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Kamalakannan Palanichamy, Arnab Chakravarti
The present most common image diagnostic tracer in clinical practice for glioma is (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for brain tumors diagnosis and prognosis. PET is a promising molecular imaging technique, which provides real-time information on the metabolic behavior of the tracer. The diffusive nature of glioblastoma (GBM) and heterogeneity often make the radiographic detection by FDG-PET inaccurate, and there is no gold standard. FDG-PET often leads to several controversies in making clinical decisions due to their uptake by normal surrounding tissues, and pose a challenge in delineating treatment-induced necrosis, edema, inflammation, and pseudoprogression...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Rajesh Pidikiti, Bijal C Patel, Matthew R Maynard, Joseph P Dugas, Joseph Syh, Narayan Sahoo, Hsinshun Terry Wu, Lane R Rosen
This paper summarizes clinical commissioning of the world's first commercial, clinically utilized installation of a compact, image-guided, pencil-beam scanning, intensity-modulated proton therapy system, the IBA Proteus(®) ONE, at the Willis-Knighton Cancer Center (WKCC) in Shreveport, LA. The Proteus(®) ONE is a single-room, compact-gantry system employing a cyclotron-generated proton beam with image guidance via cone-beam CT as well as stereoscopic orthogonal and oblique planar kV imaging. Coupling 220° of gantry rotation with a 6D robotic couch capable of in plane patient rotations of over 180° degrees allows for 360° of treatment access...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Kyle A Beyer, Angela Di Fulvio, Liliana Stolarczyk, Wiktor Parol, Natalia Mojzeszek, Renata Kopéc, Shaun D Clarke, Sara A Pozzi
We developed a radiation detector based on an organic scintillator for spectrometry and dosimetry of out-of-field secondary neutrons from clinical proton beams. The detector consists of an EJ-299-34 crystalline organic scintillator, coupled by fiber optic cable to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Proof of concept measurements were taken with 137Cs and 252Cf, and corresponding simulations were performed in MCNPX-PoliMi. Despite its small size, the detector is able to discriminate between neutron and gamma-rays via pulse shape discrimination...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jesper Fonslet, Boon Quan Lee, Thuy A Tran, Mattia Siragusa, Mikael Jensen, Tibor Kibedi, Andrew E Stuchbery, Gregory W Severin
<b>Introduction:</b> <sup>135</sup>La has favorable nuclear and chemical properties for Auger-based targeted internal radiotherapy. Here we present detailed investigations of the production, emissions, imaging characteristics, and dosimetry related to <sup>135</sup>La therapy. <b>Methods and Results:</b> <sup>135</sup>La was produced by 16.5 MeV proton irradiation of metallic <sup>nat</sup>Ba on a medical cyclotron, and was isolated and purified by trap-and-release on weak cation-exchange resin...
November 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Simon Becher, Bernhard Spengler, Sven Heiles
Ultraviolet photodissociation tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to investigate the structure of biomolecules, due to its ability to generate rich fragmentation patterns or bond selective cleavage, as a function of used laser wavelength, laser fluence, dose (number of accumulated laser pulses), and available chromophores. Herein, we report first results obtained with a newly developed two-wavelength (266 nm and 213 nm) ultraviolet photodissociation setup coupled to a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Tohid Farajollahpour, Seyed Akbar Jafari
We use ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) The insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Raman Sankar, Peramaiyan G, Panneer Muthuselvam Irulandi, Suyang Xu, M Zahid Hasan, Fang-Cheng Chou
We report single crystal growth and transport properties of a Weyl semimetal TaAs. Unsaturated large MR about 22100 % at 2 K and 9 T is observed. From the Hall measurement, carrier concentrations n = 4.608×1024 m-3 and p = 3.099×1024 m-3, and mobilities μp = 2.502 m2 V-1 s-1 and μn = 16.785 m2 V-1 s-1 at 2 K are extracted. The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations at 2 K and 9 T suggest the presence of a Fermi surface, and the quantum electronic parameters such as effective cyclotron mass and Dingle temperature were obtained using Lifshitz-Kosevich (L-K) fitting...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jingdan Zhang, Xiaoxue Zhang, Yangyang Zhao, Aihua Song, Wei Sun, Ran Yin
In this study, a reliable and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry method was developed for the systematic study of the metabolic profile of Kudiezi injection in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces after intravenous administration of a single dose. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) and the identification of prototype components and metabolites was achieved on a Bruker Solarix 7...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Małgorzata Liszka, Liliana Stolarczyk, Magdalena Kłodowska, Anna Kozera, Dawid Krzempek, Natalia Mojżeszek, Anna Pędracka, Michael Patrick Russell Waligórski, Paweł Olko
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect on charge collection in the ionization chamber (IC) in proton pencil beam scanning (PBS), where the local dose-rate may exceed the dose rates encountered in conventional MV therapy by up to 3 orders of magnitude. METHODS: We measured values of the ion recombination (ks ) and polarity (kpol ) correction factors in water, for a plane-parallel Markus TM23343 IC, using the cyclotron-based Proteus-235 therapy system with an active proton PBS of energies 30-230 MeV...
November 13, 2017: Medical Physics
Leonie Hussaarts, Maria Mardalena Martini Kaisar, Arzu Tugce Guler, Hans Dalebout, Bart Everts, André M Deelder, Magnus Palmblad, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the sentinels of the immune system. Upon recognition of a pathogen, they mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to prime and polarize T cell responses. Although it is known that helminths and helminth-derived molecules condition DCs to polarize T helper (Th) cells towards Th2, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to conduct a proteome analysis of helminth antigen-stimulated DCs in order to gain more insight into the cellular processes associated with their ability to polarize immune responses...
November 10, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Nikola Tolić, Yina Liu, Andrey Liyu, Yufeng Shen, Malak M Tfaily, Elizabeth B Kujawinski, Krista Longnecker, Li-Jung Kuo, Errol W Robinson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Nancy J Hess
Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS), can resolve thousands of molecular ions in complex organic matrices. A Compound Identification Algorithm (CIA) was previously developed for automated elemental formula assignment for natural organic matter (NOM). In this work, we describe software Formularity with a user-friendly interface for CIA function and newly developed search function Isotopic Pattern Algorithm (IPA). While CIA assigns elemental formulas for compounds containing C, H, O, N, S, and P, IPA is capable of assigning formulas for compounds containing other elements...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Konstantin O Nagornov, Anton N Kozhinov, Yury O Tsybin
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Huaming Sheng, Weijuan Tang, Jinshan Gao, James Steven Riedeman, Guannan Li, Tiffany Mae Jarrell, Matthew R Hurt, Linan Yang, Priya Murria, Xin Ma, John Joseph Nash, Hilkka I Kenttamaa
Seven synthesized G-lignin oligomer model compounds (ranging in size from dimers to an octamer) with 5-5 and/or β-O-4 linkag-es, and three synthesized S-lignin model compounds (a dimer, trimer and tetramer) with β-O-4 linkages, were evaporated and deprotonated using negative-ion mode ESI in a linear quadrupole ion trap/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spec-trometer. The collision-activated dissociation (CAD) fragmentation patterns (obtained in MS2 and MS3 experiments, respectively) for the negative ions were studied in order to develop a procedure for sequencing unknown lignin oligomers...
November 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tallent Dadi, Mourad Harir, Norbert Hertkorn, Matthias Koschorreck, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Peter Herzsprung
The quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) affects both carbon cycling in surface waters and drinking water production. Not much is known about the influence of environmental conditions on DOC quality. We studied the effect of redox conditions on the chemical composition of DOC in a drinking water reservoir by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in combination with sediment core incubation experiments under manipulated redox conditions. We observed clear differences in DOC quality among oxic epilimnion, anoxic hypolimnion, and sediment porewater...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Syed M Qaim, Ingo Spahn
Medical radionuclide production technology is well established. There is, however, a constant need for further development of radionuclides. The present efforts are mainly devoted to non-standard positron emitters (e.g. (64) Cu, (86) Y, (124) I, (73) Se) and novel therapeutic radionuclides emitting low-range β(-) particles (e. g. (67) Cu, (186) Re), conversion or Auger electrons (e.g. (117m) Sn, (77) Br) and α-particles (e.g. (225) Ac). A brief account of various aspects of development work (i.e. nuclear data, targetry, chemical processing, quality control) is given...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Zbigniew Tymiński, Paweł Saganowski, Ewa Kołakowska, Anna Listkowska, Tomasz Ziemek, Daniel Cacko, Tomasz Dziel
The gamma emitting impurities in (99m)Tc solution obtained from enriched molybdenum (100)Mo metallic target after its irradiation in a cyclotron were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The radioactivity range of tested samples of (99m)Tc was rather low, in the range from 0.34 to 2.39 MBq, thus creating a challenge to investigate the standard measurement HPGe system for impurity detection and quantification. In the process of (99m)Tc separation from irradiated target the AnaLig® Tc-02 resin, Dionex H(+) and Alumina A columns were used...
October 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Wenying Wu, Yanjie Chu, Shixiao Wang, Xiaoyang Sun, Jingjing Zhang, Yannian Wang, Xiaohui Chen
RATIONALE: Pimavanserin, a selective serotonin 2A receptor inverse agonist, is a promising candidate for treating Parkinson's disease psychosis. Our previous study exhibited that there might be an existence of extensive metabolites of pimavanserin in rats. However, the metabolic fate of pimavanserin in vivo remains unknown. Thus, it is essential to develop an efficient method to investigate metabolic profile of pimavanserin in rats. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to date has the highest mass measurement accuracy and resolution of any mass spectrometry platforms...
November 6, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Morgane Derrien, Yun Kyung Lee, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Jin Hur
Characterizing the chemical and molecular composition of sediment organic matter (SeOM) provides critical information for a complete picture of global carbon and nutrient cycles, and helps to track the sources and the fate of organic carbon in aquatic environments. In this study, we examined fluorescence properties and the molecular composition of the alkaline-extractable organic matter (AEOM) of sediments in a coastal lake (Lake Sihwa) and its surrounding creeks (rural, urban, wetland, and industrial areas)...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yoko Fujita-Yamaguchi, Karine Bagramyan, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Akemi Ikeda, Naoshi Dohmae, Teresa B Hong, Markus Kalkum
Blood type B-specific Streptomyces S27S5 hemagglutinin (SHA) was discovered and characterized in the 1970s. Although strain 27S5 has been lost, the purified SHA protein survived intact under frozen conditions and retained its activity. Using modern techniques, here we further characterized SHA. Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance MS analysis determined SHA's average molecular mass as 13,314.67 Da. MS of digested SHA peptides, Streptomyces genomic database matching, and N-terminal sequencing solved the 131-residue amino acid sequence of SHA...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rongfu Huang, Yuan Chen, Mohamed N A Meshref, Pamela Chelme-Ayala, Shimiao Dong, Mohamed D Ibrahim, Chengjin Wang, Nikolaus Klamerth, Sarah A Hughes, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Christine Brown, Ashley Mahaffey, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
This work reports the monitoring and assessment of naphthenic acids (NAs) in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), Pleistocene channel aquifer groundwater (PLCA), and oil sands basal aquifer groundwater (OSBA) from an active oil sands development in Alberta, Canada, using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) analysis with internal standard (ISTD) and external standard (ESTD) calibration methods and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) for compositional analysis...
October 4, 2017: Water Research
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