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journal of bone and mineral

Sophie Regnault, John R Hutchinson, Marc E H Jones
Sesamoids bones are small intra-tendinous (or ligamentous) ossifications found near joints and are often variable between individuals. Related bones, lunulae, are found within the menisci of certain joints. Several studies have described sesamoids and lunulae in lizards and their close relatives (Squamata) as potentially useful characters in phylogenetic analysis, but their status in the extant outgroup to Squamata, tuatara (Sphenodon), remains unclear. Sphenodon is the only living rhynchocephalian, but museum specimens are valuable and difficult to replace...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Jon H Tobias, Celia L Gregson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Kerry Dwan, Carrie A Phillipi, Robert D Steiner, Donald Basel
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta is caused by a genetic defect resulting in an abnormal type I collagen bone matrix which typically results in multiple fractures with little or no trauma. Bisphosphonates are used in an attempt to increase bone mineral density and reduce these fractures in people with osteogenesis imperfecta. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates in increasing bone mineral density, reducing fractures and improving clinical function in people with osteogenesis imperfecta...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
(no author information available yet)
The above article, published online on 1 December 2000 in Wiley Online Library (, and in Volume 15, Issue 12, pages 2487-2494, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Juliet Compston, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to concerns about the underlying data to which the authors have given no satisfactory response. Dr Sato acknowledges that his co-authors are named as such for honorary reasons and are not responsible for the content of the manuscript...
October 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
E Colt, M Akram, F X Pi Sunyer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with the measurement of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by high-resolution peripheral computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) in subjects with a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). SUBJECTS/METHODS: We scanned the arms and legs of 49 premenopausal women, aged 21-45 years, with BMI from 18.5 to 46.5, by HR-pQCT and found that there was a nonsignificant change in vBMD associated with increased BMI, whereas aBMD (DXA) was associated with a positive significant increase...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Carolina A Moreira, John P Bilezikian
CONTEXT: Stress fractures are repetitive use injuries in which recurrent strains lead to material fatigue and microarchitectural discontinuities. Stress fractures account for up to 20% of athletic injuries, more commonly sustained by women and in those who engage in track-and-field events. The pathogenesis of stress fractures is multifactorial. Although most stress fracture are reported among women who may experience menstrual disturbances, low body mass index, low energy intake and sometimes low bone mass, these individuals do not regularly seek endocrinological attention...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hui-Hui Xiao, Yan Zhang, Raymond Cooper, Xin-Sheng Yao, Man-Sau Wong
Sambucus williamsii Hance (Jiegumu) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat bone and joint diseases. The major phytochemicals in S. williamsii are lignans, terpenoids, and phenolic acids, together with trace amounts of essential oils, minerals, amino acids, and natural pigments. In this review, a database search for studies published from 1990 to November 2015 was conducted using PubMed, the China Academic Journals Full-Text Database, and Google Scholar with the keywords "Sambucus williamsii Hance", "Sambucus williamsii", "Sambucus williamsii + clinic", "Sambucus williamsii + biology", "Sambucus williamsii + chemicals", and "Jiegumu", which covered chemical studies, cell culture studies, animal experiments, and clinical studies...
2016: Chinese Medicine
Robert L Jilka
Reproducibility of research findings is the hallmark of scientific advance. However, the recently noted lack of reproducibility and transparency of published research using animal models of human biology and disease has alarmed funders, scientists, and the public. Improved reporting of methodology and better use of statistical tools are needed to enhance the quality and utility of published research. Reporting guidelines like Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) have been devised to achieve these goals, but most biomedical research journals, including the JBMR, have not been able to obtain high compliance...
July 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Maria Fusaro, Claudia D'Alessandro, Marianna Noale, Giovanni Tripepi, Mario Plebani, Nicola Veronese, Giorgio Iervasi, Sandro Giannini, Maurizio Rossini, Giovanni Tarroni, Sandro Lucatello, Alberto Vianello, Irene Santinello, Luciana Bonfante, Fabrizio Fabris, Stefania Sella, Antonio Piccoli, Agostino Naso, Daniele Ciurlino, Andrea Aghi, Maurizio Gallieni, Adamasco Cupisti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available...
April 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
F Lifshitz, J P Hecht, E F Bermúdez, C A Gamba, J M Reinoso, P L Casavalle, S M Friedman, P N Rodriguez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered a specific method for measuring body composition to assess obesity and osteoporosis, although few studies have been conducted in preschool children. The aim of this study was to provide sex - and age-specific references for bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) normative data for children aged 2 to <6 years. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and eighty seven healthy white children from Buenos Aires City suburbs, Argentina, were studied by the Lunar DPX-L DXA, pediatric software: BMC less head (g), BMD (g/cm(2)), FM (%) and FFM (g)...
April 27, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A Lind, B Wängberg, L Ellegård
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NET) often have diarrhoea from hormonal overproduction, surgery and medical treatment, leading to malabsorption of bile salts, fats, vitamin B12 and fat-souble vitamins. This could lead to malnutrition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We assessed nutritional status in 50 consecutive out patients with disseminated SI-NET, 25 patients in each cohort. The first cohort was descriptive and the second cohort supplemented with vitamin D, B12 and calcium...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mariana Scaranti, Gilberto de Castro Júnior, Ana Oliveira Hoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a background for an evidence-based decision regarding the prescription of vitamin D for cancer prevention and improvement of outcomes in oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2014, Feldman and colleagues published a review suggesting a beneficial role for vitamin D in cancer development. In the same year, a Cochrane meta-analysis that included 18 randomized clinical trials comparing vitamin D administration versus no intervention in healthy population found no difference regarding cancer incidence between the groups...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Amit Bhardwaj, Kye Mon Min Swe, Nirmal K Sinha, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporosis represents an important cause of morbidity in people with beta-thalassaemia and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. Factors include bone marrow expansion due to ineffective erythropoiesis, resulting in reduced trabecular bone tissue with cortical thinning; endocrine dysfunction secondary to excessive iron loading, leading to increased bone turnover; and lastly, a predisposition to physical inactivity due to disease complications with a subsequent reduction in optimal bone mineralization...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Chakhtoura, A Nassar, A Arabi, C Cooper, N Harvey, Z Mahfoud, M Nabulsi, G El-Hajj Fuleihan
INTRODUCTION: The vitamin D recommended doses during pregnancy differ between societies. The WHO guidelines do not recommend routine prenatal supplementation, but they underscore the fact that women with the lowest levels may benefit most. The effects of routine supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes have not been investigated in the Middle East, where hypovitaminosis D is prevalent. Our hypothesis is that in Middle Eastern pregnant women, a vitamin D dose of 3000 IU/day is required to reach a desirable maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and to positively impact infant bone mineral content (BMC)...
March 8, 2016: BMJ Open
Jacques P Brown, Michel Fortier, Heather Frame, André Lalonde, Alexandra Papaioannou, Vyta Senikas, Chui Kin Yuen, Elke Henneberg, Chantal Capistran, Jackie Oman
OBJECTIVE: To provide guidelines for the health care provider on the diagnosis and clinical management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. OUTCOMES: Strategies for identifying and evaluating high-risk individuals, the use of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in assessing diagnosis and response to management, and recommendations regarding nutrition, physical activity, and the selection of pharmacologic therapy to prevent and manage osteoporosis. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and the Cochrane database were searched for articles in English on subjects related to osteoporosis diagnosis, prevention, and management from March 2001 to April 2005...
February 2006: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Monica V Dragoman, Mary E Gaffield
CONTEXT: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a progestogen-only contraceptive injectable, has traditionally been formulated as a crystalline suspension delivered intramuscularly (IM) at a dose of 150mg/1.0mL. A new, lower dose formulation of DMPA (104mg/0.65mL) has been developed for subcutaneous administration (SC). Given its increasing global availability and public health relevance, DMPA-SC was prioritized for inclusion as a new method referenced in the World Health Organization (WHO) Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), 5th Edition...
September 2016: Contraception
H-W Park, S Tse, W Yang, H W Kelly, S C Kaste, C-H Pui, M V Relling, K G Tantisira
Treatment with glucocorticoids is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD). We performed a genome-wide association study to analyze interactive effects between genotypes and cumulative dose of prednisone (PD) over 4.3 years of follow-up period on the final BMD Z-scores in 461 white children from the Childhood Asthma Management Program. No variants met the conventional criteria for genome-wide significance, and thus we looked for evidence of replication. The top 100-ranked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were then carried forward replication in 59 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exposed to large fixed doses of PD as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen...
February 9, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Valeria Romanucci, Daniele D'Alonzo, Annalisa Guaragna, Cinzia Di Marino, Sergio Davinelli, Giovanni Scapagnini, Giovanni Di Fabio, Armando Zarrelli
Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Alex Ireland, Adrian Sayers, Kevin C Deere, Alan Emond, Jon H Tobias
The onset of walking in early childhood results in exposure of the lower limb to substantial forces from weight bearing activity that ultimately contribute to adult bone strength. Relationships between gross motor score (GMS), at 18 months and bone outcomes measured at age 17 years were examined in 2327 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Higher GMS indicated greater motor competence in weight-bearing activities. Total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and hip cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were assessed from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
May 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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