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Transitional year residency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415729/trajectories-of-self-reported-physical-activity-and-predictors-during-the-transition-to-old-age-a-20-year-cohort-study-of-british-men
#1
Daniel Aggio, Efstathios Papachristou, Olia Papacosta, Lucy T Lennon, Sarah Ash, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of physical activity (PA) during later life is associated with optimal health; however, the long-term trajectories of PA into old age and their predictors have not been extensively researched using latent class methods. This study aimed to identify trajectories of self-reported PA and their predictors in men transitioning from midlife to old age. METHODS: 7735 men (aged 40-59 years) recruited in 1978-80 were followed up after 12, 16 and 20 years, reporting PA, health status, lifestyle behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402649/is-neighborhood-green-space-associated-with-less-frailty-evidence-from-the-mr-and-ms-os-hong-kong-study
#2
Ruby Yu, Dan Wang, Jason Leung, Kevin Lau, Timothy Kwok, Jean Woo
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether neighborhood green space was related to frailty risk longitudinally and to examine the relative contributions of green space, physical activity, and individual health conditions to the frailty transitions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand community-dwelling Chinese adults aged ≥65 years participating in the Mr. and Ms. Os (Hong Kong) study in 2001-2003 were followed up for 2 years. METHODS: The percentage of green space within a 300-meter radial buffer around the participants' place of residence was derived for each participant at baseline based on the normalized difference vegetation index...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394304/the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-aging-elsi-brazil-objectives-and-design
#3
M Fernanda Lima-Costa, Fabíola Bof de Andrade, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza, Anita Liberalesso Neri, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte, Erico Castro-Costa, Cesar de Oliveira
Brazil is experiencing one of the world's fastest demographic aging worldwide. This demographic transition is occurring in a context of few resources and great social inequalities. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) is a nationally representative study of 9,412 people aged 50 years and over, residing in 70 municipalities across the 5 great Brazilian regions. The study allows investigations of the aging process, its health, psychosocial and economic determinants and societal consequences...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393158/acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-transition
#4
Marco Fiorentino, Giuseppe Grandaliano, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Castellano
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI), even if followed by renal recovery, is a risk factor for the future development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In the previous years, novel insights in the pathophysiology of CKD progression suggested a causal link between AKI and CKD due to a maladaptive repair after severe and repeated injury. SUMMARY: Several pathological mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the progression of AKI and transition to CKD/ESRD including hypoxia and microvascular rarefaction, alterations of renal resident cell phenotypes and functions, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, persistent chronic inflammation, and development of interstitial fibrosis, mitochondrial fragmentation, epigenetic changes, activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), cell and tissue senescence...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371076/prevalence-of-obesity-hypertension-and-diabetes-and-cascade-of-care-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-in-rural-and-urban-malawi
#5
Alison J Price, Amelia C Crampin, Alemayehu Amberbir, Ndoliwe Kayuni-Chihana, Crispin Musicha, Terence Tafatatha, Keith Branson, Debbie A Lawlor, Elenaus Mwaiyeghele, Lawrence Nkhwazi, Liam Smeeth, Neil Pearce, Elizabeth Munthali, Beatrice M Mwagomba, Charles Mwansambo, Judith R Glynn, Shabbar Jaffar, Moffat Nyirenda
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is in rapid demographic transition, and non-communicable diseases are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the burden of diabetes, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and multimorbidity, their treatment, and their associations with lifestyle and other factors in Malawi, a very poor country with a predominantly rural-but rapidly growing urban-population, to identify high-risk populations and inform appropriate interventions...
January 19, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364768/the-effectiveness-of-internet-and-field-based-methods-to-recruit-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-nonmedically
#6
Brandon D L Marshall, Traci C Green, Beth Elston, Jesse L Yedinak, Scott E Hadland, Melissa A Clark
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a problem among young adults, yet young NMPO users are a diverse population that has been challenging to engage in overdose prevention and harm reduction programs. OBJECTIVES: This study compared the effectiveness and characteristics of persons recruited through two different sampling strategies to inform research and intervention efforts with young adult NMPO users. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled persons aged 18 to 29 who reported past 30-day NMPO use...
January 24, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348258/high-risk-behaviour-and-hiv-infection-risk-among-non-local-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-less-than-a-single-year-s-residence-in-urban-centres-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-study-from-china
#7
Yan-Qiu Yu, Jun-Jie Xu, Qing-Hai Hu, Hong-Jing Yan, Zhe Wang, Lin Lu, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Xi Chen, Ji-Hua Fu, Yi-Lu Qin, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Hong Shang
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, subjects' migration status has usually been defined on the basis of their registered residency status. We attempted to redefine migration based on the duration of residency in their cities of migration and to explore more precisely the impact of migration on HIV infection risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: A multisite cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2013 in seven Chinese cities. Questionnaire surveys were conducted and blood was drawn to test for antibodies to HIV, syphilis and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)...
February 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343469/entrustable-professional-activities-a-useful-concept-for-neurology-education
#8
Holli Horak, Robert Englander, Diana Barratt, Jeff Kraakevik, Madhu Soni, Ezgi Tiryaki
Medical education is currently undergoing a paradigm shift from process-based to competency-based education, focused on measuring the desired competence of a physician. In an attempt to improve the assessment framework used for medical education, the concept of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) has gained traction. EPAs are defined as professional activities that can be entrusted to an individual in a clinical context. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) defined a set of 13 such EPAs to define the core of what all students should be able to do on day 1 of residency, regardless of specialty choice...
January 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343150/eight-year-outcomes-of-a-competency-based-residency-training-program-in-orthopedic-surgery
#9
Markku T Nousiainen, Polina Mironova, Melissa Hynes, Susan Glover Takahashi, Richard Reznick, William Kraemer, Benjamin Alman, Peter Ferguson
BACKGROUND: The Division of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Toronto implemented a pilot residency training program that used a competency-based framework in July of 2009. The competency-based curriculum (CBC) deployed an innovative, modularized approach that dramatically intensified both the structured learning elements and the assessment processes. METHODS: This paper discusses the initial curriculum design of the CBC pilot program; the refinement of the curriculum using curriculum mapping that allowed for efficiencies in educational delivery; details of evaluating resident competence; feedback from external reviews by accrediting bodies; and trainee and program outcomes for the first eight years of the program's implementation...
January 18, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341070/personality-changes-during-the-transition-from-cognitive-health-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Richard J Caselli, Blake T Langlais, Amylou C Dueck, Bruce R Henslin, Travis A Johnson, Bryan K Woodruff, Charlene Hoffman-Snyder, Dona E C Locke
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Behavioral problems in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) impose major management challenges. Current prevention strategies are anchored to cognitive outcomes, but behavioral outcomes may provide another, clinically relevant opportunity for preemptive therapy. We sought to determine whether personality changes that predispose to behavioral disorders arise during the transition from preclinical AD to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338143/anesthesiology-residents-induction-month-a-pilot-study-showing-an-effective-and-safe-way-to-train-novice-residents-through-simulation
#11
Federico L Barra, Luca Carenzo, Jeffrey Franc, Claudia Montagnini, Flavia Petrini, Francesco Della Corte, Pier L Ingrassia
BACKGROUND: The transition of new residents from medical school to the post-graduate clinical environment remains challenging. We hypothesized that an introductory simulation course could improve new residents' performance in anesthesiology. METHODS: "Anesthesiology Residents Induction Month" (ARIM) was designed as a non-clinical simulation training program aiming at providing the theoretical and practical skills to safely approach, as junior anesthesiologists, the operating rooms...
January 16, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336769/processes-of-health-care-delivery-education-and-provider-satisfaction-in-acute-care-surgery-a-systematic-review
#12
DeGirolamo Kristin, Patrick B Murphy, Karan D'Souza, Jacques X Zhang, Neil Parry, Elliott Haut, W Robert Leeper, Ken Leslie, Kelly N Vogt, S Morad Hameed
In recent years, significant workload, high acuity, and complexity of emergency general surgery conditions have led hospitals to replace the traditional on-call model with dedicated acute care surgery (ACS) service models. A systematic search of Ovid, EMBASE, and MEDLINE was undertaken to examine the impact of ACS services on health-care delivery processes and cost, education, and provider satisfaction. From 1827 papers, reviewers identified 22 studies that met inclusion criteria and subsequently used The Evidence-Based Practice for Improving Quality method and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to score quality and level of evidence...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322173/association-of-surgical-practice-patterns-and-clinical-outcomes-with-surgeon-training-in-university-or-nonuniversity-based-residency-program
#13
Morgan M Sellers, Luke J Keele, Catherine E Sharoky, Christopher Wirtalla, Elizabeth A Bailey, Rachel R Kelz
Importance: Important metrics of residency program success include the clinical outcomes achieved by trainees after transitioning to practice. Previous studies have shown significant differences in reported training experiences of general surgery residents at nonuniversity-based residency (NUBR) and university-based residency (UBR) programs. Objective: To examine the differences in practice patterns and clinical outcomes between surgeons trained in NUBR and those trained in UBR programs...
January 10, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320409/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-clinician-improvement-program-for-treating-patients-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-the-challenging-case-of-mississippi
#14
John P Bartkowski, Janelle Kohler, Craig L Escude, Xiaohe Xu, Stephen Bartkowski
In recent years, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have moved from institutionalized settings to local community residences. While deinstitutionalization has yielded quality of life improvements for people with IDD, this transition presents significant health-related challenges. Community clinicians have typically not been trained to provide sound medical care to people with IDD, a subpopulation that exhibits unique medical needs and significant health disparities. This study reports the results of a comprehensive evaluation of an IDD-focused clinician improvement program implemented throughout Mississippi...
January 10, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298366/getting-it-rite-impact-of-a-dedicated-hospital-medicine-curriculum-for-residents
#15
Doris Lin, Chirayu Shah, Steffanie Campbell, Jeffrey T Bates, Erica Lescinskas
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to improve resident confidence in inpatient care and knowledge in hospital medicine topics with a newly developed rotation and curriculum called the Resident Inpatient Training Experience. METHODS: This study was a prospective observational study completed by postgraduate year-2 (PGY-2) internal medicine residents in two affiliated hospitals. Forty-six PGY-2 residents each rotated on the Resident Inpatient Training Experience service for 1 month and completed a pre- and postrotation confidential online survey...
January 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282103/within-host-evolution-of-enterococcus-faecium-during-longitudinal-carriage-and-transition-to-bloodstream-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients
#16
Danesh Moradigaravand, Theodore Gouliouris, Beth Blane, Plamena Naydenova, Catherine Ludden, Charles Crawley, Nicholas M Brown, M Estée Török, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection, particularly in the immunocompromised. Here, we use whole genome sequencing of E. faecium to study within-host evolution and the transition from gut carriage to invasive disease. METHODS: We isolated and sequenced 180 E. faecium from four immunocompromised patients who developed bloodstream infection during longitudinal surveillance of E. faecium in stool and their immediate environment...
December 27, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246673/environmental-supports-for-physical-activity-national-health-interview-survey-2015
#17
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Susan A Carlson, Emily N Ussery, Kathleen B Watson, Marc A Adams, Peter James, Ross C Brownson, David Berrigan, Janet E Fulton
INTRODUCTION: The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends combined built environment approaches to increase physical activity, including new or enhanced transportation infrastructure (e.g., sidewalks) and land use and environmental design interventions (e.g., close proximity of local destinations). The aim of this brief report is to provide nationally representative estimates of two types of built environment supports for physical activity: near-home walkable infrastructure and destinations, from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey...
February 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246590/developing-a-national-simulation-based-surgical-skills-bootcamp-in-general-thoracic-surgery
#18
Colin Schieman, Hideki Ujiie, Laura Donahoe, Waël Hanna, Richard Malthaner, Simon Turner, Kasia Czarnecka, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: The use surgical simulation across all subspecialties has gained widespread adoption in the last decade. A number of factors, including the small number of trainees, identified gaps in surgical skill training from cross-sectional surveys, increased national collaboration, and support from the national specialty committee identified a need to construct a surgical skills "bootcamp" in thoracic surgery in Canada. OBJECTIVE: The goals of the surgical skills bootcamp, as identified by the residency training program directors and the national specialty committee were to create a national, centralized, simulation-based skills workshop that focused on key foundational procedures within thoracic surgery, particularly those identified as areas of weakness by former residents; to smooth the transition to intraoperative teaching; to provide exposure to important but not necessarily universally available procedures such as advanced endoscopy; to teach non-medical expert competencies, and lastly to provide a venue for networking for residents across the country...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245982/endothelial-derived-interleukin-6-induces-cancer-stem-cell-motility-by-generating-a-chemotactic-gradient-towards-blood-vessels
#19
Hong Sun Kim, Yu-Chih Chen, Felipe Nör, Kristy A Warner, April Andrews, Vivian P Wagner, Zhaocheng Zhang, Zhixiong Zhang, Manoela D Martins, Alexander T Pearson, Euisik Yoon, Jacques E Nör
Recent evidence suggests that the metastatic spread of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) requires the function of cancer stem cells endowed with multipotency, self-renewal, and high tumorigenic potential. We demonstrated that cancer stem cells reside in perivascular niches and are characterized by high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and high CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) in HNSCC. Here, we hypothesize that endothelial cell-secreted interleukin-6 (IL-6) contributes to tumor progression by enhancing the migratory phenotype and survival of cancer stem cells...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233316/pharmacy-residents-as-primary-educators-within-a-professional-pharmacy-elective
#20
Meredith L Howard, Taylor D Steuber, Alison M Walton, Sarah A Nisly
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a course change from a faculty-led professional pharmacy elective to a primarily pharmacy resident-led course on student satisfaction and learning. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: In 2014, pharmacy residents were transitioned into primary teaching roles in a drug-induced diseases elective to increase student exposure to residents and different teaching styles. Student learning roles did not change...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
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