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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340108/effect-of-gene-lifestyle-interaction-on-gestational-diabetes-risk
#1
Polina V Popova, Alexandra A Klyushina, Lyudmila B Vasilyeva, Alexandra S Tkachuk, Yana A Bolotko, Andrey S Gerasimov, Evgenii A Pustozerov, Ekaterina N Kravchuk, Alexander Predeus, Anna A Kostareva, Elena N Grineva
We hypothesized that the association of certain lifestyle parameters with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk would depend on susceptibility loci. In total, 278 Russian women with GDM and 179 controls completed questionnaires about lifestyle habits (food consumption, physical activity and smoking). GDM was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. Maternal blood was sampled for genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MTNR1B (rs10830963 and rs1387153), GCK (rs1799884), KCNJ11 (rs5219), IGF2BP2 (rs4402960), TCF7L2 (rs7903146 and rs12255372), CDKAL1 (rs7754840), IRS1 (rs1801278) and FTO (rs9939609)...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329106/genetic-mutations-associated-with-neonatal-diabetes-mellitus-in-omani-patients
#2
Aisha Al Senani, Nishath Hamza, Hanan Al Azkawi, Manal Al Kharusi, Nashat Al Sukaiti, Maryam Al Badi, Moza Al Yahyai, Matthew Johnson, Elisa De Franco, Sarah Flanagan, Andrew Hattersley, Sian Ellard, Waad-Allah Mula-Abed
BACKGROUND: Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare disorder worldwide where diabetes is diagnosed in the first 6 months of life. However, Oman has a relatively high incidence of NDM. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the genetic etiologies underlying NDM and their prevalence in Oman. We collected a cohort of 24 NDM patients, with and without genetic diagnosis, referred to our center from 2007 to 2015. All patients without a genetic diagnosis were tested for mutations in 23 NDM-associated genes using a custom-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel and methylation analysis of the 6q24 locus...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310812/pgbr-extract-ameliorates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hepatocytes
#3
Fu-Chih Chen, Kuo-Ping Shen, Jin-Bor Chen, Hui-Li Lin, Chi-Long Hao, Hsueh-Wei Yen, Shyh-Yu Shaw
Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) could ameliorate metabolic syndrome, however, not much research estimates the effect of PGBR extract on insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of PGBR extract in TNF-α induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells, hepatocytes, were cultured in DMEM medium and added with 5 μM insulin or with insulin and 30 ng/ml TNF-α or with insulin, TNF-α and PGBR extract (50, 100, 300 μg/ml). The glucose levels of the medium were decreased by insulin, demonstrating insulin promoted glucose uptake into cell...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307111/inorganic-nitrate-alleviates-the-senescence-related-decline-in-liver-function
#4
Haifeng Wang, Lei Hu, Le Li, Xiaoshan Wu, Zhipeng Fan, Chunmei Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Jidong Jia, Songlin Wang
Senescence-related decline in liver function is a common complication in the elderly that can lead to impaired health in older individuals. Dietary nitrate supplements have physiological and therapeutic effects on organ function by nitrate (NO3-)-nitrite (NO2-)-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. However, the role of dietary nitrate on the senescence-related decline in liver function is unclear. The findings of the present study showed that nitrate levels in the serum and liver decreased, whereas the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum increased in ageing mice...
January 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298444/human-malformation-syndromes-of-defective-gli-opposite-phenotypes-of-2q14-2-gli2-and-7p14-2-gli3-microdeletions-and-a-glia-r-balance-model
#5
Yo Niida, Mika Inoue, Mamoru Ozaki, Etsuko Takase
GLI family zinc finger proteins are transcriptional effectors of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. GLI regulates gene expression and repression at various phases of embryonic morphogenesis. In humans, 4 GLI genes are known, and GLI2 (2q14.2) and GLI3 (7p14.1) mutations cause different syndromes. Here, we present 2 distinctive cases with a chromosomal microdeletion in one of these genes. Patient 1 is a 14-year-old girl with Culler-Jones syndrome. She manifested short stature, cleft palate, and mild intellectual/social disability caused by a 6...
January 4, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288667/chronic-sleep-disorder-induced-by-psychophysiological-stress-induces-glucose-intolerance-without-adipose-inflammation-in-mice
#6
Katsutaka Oishi, Sumika Ohyama, Sayaka Higo-Yamamoto
Sleep disturbances are associated with various metabolic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. We had previously established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by disrupted circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, core body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of metabolic disorders induced by CSD, we created mice with CSD for six weeks and fed them with a high-fat diet. Glucose intolerance with hyperglycemia resulted, although plasma insulin levels and body weight increases were identical between control and CSD mice...
December 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280746/congenital-hyperinsulinism-diagnosis-and-treatment-update
#7
Hüseyin Demirbilek, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β-cells are finely tuned to secrete insulin so that plasma glucose levels are maintained within a narrow physiological range (3.5-5.5 mmol/L). Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) is the inappropriate seretion of insulin in the presence of low plasma glucose levels and leads to severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children. Mutations in 12 different key genes (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, GCK, HADH, SLC16A1, UCP2, HNF4A, HNF1A, HK1, PGM1 and PMM2) that are involved in the regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells have been described to be responsible for the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to congenital HH...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245089/metabolic-analysis-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins-with-gut-microbiota-mediated-biotransformation-by-hplc-dad-q-tof-ms-ms
#8
Man-Yun Chen, Li Shao, Wei Zhang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Hua Huang, Chun-Su Yuan
Saponins such as notoginsenosides and ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng are responsible for the herb's clinical applications. Unfortunately, there is poor oral bioavailability of saponins. However, gut microbiota can transform saponins to yield the metabolites that are potential bioactive substances. In this study, we aimed to characterize the metabolic profiles of P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) by incubating them with human gut microbiota. The notoginsenosides, ginsenosides and related metabolites were separated and identified using a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209784/acaxl2-and-acmst1-regulate-arthrospore-development-and-stress-resistance-in-the-cephalosporin-c-producer-acremonium-chrysogenum
#9
Janina Kluge, Ulrich Kück
The filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is the primordial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C. This antibiotic is of major biotechnological and medical relevance because of its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic production during the lag phase of fermentation is often accompanied by a typical morphological feature of A. chrysogenum, the fragmentation of the mycelium into arthrospores. Here, we sought to identify factors that regulate the hyphal septation process and present the first comparative functional characterization of the type I integral plasma membrane protein Axl2 (axial budding pattern protein 2), a central component of the bud site selection system (BSSS) and Mst1 (mammalian Sterile20-like kinase), a septation initiation network (SIN)-associated germinal center kinase (GCK)...
December 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207974/spectrum-of-mutations-in-monogenic-diabetes-genes-identified-from-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-of-6888-individuals
#10
Vikas Bansal, Johann Gassenhuber, Tierney Phillips, Glenn Oliveira, Rebecca Harbaugh, Nikki Villarasa, Eric J Topol, Thomas Seufferlein, Bernhard O Boehm
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of monogenic as well as atypical forms of diabetes mellitus has important clinical implications for their specific diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted treatment. Single gene mutations that affect beta-cell function represent 1-2% of all cases of diabetes. However, phenotypic heterogeneity and lack of family history of diabetes can limit the diagnosis of monogenic forms of diabetes. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an excellent opportunity to screen large numbers of individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes for mutations in disease-associated genes...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191941/genetic-deletion-of-the-circadian-clock-transcription-factor-bmal1-and-chronic-alcohol-consumption-differentially-alter-hepatic-glycogen-in-mice
#11
Uduak S Udoh, Jennifer A Valcin, Telisha M Swain, Ashley N Filiano, Karen L Gamble, Martin E Young, Shannon M Bailey
Multiple metabolic pathways exhibit time-of-day dependent rhythms that are controlled by the molecular circadian clock. We have shown that chronic alcohol is capable of altering the molecular clock and diurnal oscillations in several elements of hepatic glycogen metabolism. Herein, we sought to determine whether genetic disruption of the hepatocyte clock differentially impacts hepatic glycogen content in chronic alcohol-fed mice. Male hepatocyte-specific BMAL1 knockout (HBK) and littermate controls were fed control or alcohol-containing diets for 5 weeks to alter hepatic glycogen content...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175806/the-distribution-of-different-types-of-diabetes-in-childhood-a-single-center-experience
#12
Belma Haliloğlu, Saygın Abali, Fuat Buğrul, Enes Çelik, Serpil Baş, Zeynep Atay, Tülay Güran, Serap Turan, Abdullah Bereket
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common cause of diabetes in childhood but type 2 diabetes (T2D) and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are emerging and noteworthy causes of diabetes in youths. The aim of the study is to determine the distribution, trends and clinical features of the different types of diabetes in childhood in a tertiary single-center. METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 0-18 years who were diagnosed "diabetes/persistent hyperglycemia" between January 1999 and December 2016, were reviewed...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166588/regulatory-t-cell-migration-is-dependent-on-glucokinase-mediated-glycolysis
#13
Madhav Kishore, Kenneth C P Cheung, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Guosu Wang, David Coe, Eleanor J Ward, Alessandra Colamatteo, Maryam Jangani, Andrea Baragetti, Giuseppe Matarese, David M Smith, Robert Haas, Claudio Mauro, David C Wraith, Klaus Okkenhaug, Alberico L Catapano, Veronica De Rosa, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Migration of activated regulatory T (Treg) cells to inflamed tissue is crucial for their immune-modulatory function. While metabolic reprogramming during Treg cell differentiation has been extensively studied, the bioenergetics of Treg cell trafficking remains undefined. We have investigated the metabolic demands of migrating Treg cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that glycolysis was instrumental for their migration and was initiated by pro-migratory stimuli via a PI3K-mTORC2-mediated pathway culminating in induction of the enzyme glucokinase (GCK)...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120028/precision-medicine-for-monogenic-diabetes-from-a-survey-to-the-development-of-a-next-generation-diagnostic-panel
#14
Sakina Kherra, Jean-Louis Blouin, Federico Santoni, Valerie Schwitzgebel
Monogenic diabetes (MD) accounts for 1-2% of all diabetes cases. Because of its wide phenotypic spectrum, MD is often misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. While clinical and biochemical parameters can suggest MD, a definitive diagnosis requires genetic analysis. We conducted a survey among clinicians specialising in diabetes to document the cases with MD. Of 74 clinically suspected MD patients, 46% had undergone genetic analysis, which was mostly conducted using Sanger's classical sequencing method. The most common recorded mutations were located in the GCK gene, followed by the mitochondrial genome (m...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099131/alterations-in-lipid-metabolism-due-to-a-protein-restricted-diet-in-rats-during-gestation-and-or-lactation
#15
T C Sosa-Larios, A A Miliar-Garcia, L A Reyes-Castro, S Morimoto, M E Jaramillo-Flores
Perinatal malnutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth, but also the health of offspring in adulthood, as suggested by the concept of metabolic programming. The impact of maternal protein malnutrition on the metabolism of offspring is demonstrated with the current data. One group of pregnant/lactating female rats was fed with an isocaloric diet having normal protein content. Three other groups were provided 50% of this protein level during pregnancy and/or lactation. The growth and metabolic state of the offspring was monitored...
November 3, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073628/transient-congenital-hypothyroidism-alters-gene-expression-of-glucose-transporters-and-impairs-glucose-sensing-apparatus-in-young-and-aged-offspring-rats
#16
Hanieh Gholami, Sajad Jeddi, Azita Zadeh-Vakili, Khadije Farrokhfall, Fatemeh Rouhollah, Maryam Zarkesh, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) could disturb carbohydrate metabolism in adulthood. Aging is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to address effects of TCH on mRNA expressions of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and glucokinase (GcK) in islets and insulin target tissues of aged offspring rats. METHODS: The TCH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. Offspring from control and TCH groups (n=6 in each group) were followed until month 19...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056535/analysis-of-the-gck-gene-in-79-mody-type-2-patients-a-multicenter-turkish-study-mutation-profile-and-description-of-twenty-novel-mutations
#17
Ayça Aykut, Emin Karaca, Hüseyin Onay, Damla Gökşen, Şevki Çetinkalp, Erdal Eren, Betül Ersoy, Esra Papatya Çakır, Muammer Büyükinan, Cengiz Kara, Ahmet Anık, Birgül Kırel, Samim Özen, Tahir Atik, Şükran Darcan, Ferda Özkınay
Maturity onset diabetes is a genetic form of diabetes mellitus characterized by an early age at onset and several etiologic genes for this form of diabetes have been identified in many patients. Maturity onset diabetes type 2 [MODY2 (#125851)] caused by mutations in the glucokinase gene (GCK). Although its prevalence is not clear, it is estimated that 1%-2% of patients with diabetes have the monogenic form. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular spectrum of GCK gene mutations in 177 Turkish MODY type 2 patients...
October 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053815/insulin-immuno-neutralization-decreases-food-intake-in-chickens-without-altering-hypothalamic-transcripts-involved-in-food-intake-and-metabolism
#18
M Proszkowiec-Weglarz, J Dupont, N Rideau, C Gespach, J Simon, T E Porter
In mammals, insulin regulates blood glucose levels and plays a key regulatory role in appetite via the hypothalamus. In contrast, chickens are characterized by atypical glucose homeostasis, with relatively high blood glucose levels, reduced glucose sensitivity of pancreatic beta cells, and large resistance to exogenous insulin. The aim of the present study was to investigate in chickens the effects of 5 h fasting and 5 h insulin immuno-neutralization on hypothalamic mRNA levels of 23 genes associated with food intake, energy balance, and glucose metabolism...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044608/nutrient-sensing-in-pancreatic-islets-lessons-from-congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-monogenic-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Ming Lu, Changhong Li
Pancreatic beta cells sense changes in nutrients during the cycles of fasting and feeding and release insulin accordingly to maintain glucose homeostasis. Abnormal beta cell nutrient sensing resulting from gene mutations leads to hypoglycemia or diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in beta cell glucose sensing. As one form of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), activating mutations of GCK result in a decreased threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hypoglycemia. In contrast, inactivating mutations of GCK result in diabetes, including a mild form (MODY2) and a severe form (permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM))...
October 16, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031588/swertisin-rich-fraction-from-enicostema-littorale-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-fed-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotacin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats
#20
Priyanka Mokashi, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
INTRODUCTION: Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. A lot of research has been done on this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, there are no reports on flavonoids from E. littorale for its antidiabetic activity and their mechanism of action. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Swertisin rich flavonoid fraction (SRF) from Enicostema littorale blume and their mechanism of action...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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