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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334499/cognitive-function-and-its-risk-factors-among-older-us-adults-living-at-home
#1
William Dale, Ashwin A Kotwal, Joseph W Shega, L Philip Schumm, David W Kern, Jayant M Pinto, Kelly M Pudelek, Linda J Waite, Martha K McClintock
BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has not been administered to a representative national sample, precluding comparison of patient scores to the general population and for risk factor identification. METHODS: A validated survey-based adaptation of the MoCA (MoCA-SA) was administered to a probability sample of home-dwelling US adults aged 62 to 90, using the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (n=3129), yielding estimates of prevalence in the United States...
January 12, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333730/day-to-day-mastery-and-self-efficacy-changes-during-a-smoking-quit-attempt-two-studies
#2
Lisa M Warner, Gertraud Stadler, Janina Lüscher, Nina Knoll, Sibylle Ochsner, Rainer Hornung, Urte Scholz
OBJECTIVE: In social-cognitive theory, it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design. DESIGN: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention)...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333635/the-changing-relationship-between-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-cognition-in-very-preterm-infants
#3
Jane E Brumbaugh, Tarah T Colaizy, Neel M Patel, Jonathan M Klein
AIM: To characterize the relationship between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) severity and cognition in the post-surfactant era. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective analysis of a cohort of infants born 2009-2012. Inclusion criteria were: admission within 48 hours of birth, gestational age 22-0/7-31-6/7 weeks, birth weight 400-1500 g, and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III testing at 18-26 months corrected age. Infants (n=151) were classified by BPD severity with the NIH Workshop definition...
January 15, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333487/activation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-cognitive-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#4
C James Howell, Michael P Sceniak, Min Lang, Wenceslas Krakowiecki, Fatimah E Abouelsoud, Saloni U Lad, Heping Yu, David M Katz
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2; Amir et al., 1999), a transcriptional regulatory protein (Klose et al., 2005). Mouse models of RTT (Mecp2 mutants) exhibit excitatory hypoconnectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; Sceniak et al., 2015), a region critical for functions that are abnormal in RTT patients, ranging from learning and memory to regulation of visceral homeostasis (Riga et al...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333196/brief-report-reduced-anxiety-following-pivotal-response-treatment-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Jiedi Lei, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Megan L Braconnier, Pamela Ventola
Up to 40% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit co-occurring anxiety symptoms. Despite recent success in mitigating anxiety symptoms in school-aged children with ASD (mean age >9 years) using adapted versions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, little is known about potential treatment outcomes for younger children. To address the gap in the literature, this open-label study evaluated change in anxiety following a 16-week open-label trial of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) in children with ASD aged 4-8 years...
November 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332647/social-support-a-key-factor-for-adherence-to-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment
#6
R D Deshmukh, D J Dhande, K S Sachdeva, A N Sreenivas, A M V Kumar, M Parmar
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is emerging as a major public health problem globally. Treatment success rates in MDR-TB across the globe are not encouraging as completing MDR-TB treatment successfully is challenging due to high proportion of lost to follow up. METHODS: Using qualitative methods and grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with MDR-TB patients and treatment providers. The social cognitive framework was explored as a way to guide understanding of the factors affecting treatment adherence among MDR-TB patients...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332640/cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-psoriasis-a-matched-case-control-study
#7
Marco Innamorati, Rossella M Quinto, David Lester, Luca Iani, Dario Graceffa, Claudio Bonifati
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, a few studies have suggested that psoriasis could be associated with the presence of mild cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present matched case-control study was to investigate several cognitive domains (executive functions, verbal memory, attention, and language) in a sample of outpatients with psoriasis. We also investigated whether cognitive impairment was associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with psoriasis...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332630/effects-of-a-program-of-cognitive-behavioural-group-therapy-vestibular-rehabilitation-and-psychoeducational-explanations-on-patients-with-dizziness-and-no-quantified-balance-deficit-compared-to-patients-with-dizziness-and-a-quantified-balance-deficit
#8
D A Schmid, J H J Allum, M Sleptsova, S Gross, J Gaab, A Welge-Lüssen, R Schaefert, W Langewitz
BACKGROUND: We examined whether a program combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), vestibular rehabilitation (VR) and psychoeducation is equally effective in improving psychometric measures in patients with dizziness independent of a balance deficit. Measures of patients with dizziness only (DO) were compared to those of patients also having a quantified balance deficit (QBD). METHODS: 32 patients (23 female, 9 male) with persistent dizziness were analysed as 2 groups based on stance and gait balance control: those with QBD (pathological balance) or DO (normal balance)...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332539/whole-body-oxygen-16o-ion-exposure-induced-impairments-in-social-odor-recognition-memory-in-rats-are-dose-and-time-dependent
#9
Ami Mange, Yuqing Cao, SiYuan Zhang, Robert D Hienz, Catherine M Davis
Future long-duration space missions will involve travel outside of the Earth's magnetosphere, which will result in increased radiation exposure for astronauts. Exposure could permanently damage multiple tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), and result in deleterious effects on cognition and behavior during and beyond the mission. Here, we assessed the effects of whole-body oxygen ion (16O; 1,000 MeV/n) exposure (5 or 25 cGy) on social odor recognition memory in male Long-Evans rats at one and six months after exposure...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332084/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#10
Benjamin B Whiting, Alexander C Whiting, Donald M Whiting
The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been proven to be a safe and efficacious treatment for the management of many diseases. The most common indication for thalamic DBS remains essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders in the world. ET patients should be considered for surgical intervention when their tremor has demonstrated to be refractory to medication, a characteristic estimated to be present in roughly 50% of ET cases. Advantages of DBS over thalamotomy include its reversibility, the ability to adjust stimulation settings to optimize efficacy and minimize side effects, the ability to perform bilateral procedures safely, and an association with a lower risk of postoperative cognitive problems...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#11
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331876/app-go-protein-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-complex-signaling-mediates-a%C3%AE-degeneration-and-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#12
Elena Anahi Bignante, Nicolás Eric Ponce, Florencia Heredia, Juliana Musso, María C Krawczyk, Julieta Millán, Gustavo F Pigino, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Mariano M Boccia, Alfredo Lorenzo
Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ), the proteolytic product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), might cause neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the direct involvement of APP in the mechanism of Aβ-induced degeneration in AD remains on debate. Here, we analyzed the interaction of APP with heterotrimeric Go protein in primary hippocampal cultures and found that Aβ deposition dramatically enhanced APP-Go protein interaction in dystrophic neurites. APP overexpression rendered neurons vulnerable to Aβ toxicity by a mechanism that required Go-Gβγ complex signaling and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331848/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-apathy-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-double-blind-randomized-sham-controlled-cross-over-pilot-study
#13
Prasad R Padala, Kalpana P Padala, Shelly Y Lensing, Andrea N Jackson, Cassandra R Hunter, Christopher M Parkes, Richard A Dennis, Melinda M Bopp, Ricardo Caceda, Mark S Mennemeier, Paula K Roberson, Dennis H Sullivan
Apathy is a common and disabling behavioral concomitant of many neurodegenerative conditions. The presence of apathy with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is linked with heightened rates of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Improving apathy may slow the neurodegenerative process. The objective was to establish the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving apathy in older adults with MCI. An 8-week, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled cross-over study was conducted in nine subjects (66 ± 9 years) with apathy and MCI...
January 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331801/stressful-life-events-relationship-stressors-and-cortisol-reactivity-the-moderating-role-of-suppression
#14
Lydia G Roos, Sara M Levens, Jeanette M Bennett
Stressful life events (SLEs) are exceedingly common and have been associated with a range of psychological disorders, perhaps through dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The use of certain emotion regulation strategies in response to stress, such as expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal, has additionally been linked to heightened HPA axis reactivity to acute stress. However, it is unclear how emotion regulation may interact with SLEs to affect HPA axis reactivity, particularly concerning relationship stressors (RSs)...
January 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331730/exenatide-exerts-cognitive-effects-by-modulating-the-bdnf-trkb-neurotrophic-axis-in-adult-mice
#15
Manuela Bomba, Alberto Granzotto, Vanessa Castelli, Noemi Massetti, Elena Silvestri, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Annamaria Cimini, Stefano L Sensi
Modulation of insulin-dependent signaling is emerging as a valuable therapeutic tool to target neurodegeneration. In the brain, the activation of insulin receptors promotes cell growth, neuronal repair, and protection. Altered brain insulin signaling participates in the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease patients and the aging brain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates insulin secretion and, along with GLP-1 analogues, enhances neurotrophic signaling and counteracts cognitive deficits in preclinical models of neurodegeneration...
December 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#16
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331153/is-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-antipsychotic-dose-and-anticholinergic-equivalent-loads-in-first-episode-psychosis
#18
Alejandro Ballesteros, Ana M Sánchez-Torres, Jose M López-Ilundain, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana M González-Pinto, Covadonga Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Elena de la Serna, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Gisela Mezquida, Miguel Bernardo, Manuel J Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331082/mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-2-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Delia M Talos, Leah M Jacobs, Sarah Gourmaud, Carlos A Coto, Hongyu Sun, Kuei-Cheng Lim, Timothy H Lucas, Kathryn A Davis, Maria Martinez-Lage, Frances E Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic epilepsy syndrome defined by seizures and progressive neurological disabilities, including cognitive impairments, anxiety and depression. Here, human TLE specimens were investigated focusing on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2) activities in the brain, as both pathways may represent unique targets for treatment. METHODS: Surgically resected hippocampal and temporal lobe samples from therapy-resistant TLE patients were analyzed by Western blotting to quantify the expression of established mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity markers and upstream or downstream signaling pathways involving the two complexes...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330596/cognitive-functioning-is-it-all-or-none
#20
Isabel M Introzzi, María M Richard S, Ana Comesaña, Ana García Coni
Under various circumstances, the cognitive system operates in a global manner that is not very precise and barely discriminatory. This form of operating has been described via a general principal that Diamond (Developmental Psychology 45:130-138, 2009) has denominated the All or None Hypothesis. This author has described a set of corollaries derived from this hypothesis that make it possible to verify it in each one of these domains. Although there is evidence of the global and non-discriminate way in which the cognitive system operates in populations of children, to date, there are no studies that have examined whether this mode of operation is also present in populations of adults...
January 12, 2018: Psychological Research
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