixed-methods-study
#10
Shirley M Bluethmann, Caitlin C Murphy, Jasmin A Tiro, Michelle A Mollica, Sally W Vernon, Leona Kay Bartholomew
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) has been shown to improve survival in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer survivors, but as many as half do not complete recommended treatment. Management of medication-related side effects and engagement with providers are two potentially modifiable factors, but their associations with adherence are not well understood. The aims were to build on survey results to qualitatively explore survivors' experiences with prescribed AET to (a) describe appraisal and management of AET side effects and (b) deconstruct decisions to initiate, discontinue, or maintain AET...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#11
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635348/hope-coping-skills-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-alcohol-use-disorder-recovery
#12
Spencer D Bradshaw, Sterling T Shumway, Cynthia M Dsauza, Neli Morris, Nicholas D Hayes
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders adversely affect individual and societal health. These disorders are a chronic brain disease, and protective factors against relapse should be studied. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is evident in alcohol use disorders, and research that explores recovery of the PFC in alcohol use disorders is needed, specifically in regard to how psychological and behavioral factors can augment medicalized treatments and protect against relapse. For example, hope or a belief that recovery is possible is an important cognitive construct-thought to precede behavioral action-that has been associated with relapse...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#13
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634767/including-people-with-dementia-in-research-an-analysis-of-australian-ethical-and-legal-rules-and-recommendations-for-reform
#14
Nola M Ries, Katie A Thompson, Michael Lowe
Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634548/decline-in-memory-visuospatial-ability-and-crystalized-cognitive-abilities-in-older-adults-normative-aging-or-terminal-decline
#15
R Bendayan, A M Piccinin, S M Hofer, D Cadar, B Johansson, G Muniz-Terrera
The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death) and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline). Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test) and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms), memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory), and visuospatial ability were included...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#16
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634363/long-term-health-outcomes-in-patients-with-prader-willi-syndrome-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-denmark
#17
E Hedgeman, S P Ulrichsen, S Carter, N C Kreher, K P Malobisky, M M Braun, J Fryzek, M S Olsen
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare congenital disease that affects growth, sexual development, cognitive function and behavior. Individuals exhibit food preoccupation and hyperphagia, which may lead to obesity with premature morbidity and mortality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolisms (VTE), myocardial infarction, pulmonary hypertension, sleep apnea, depression, anxiety and all-cause mortality among persons with PWS as compared to an age- and sex-matched general population cohort...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634213/omega-3-fatty-acids-increase-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-improve-amyloid-%C3%AE-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Henry M Olivera-Perez, Larry Lam, Johnny Dang, Weilan Jiang, Fabian Rodriguez, Elizabeth Rigali, Sarah Weitzman, Verna Porter, Liudmilla Rubi, Marco Morselli, Matteo Pellegrini, Milan Fiala
Mϕs of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are defective in amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ) phagocytosis and have low resistance to apoptosis by Aβ. ω-3 in vitro and in vivo and the ω-3 mediator, resolvin D1, in vitro increase Aβ phagocytosis by Mϕs of patients with MCI. We have investigated the unfolded protein response (UPR) to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by Mϕs in a longitudinal study of fish-derived, ω-3-supplemented patients with MCI. Patients in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)e3/e3 subgroup over time exhibited an increase of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) expression, Aβ phagocytosis, intermediate M1-M2 Mϕ type, and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) rate of change of +1...
June 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634202/hemoglobin-a1c-variability-predicts-symptoms-of-depression-in-elderly-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Ramit Ravona-Springer, Anthony Heymann, James Schmeidler, Erin Moshier, Elizabeth Guerrero-Berroa, Laili Soleimani, Mary Sano, Derek Leroith, Rachel Preiss, Ruth Tzukran, Jeremy M Silverman, Michal Schnaider Beeri
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the relationship of variability in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over years with subsequent depressive symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects (n = 837) were participants of the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study, which aimed to examine the relationship of characteristics of long-term type 2 diabetes with cognitive decline. All pertain to a diabetes registry established in 1998, which contains an average of 18 HbA1c measurements per subject...
June 20, 2017: Diabetes Care
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