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Transitional year residency

Parisa Amiri, Sara Jalali-Farahani, Hasti Masihay Akbar, Leila Cheraghi, Davood Khalili, Amirabbas Momenan, Parvin Mirmiran, Arash Ghanbarian, Mehdi Hedayati, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood makes lifestyle interventions imperative during adolescence. This study aimed to assess the effects of a community-based lifestyle intervention on MetS and its components in adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents, based on their residential area were categorized into three groups: complete intervention (residing in the intervention area at baseline and during all follow-ups), incomplete intervention (residing in either the intervention or control areas and were in transition between these two areas), and control group (residing in the control area at baseline and throughout all follow-ups)...
April 12, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Lauren Walter, Kelly Dumke, Ariana Oliva, Emily Caesar, Zoë Phillips, Nathan Lehman, Linda Aragon, Paul Simon, Tony Kuo
Efforts to reverse the obesity epidemic require policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies. Despite the availability of evidence-based and other promising PSE interventions, limited evidence exists on the "how-to" of transitioning them into practice. For the past 13 years, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health has been building capacity among community residents and other stakeholders to create effective community coalitions and to implement well-designed policy strategy campaigns using an evidence-based approach to policy change, the policy adoption model (PAM)...
April 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Boyd R Buser, James E Swartwout, Maura Biszewski, Terri Lischka
In 2014, the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) agreed to establish a new, single accreditation system for graduate medical education in the United States. The 5-year transition period, from July 1, 2015, through June 30, 2020, gives AOA training programs time to apply for and receive ACGME accreditation before the AOA ceases its postdoctoral accreditation functions. This article discusses policies to protect osteopathic residents during training, addresses program size, reviews progress at the midpoint of the 5-year transition, and looks at next steps in the establishment of the single accreditation system...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Craig F Garfield, Collin Abbott, Joshua Rutsohn, Frank Penedo
The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between the transition to fatherhood and depressive symptoms scores among Hispanic men. Using the sample of Hispanic men included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, depressive symptom scores were examined from 1994 to 2008. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created that included the men's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores as well as residency status with the child. By regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptom scores, associations between mental health scores of Hispanic men and their transition to fatherhood were identified...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Natalia Aptsiauri, Francisco Ruiz-Cabello, Federico Garrido
MHC/HLA class I loss in cancer is one of the main mechanisms of tumor immune escape from T-cell recognition and destruction. Tumor infiltration by T lymphocytes (TILs) and by other immune cells was first described many years ago, but has never been directly and clearly linked to the destruction of HLA-I positive and selection of HLA-I negative tumor cells. The degree and the pattern of lymphocyte infiltration in a tumor nest may depend on antigenicity and the developmental stages of the tumors. In addition, it is becoming evident that HLA-I expression and tumor infiltration have a direct correlation with tumor tissue reorganization...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Li-Jung Lin, Hsin-Yen Yen
BACKGROUND: The rising population of older adults is transforming Taiwan society. Although many long-term care facilities now operate for older adults, the transition from the home environment to long-term facilities may cause multiple issues, including relocation stress syndrome, for new residents. Autonomy is a critical element of the human experience. Leisure, as an expression of autonomy, has been shown to enhance self-image and promote feelings of competence and mastery. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between participation in leisure activities and adjustment to residential care using the continuity theory...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Chew Lip Ng, Xuan Dao Liu, Renuka Murali Govind, Jonathan Wei Jian Tan, Shirley Beng Suat Ooi, Sophia Archuleta
INTRODUCTION: Postgraduate medical education in Singapore underwent major transition recently, from a British-style system and accreditation to a competency-based residency programme modelled after the American system. We aimed to identify the relative importance of factors influencing the choice of residency sponsoring institutions (SIs) among medical students during this transition period. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of Singaporean undergraduate medical students across all years of study was performed in 2011...
March 16, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Tomohiro Morita, Shuhei Nomura, Tomoyuki Furutani, Claire Leppold, Masaharu Tsubokura, Akihiko Ozaki, Sae Ochi, Masahiro Kami, Shigeaki Kato, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
INTRODUCTION: Demographic changes as a result of evacuation in the acute phase of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster are not well evaluated. We estimated post-disaster demographic transitions in Minamisoma City-located 14-38 km north of the nuclear plant-in the first month of the disaster; and identified demographic factors associated with the population remaining in the affected areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted data from the evacuation behavior survey administered to participants in the city between July 11, 2011 and April 30, 2013...
2018: PloS One
William E Cunningham, Robert E Weiss, Terry Nakazono, Mark A Malek, Steve J Shoptaw, Susan L Ettner, Nina T Harawa
Importance: Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are steps in the care continuum enabling consistent viral suppression for people living with HIV, extending longevity and preventing further transmission. While incarcerated, people living with HIV receive antiretroviral therapy and achieve viral suppression more consistently than after they are released. No interventions have shown sustained viral suppression after jail release...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Xiaofang Jia, Zhihong Wang, Bing Zhang, Chang Su, Wenwen Du, Jiguo Zhang, Ji Zhang, Hongru Jiang, Feifei Huang, Yifei Ouyang, Yun Wang, Li Li, Huijun Wang
Vitamin C is essential for human health. It is important to estimate the dietary vitamin C intake in the Chinese population to examine the effects of the nutritional transition occurred in recent decades. The present study aimed to estimate the dietary vitamin C intake in Chinese adults by using cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Nutritional Transition Cohort Study and selecting those aged 18-65 years with complete records of sociodemographic characteristics and dietary measurements ( n = 11,357). Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Kruskal-Wallis analysis, Chi-squared test, and multiple logistic regression were employed to analyze the daily dietary vitamin C intake on the basis of three-day 24 h dietary recalls and food sources in relation to demographic factors, to evaluate vitamin C intake status using the estimated average requirement cut-off point, and to explore underlying influencing factors...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Katarina Guttmannova, Martie L Skinner, Sabrina Oesterle, Helene R White, Richard F Catalano, J David Hawkins
Permissive attitudes and norms about marijuana use and perceptions of low harm from use are considered risk factors for adolescent marijuana use. However, the relationship between risk and use may be reciprocal and vary across development and socializing domains. We examined the bidirectional relationships between marijuana-specific risk factors in individual, parent, peer, and community domains and adolescent marijuana use. Longitudinal data came from a sample of 2002 adolescents in 12 communities. Controlling for sociodemographic covariates and communities in which the individuals resided, autoregressive cross-lagged models examined predictive associations between the risk factors and marijuana use...
March 5, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Fitsum Eyayu Tarekegne, Mojgan Padyab, Julia Schröders, Jennifer Stewart Williams
Objective: The objective is to identify and describe the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of adults, aged 50 years and over, who self-reported having been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus (DM) in Ghana and South Africa. Research design and methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1. Information on sociodemographic factors, health states, risk factors and chronic conditions is captured from questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
R F AbuAlRub, M G Abu Alhaija'a
AIMS: To explore the challenges that face Jordanian nurses in the first year of employment; and understand the benefits and barriers of implementing a Nursing Residency Program from the perspectives of nurses and key informants. BACKGROUND: Many researchers reported that novice nurses do not have an adequate level of competence needed in the real clinical practice to meet the increasing demands of healthcare systems. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative approach using individual interviews and focus group discussions was utilized...
March 2, 2018: International Nursing Review
Arezoo Haghighian Roudsari, Abouali Vedadhir, Parisa Amiri, Naser Kalantari, Nasrin Omidvar, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Seyed Mohammad Hani Sadati
Objective: Food choice is a process through which people think, feel, and eat food. It does not only influence individuals' health and well-being, families and communities, but also it has an effect on regional, national, and global levels. This qualitative study was conducted to explore perceptions and lived experiences of Tehran adult residents on psychological, social and cultural determinants of food choice. Method: In this qualitative design, we recruited 33 adults aged 30 to 64 years from various districts of Tehran, capital of Iran, and we explored how people make decisions about food choice in practice and shape their perception, attitude, and eating practices...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Olle Ten Cate, Jan Borleffs, Marijke van Dijk, Tineke Westerveld
AIM: The aim of this report, written for the 40th anniversary issue of Medical Teacher, is to document 20 years of development of the Utrecht undergraduate medical curriculum, as both to exhibit accountability and to inform the community of the process and choices that can be made in long-term curriculum development. METHODS: We used the SPICES model, created by Medical Teacher's Editor Ronald Harden and colleagues in 1984. RESULTS: The Utrecht six-year program, now called "CRU+", has many distinct features that were introduced, most of which are well documented...
February 22, 2018: Medical Teacher
Daniel Aggio, Efstathios Papachristou, Olia Papacosta, Lucy T Lennon, Sarah Ash, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of physical activity (PA) during later life is associated with optimal health; however, the long-term trajectories of PA into old age and their predictors have not been extensively researched using latent class methods. This study aimed to identify trajectories of self-reported PA and their predictors in men transitioning from midlife to old age. METHODS: 7735 men (aged 40-59 years) recruited in 1978-80 were followed up after 12, 16 and 20 years, reporting PA, health status, lifestyle behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Ruby Yu, Dan Wang, Jason Leung, Kevin Lau, Timothy Kwok, Jean Woo
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether neighborhood green space was related to frailty risk longitudinally and to examine the relative contributions of green space, physical activity, and individual health conditions to the frailty transitions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand community-dwelling Chinese adults aged ≥65 years participating in the Mr. and Ms. Os (Hong Kong) study in 2001-2003 were followed up for 2 years. METHODS: The percentage of green space within a 300-meter radial buffer around the participants' place of residence was derived for each participant at baseline based on the normalized difference vegetation index...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
M Fernanda Lima-Costa, Fabíola Bof de Andrade, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza, Anita Liberalesso Neri, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte, Erico Castro-Costa, Cesar de Oliveira
Brazil is experiencing one of the world's fastest demographic aging worldwide. This demographic transition is occurring in a context of few resources and great social inequalities. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) is a nationally representative study of 9,412 people aged 50 years and over, residing in 70 municipalities across the 5 great Brazilian regions. The study allows investigations of the aging process, its health, psychosocial and economic determinants and societal consequences...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Marco Fiorentino, Giuseppe Grandaliano, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Castellano
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI), even if followed by renal recovery, is a risk factor for the future development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In the previous years, novel insights in the pathophysiology of CKD progression suggested a causal link between AKI and CKD due to a maladaptive repair after severe and repeated injury. SUMMARY: Several pathological mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the progression of AKI and transition to CKD/ESRD including hypoxia and microvascular rarefaction, alterations of renal resident cell phenotypes and functions, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, persistent chronic inflammation, and development of interstitial fibrosis, mitochondrial fragmentation, epigenetic changes, activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), cell and tissue senescence...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
Alison J Price, Amelia C Crampin, Alemayehu Amberbir, Ndoliwe Kayuni-Chihana, Crispin Musicha, Terence Tafatatha, Keith Branson, Debbie A Lawlor, Elenaus Mwaiyeghele, Lawrence Nkhwazi, Liam Smeeth, Neil Pearce, Elizabeth Munthali, Beatrice M Mwagomba, Charles Mwansambo, Judith R Glynn, Shabbar Jaffar, Moffat Nyirenda
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is in rapid demographic transition, and non-communicable diseases are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the burden of diabetes, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and multimorbidity, their treatment, and their associations with lifestyle and other factors in Malawi, a very poor country with a predominantly rural-but rapidly growing urban-population, to identify high-risk populations and inform appropriate interventions...
January 19, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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