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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895697/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893233/trajectories-of-victimization-in-ethnic-diaspora-immigrant-and-native-adolescents-separating-acculturation-from-development
#3
Philipp Jugert, Peter F Titzmann
This longitudinal study aimed to differentiate between acculturative and developmental processes by (a) comparing levels and change rates in victimization among ethnic German immigrants and native German adolescents in Germany and Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel, and (b) testing whether interindividual differences in victimization among immigrant youth can be explained by the same general factors as in native groups or by migration-specific factors. In addition, we tested whether or not acculturative and developmental processes interact...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886219/elderly-suicide-trends-in-the-context-of-transforming-china-1987-2014
#4
Bao-Liang Zhong, Helen F K Chiu, Yeates Conwell
In the context of rapid ageing, understanding the time-trend of elderly suicide (ES) could inform China's efforts on suicide prevention. We examined time-trends in Chinese ES rates (ESRs) from 1987 to 2014, a period of profound social changes. Suicide rates by residence (rural/urban), gender, and 5-year age-group (65+) in 1987-2014 were provided by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Time-trends were analyzed with joinpoint analysis. The time-trend of national ESRs was downward (average annual percent change [AAPC] = -3...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883972/rheumatic-heart-disease-in-a-developing-country-incidence-and-trend-monastir-tunisia-2000-2013
#5
Asma Sriha Belguith, Afifa Koubaa Abdelkafi, Sana El Mhamdi, Manel Ben Fredj, Hela Abroug, Arwa Ben Salah, Inès Bouanene, Fahima Hassine, Amal Amara, Sana Bhiri, Abdelkarim Derbel, Habib Gamra, Faouzi Maatouk, Mohamed Soussi Soltani
BACKGROUND: The penicillin therapy of β hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis has aided in the decrease of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries. Tunisia is an endemic area, however, and incidence of RHD is weakly documented. We aimed at establishing the standardized incidence rate (SIR) of RHD in Monastir governorate and at determining RHD prevalence among hospitalized patients in two cardiology departments. METHODS: From the regional register of Monastir Hospital morbidity, we have selected newly diagnosed patients with RHD, residents of Monastir, and hospitalized to the 2 cardiology departments between 2000 and 2013 (2001 not included)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879003/risk-and-protective-processes-predicting-rural-african-american-young-men-s-substance-abuse
#6
Junhan Cho, Steven M Kogan
Informed by a life course perspective, this study tested a cascade model linking harsh, unresponsive parenting during childhood to young African American men's substance abuse via precocious transitions, economic instability, and future orientation. The moderating influence of community disadvantage and romantic partner support on the hypothesized pathways was also examined. At the baseline, the sample included 505 African American men between ages 19 and 22 years from high-poverty rural communities. Follow-up data were collected 18 months after baseline...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865597/expert-consensus-of-general-surgery-residents-proficiency-with-common-endocrine-operations
#7
Roy Phitayakorn, Rachel R Kelz, Emil Petrusa, Rebecca S Sippel, Cord Sturgeon, Kepal N Patel, Nancy D Perrier
BACKGROUND: Proficiency with common endocrine operations is expected of graduating, general surgery residents. However, no expert consensus guidelines exist about these expectations. METHODS: Members of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons were surveyed about their opinions on resident proficiency with common endocrine operations. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 38%. A total of 92% of the respondents operate with residents. On average, they believed that the steps of a total thyroidectomy for benign disease and a well-localized parathyroidectomy could be performed by a postgraduate year 4 surgery resident...
November 16, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855697/regional-health-care-inequity-in-children-s-survival-in-zhejiang-province-china
#8
Weifang Zhang, Dingwan Chen, Huan Zhou, Yanhua Xu, Zhuopu Xu, Ying Ying, Zhengyan Zhao
BACKGROUND: China is now under a period of social transition, and inequity is evident in the field of health care. We aimed to investigate regional health-care inequalities in children's survival in Zhejiang Province, China. METHODS: In our study, monitoring data of Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014 was collected. The flow of data collection of community-district-city for urban areas or village-township-county rural areas was followed. The factors affecting equity was analyzed including regional economical level and household registry...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852270/inequalities-in-healthy-life-expectancy-by-brazilian-geographic-regions-findings-from-the-national-health-survey-2013
#9
Célia Landmann Szwarcwald, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Júnior, Aline Pinto Marques, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Dalia Elena Romero Montilla
BACKGROUND: The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. METHODS: In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over)...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851658/interobserver-agreement-on-cortical-tracer-transit-in-99mtc-mag3-renography-applied-to-congenital-hydronephrosis
#10
Ana Isabel Santos, Liliana Violante, Susana Carmona, Ana Prata, Margarida Rodrigues Victor, Joaquim G Santos, Joaquim Araújo Sequeira, Marta Alves, Ana Luísa Papoila, Amy Piepsz
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate interobserver agreement on visual analysis of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-MAG3) renal tissue transit used for the evaluation of antenatal hydronephrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight Tc-MAG3 diuretic renograms were retrospectively collected between 1 and 31 December 2015. The 1-min reframed images were presented to four nuclear medicine consultants and to two nuclear medicine residents, one in the first year of the training program and the others in their fourth and final year...
November 15, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848199/anesthesiology-resident-wellness-program-at-the-university-of-saskatchewan-concept-and-development
#11
Anita Chakravarti, Mateen Raazi, Jennifer O'Brien, Breanna Balaton
PURPOSE: We describe the need for an anesthesiology resident wellness program (ARWP) and the challenges associated with its development and implementation. We also present the results of a preliminary program evaluation. METHODS: We conducted a needs assessment of Canadian anesthesiology residency programs for a formal ARWP. This endeavor involved both a cross-sectional survey and a focus group of Canadian anesthesiology residency training program directors (PDs)...
November 15, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847351/a-comparison-of-mobile-and-fixed-device-access-on-user-engagement-associated-with-women-infants-and-children-wic-online-nutrition-education
#12
John J Brusk, Robert J Bensley
BACKGROUND: Online health education has expanded its reach due to cost-effective implementation and demonstrated effectiveness. However, a limitation exists with the evaluation of online health education implementations and how the impact of the system is attenuated by the extent to which a user engages with it. Moreover, the current online health education research does not consider how this engagement has been affected by the transition from fixed to mobile user access over the last decade...
November 15, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805954/residency-placement-fever-is-it-time-for-a-reevaluation
#13
Philip A Gruppuso, Eli Y Adashi
The transition from undergraduate medical education to graduate medical education (GME) involves a process rooted in the final year of medical school. Students file applications through the Electronic Residency Application Service platform, interview with residency training (i.e., GME) programs from which they have received invitations, and generate a rank-ordered preference list. The National Resident Matching Program reconciles applicant and program rank lists with an eye towards matching students and GME programs...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801292/refining-borders-of-genome-rearrangements-including-repetitions
#14
J A Arjona-Medina, O Trelles
BACKGROUND: DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR), the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP) is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods...
October 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776418/twenty-five-years-on-outcomes-of-a-longitudinal-evaluation-of-the-nsw-rural-resident-medical-officer-cadetship-program
#15
Melanie J Lewis, Rose Ellis, Sunil K Adusumilli, Ian Cameron
INTRODUCTION: The New South Wales Rural Resident Medical Officer Cadetship Program began in 1988 as a strategy to increase the numbers of junior doctors in rural hospitals. This article outlines the results of an evaluation undertaken in 2014. Specifically, it will look at where former cadets who entered the program between 1989 and 2010 were working in 2014, what training programs they chose and their attitudes toward the program. METHOD: Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire sent to all the former cadets who entered the program from 1989 until 2010...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742236/self-reported-food-skills-of-university-students
#16
Courtney K Wilson, June I Matthews, Jamie A Seabrook, Paula D N Dworatzek
University students experience a life transition that often results in poor dietary behaviors and weight gain. Adequate food skills may improve diet quality and prevent chronic disease. Research is limited, however, on students' food skills and food-related behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether self-perceived food skills and related behaviors of students at a large, Canadian university differed based on sex, having taken a Food and Nutrition (FN) course, and living conditions, using a cross-sectional online survey...
October 11, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742077/clinical-residency-training-is-it-essential-to-the-doctor-of-nursing-practice-for-nurse-practitioner-preparation
#17
Doreen C Harper, Teena M McGuinness, Jean Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree positions nurse practitioners (NPs) and other advanced practice registered nurses, with clinical competencies similar to other disciplines requiring doctoral education (medicine, physical therapy, psychology, and pharmacy). In addition, all these disciplines also offer residencies. However, nursing is the only discipline that does not require a doctoral degree and/or have a systematic approach to residency training for advanced practice roles...
August 31, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732601/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-ghana-during-the-rural-to-urban-transition-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Nuri Kodaman, Melinda C Aldrich, Rafal Sobota, Folkert W Asselbergs, Kwabena A Poku, Nancy J Brown, Jason H Moore, Scott M Williams
Populations in sub-Saharan Africa are shifting from rural to increasingly urban. Although the burden of cardiovascular disease is expected to increase with this changing landscape, few large studies have assessed a wide range of risk factors in urban and rural populations, particularly in West Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 3317 participants from Ghana (≥18 years old), of whom 2265 (57% female) were from a mid-sized city (Sunyani, population ~250,000) and 1052 (55% female) were from surrounding villages (populations <5000)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689542/safe-routes-to-play-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-crashes-near-parks-in-los-angeles
#19
Michael Jerrett, Jason G Su, Kara E MacLeod, Cooper Hanning, Douglas Houston, Jennifer Wolch
BACKGROUND: Areas near parks may present active travelers with higher risks than in other areas due to the confluence of more pedestrians and bicyclists, younger travelers, and the potential for increased traffic volumes. These risks may be amplified in low-income and minority neighborhoods due to generally higher rates of active travel or lack of safety infrastructure. This paper examines active travel crashes near parks and builds on existing research around disparities in park access and extends research from the Safe Routes to School and Safe Routes to Transit movements to parks...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682605/microbial-indicators-opportunistic-bacteria-and-pathogenic-protozoa-for-monitoring-urban-wastewater-reused-for-irrigation-in-the-proximity-of-a-megacity
#20
María Alejandra Fonseca-Salazar, Carlos Díaz-Ávalos, María Teresa Castañón-Martínez, Marco Antonio Tapia-Palacios, Marisa Mazari-Hiriart
In Latin America and the Caribbean, with a population of approximately 580 million inhabitants, less than 20 % of wastewater is treated. Megacities in this region face common challenges and problems related with water quality and sanitation, which require urgent actions, such as changes in the sustainable use of water resources. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world, with over 20 million inhabitants, and is no exception to the challenges of sustainable water management...
September 28, 2016: EcoHealth
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