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Transitional year residency

Courtney K Wilson, June I Matthews, Jamie A Seabrook, Paula D N Dworatzek
University students experience a life transition that often results in poor dietary behaviors and weight gain. Adequate food skills may improve diet quality and prevent chronic disease. Research is limited, however, on students' food skills and food-related behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether self-perceived food skills and related behaviors of students at a large, Canadian university differed based on sex, having taken a Food and Nutrition (FN) course, and living conditions, using a cross-sectional online survey...
October 11, 2016: Appetite
Doreen C Harper, Teena M McGuinness, Jean Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree positions nurse practitioners (NPs) and other advanced practice registered nurses, with clinical competencies similar to other disciplines requiring doctoral education (medicine, physical therapy, psychology, and pharmacy). In addition, all these disciplines also offer residencies. However, nursing is the only discipline that does not require a doctoral degree and/or have a systematic approach to residency training for advanced practice roles...
August 31, 2016: Nursing Outlook
Nuri Kodaman, Melinda C Aldrich, Rafal Sobota, Folkert W Asselbergs, Kwabena A Poku, Nancy J Brown, Jason H Moore, Scott M Williams
Populations in sub-Saharan Africa are shifting from rural to increasingly urban. Although the burden of cardiovascular disease is expected to increase with this changing landscape, few large studies have assessed a wide range of risk factors in urban and rural populations, particularly in West Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 3317 participants from Ghana (≥18 years old), of whom 2265 (57% female) were from a mid-sized city (Sunyani, population ~250,000) and 1052 (55% female) were from surrounding villages (populations <5000)...
2016: PloS One
Michael Jerrett, Jason G Su, Kara E MacLeod, Cooper Hanning, Douglas Houston, Jennifer Wolch
BACKGROUND: Areas near parks may present active travelers with higher risks than in other areas due to the confluence of more pedestrians and bicyclists, younger travelers, and the potential for increased traffic volumes. These risks may be amplified in low-income and minority neighborhoods due to generally higher rates of active travel or lack of safety infrastructure. This paper examines active travel crashes near parks and builds on existing research around disparities in park access and extends research from the Safe Routes to School and Safe Routes to Transit movements to parks...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Research
María Alejandra Fonseca-Salazar, Carlos Díaz-Ávalos, María Teresa Castañón-Martínez, Marco Antonio Tapia-Palacios, Marisa Mazari-Hiriart
In Latin America and the Caribbean, with a population of approximately 580 million inhabitants, less than 20 % of wastewater is treated. Megacities in this region face common challenges and problems related with water quality and sanitation, which require urgent actions, such as changes in the sustainable use of water resources. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world, with over 20 million inhabitants, and is no exception to the challenges of sustainable water management...
September 28, 2016: EcoHealth
Marlene M Rosenkoetter, Tamara McKethan, Cynthia Chernecky, Stephen Looney
Moving to a retirement community involves a major life transition that requires adjustment to a new way of life. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to assess the psychosocial adjustment of residents. Using the Life Patterns Model as a conceptual framework, residents of 3 retirement communities (n = 240 residents) were surveyed. Median ages were ∼84 years, Nearly 85% (202) reported that they feel good about themselves and most (92.5%; n = 221) have things to do that they enjoy. Health status was strongly associated with having nearby relatives (rs = -...
September 28, 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Kaigang Li, Denise Haynie, Leah Lipsky, Ronald J Iannotti, Charlotte Pratt, Bruce Simons-Morton
OBJECTIVES: Examined patterns and determinants of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over 4 years in US emerging adults. METHODS: Waves 1 through 4 (W1 [10th grade] to W4 data of a national cohort starting in 2010 (N = 561; 16.19 ± 0.51 years) were used. MVPA was assessed annually from accelerometers; BMI calculated from measured height/weight; and surveys ascertained self-reported physical activity (PA) planning, peer PA , family support, W1 sociodemographics, W4 school status, W4 residence, and W4 employment...
September 26, 2016: Pediatrics
Manreet Padwal, Peter J Margetts
Peritoneal fibrosis is one of the major complications occurring in long-term peritoneal dialysis patients as a result of injury. Peritoneal fibrosis is characterized by submesothelial thickening and fibrosis which is associated with a decline in peritoneal membrane function. The myofibroblast has been identified as the key player involved in the development and progression of peritoneal fibrosis. Activation of the myofibroblast is correlated with expansion of the extracellular matrix and changes in peritoneal membrane integrity...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Daniel Zúñiga, Jade Falconer, Adam M Fudickar, Willi Jensen, Andreas Schmidt, Martin Wikelski, Jesko Partecke
Every year, billions of wild diurnal songbirds migrate at night. To do so, they shift their daily rhythm from diurnality to nocturnality. In captivity this is observed as a gradual transition of daytime activity developing into nocturnal activity, but how wild birds prepare their daily rhythms for migration remains largely unknown. Using an automated radio-telemetry system, we compared activity patterns of free-living migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in a partially migratory population during the pre-migratory season...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Issa Mirmehdi, Cindy-Marie O'Neal, Davis Moon, Heather MacNew, Christopher Senkowski
PURPOSE: With the implementation of strict 80-hour work week in general surgery training, serious questions have been raised concerning the quality of surgical education and the ability of newly trained general surgeons to independently operate. Programs that were randomized to the interventional arm of the Flexibility In duty-hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial were able to decrease transitions and allow for better continuity by virtue of less constraints on duty-hour rules...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Yong-Jun Liu, Meghan Kessler, Dani S Zander, Dipti M Karamchandani
Academic and community hospital pathology groups are increasingly adopting subspecialized service models for surgical pathology (SP) practice. Reasons cited include improvements in sign-out efficiency, quality and accuracy, enhancement of clinician-pathologist communications, and augmentation of resident training quality. However, there is a paucity of published quantitative data regarding the outcomes of transitioning from general to subspecialized SP service coverage. Retrospective assessment of the frequencies and outcomes of SP extramural consultations requested by faculty at our institution was performed, encompassing 2 consecutive years each of subspecialized and general SP service models...
October 2016: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Thomas E MacMillan, Shail Rawal, Peter Cram, Jessica Liu
The transition from residency to independent practice presents unique challenges for physicians. New attending physicians often have unmet learning needs in non-clinical domains. An attending physician is an independent medical practitioner, sometimes referred to as a staff physician or consultant. Peer mentorship has been explored as an alternative to traditional mentorship to meet the learning needs of new attendings. In this article, the authors describe how a journal club for general internal medicine fellowship graduates helped ease the transition by facilitating peer mentorship...
October 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Eric Young, Chad Stickrath, Monica C McNulty, Aaron J Calderon, Elizabeth Chapman, Jed D Gonzalo, Ethan F Kuperman, Max Lopez, Christopher J Smith, Joseph R Sweigart, Cecelia N Theobald, Robert E Burke
BACKGROUND: Medical residents are routinely entrusted with transitions of care, yet little is known about the duration or content of their perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To examine the duration and content of internal medicine residents' perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. The secondary objective was to determine whether specific individual experiences and characteristics correlate with perceived responsibility...
September 14, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
B Lavigne, E Audebert-Mérilhou, G Buisson, F Kochman, J P Clément, B Olliac
INTRODUCTION: Depression disorder may become the first cause of morbidity by 2030, according to the World Health Organization. It is actually one of the main causes of disease and handicap in children aged from 10 to 19. The major risk is suicide, whose prevalence is estimated, in France, around 6.7 for 100,000, which is probably underestimated. At present, the discussions about prescription of antidepressants in an adolescent's depression remain intense which is why psychotherapy becomes the first choice of treatment...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Hui G Cheng, Madhur Chandra, Karl C Alcover, James C Anthony
BACKGROUND: To study male-female and age differences in estimates of rapid transition from first full drink to alcohol dependence among youthful newly incident drinkers in the United States (US). METHOD: The study population included 12-to-25-year-old non-institutionalized US civilian residents, sampled for US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health 2002-2013, with assessments via confidential computer assisted self-interviews. Newly incident drinkers are those who had their first full drink soon before the assessment (n=32,562 12-to-25-year- olds)...
August 21, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Zhenjie Wang, Ning Li, Chao Guo, Lei Zhang, Gong Chen, Xiaoying Zheng
The world will be facing huge population aged 65 and older, accounting for 13% of the total population in the future. Significant disabilities rates reflect an accumulation of health risks. Psychiatry disability is one of the most significant disabilities, because it manifests in cognitive, affective, and behavior disorders that limit one's daily life and restrict their participations. Very few studies have explored the 20 years associations between demographic factors and psychiatry disability among older people in China...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fatjona Kraja, Bledar Kraja, Iris Mone, Ilda Harizi, Adriana Babameto, Genc Burazeri
AIM: There is growing evidence that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major health problem in developing and transitional countries. The prevalence of NCDs and associated factors are under-researched in Albania. We aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of NCDs in the Albanian adult population. METHODS: The study was carried out in the framework of Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS), a national population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 including 12,554 men and women aged ≥35 years...
June 2016: Medical Archives
Luca Morino, Carola Borries
OBJECTIVES: Infanticide by males is assumed to promote permanent male-female associations, although its importance for social monogamy is still debated. We examined the consequences of male membership change in the largest socially monogamous primate, the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), a species that also forms polyandrous groups and where males may provide offspring care. We examine (a) the potential risk of infanticide by documenting changes in female-offspring relationships following male change, expecting abrupt weaning; and (b) the potential importance of male care and polyandry for offspring survival...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Sherly Parackal
BACKGROUND: South Asians (SA) have a four to five fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison to other Asian migrant groups. Dietary patterns have been attributed as an important independent modifiable risk factor. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to document the dietary patterns of SA migrants in Western countries and to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary patterns with T2DM and its pre-disposing factors. METHODS: Using key search words articles from 1990 onwards were sourced from MEDLINE ProQuest and PubMed (not MEDLINE) databases for this narrative review...
August 31, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Maribeth B Chitkara, Daniel Satnick, Wei-Hsin Lu, Howard Fleit, Roderick A Go, Latha Chandran
BACKGROUND: Residency programs have utilized Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) to customize resident education while undergraduate medical education has not done so in a meaningful way. We discuss the use of ILPs within a fourth year medical school course to facilitate self-directed learning (SDL). METHODS: At Stony Brook University School of Medicine, an ILP component was added to the Advanced Clinical Experience (ACE) course for fourth year students. Each completed an ILP outlining personal learning goals and strategies to achieve them...
2016: BMC Medical Education
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