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Elizabeth M Irungu, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Elly Katabira, Nulu Bulya, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduce HIV-1 transmission within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Prioritizing couples at highest HIV-1 transmission risk for ART and PrEP would maximize impact and minimize costs. METHODS: The Partners Demonstration Project is an open-label, delivery study of integrated PrEP and ART for HIV-1 prevention among high risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. We evaluated the feasibility of using a validated risk score that weighs a combination of easily measurable factors (age, children, marital status, male circumcision status, condom use, plasma HIV-1 levels) to identify couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission for enrollment...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Arshia Amin, Iftikhar Ahmed, Nauman Khalid, Ghenijan Osman, Inam Ullah Khan, Min Xiao, Wen-Jun Li
A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331(T), was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160(T) with 97...
October 11, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Afshin Parsa, Peter A Kanetsky, Rui Xiao, Jayanta Gupta, Nandita Mitra, Sophie Limou, Dawei Xie, Huichun Xu, Amanda Hyre Anderson, Akinlolu Ojo, John W Kusek, Claudia M Lora, L Lee Hamm, Jiang He, Niina Sandholm, Janina Jeff, Dominic E Raj, Carsten A Böger, Erwin Bottinger, Shabnam Salimi, Rulan S Parekh, Sharon G Adler, Carl D Langefeld, Donald W Bowden, Per-Henrik Groop, Carol Forsblom, Barry I Freedman, Michael Lipkowitz, Caroline S Fox, Cheryl A Winkler, Harold I Feldman
The rate of decline of renal function varies significantly among individuals with CKD. To understand better the contribution of genetics to CKD progression, we performed a genome-wide association study among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Our outcome of interest was CKD progression measured as change in eGFR over time among 1331 blacks and 1476 whites with CKD. We stratified all analyses by race and subsequently, diabetes status. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed a significance threshold of P<1×10(-6) for association with eGFR slope were selected as candidates for follow-up and secondarily tested for association with proteinuria and time to ESRD...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Francesco Nicolini, Antonella Vezzani, Daniela Fortuna, Giovanni Andrea Contini, Davide Pacini, Davide Gabbieri, Claudio Zussa, Rossana De Palma, Tiziano Gherli
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of gender on outcomes after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, in terms of 5-year rates of overall death, cardiac-related death, myocardial infarction, re-hospitalization, repeat percutaneous or surgical revascularization, stroke, new pacemaker implantation, postoperative renal failure, heart failure and need for long-term care. METHODS: Two propensity-score matched cohorts, each of 1331 patients, undergoing isolated surgical coronary revascularization at the regional public and private centers of Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) from January 1st 2003 to December 31th 2013, were used to compare long-term outcomes of male (5976 patients) versus female gender (1332 patients)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Stian Knappskog, Beryl Leirvaag, Liv B Gansmo, Pål Romundstad, Kristian Hveem, Lars Vatten, Per E Lønning
BACKGROUND: While germline CHEK2 mutations have been linked to a moderately elevated cancer risk, to date, a limited number of such mutations have been identified. Recently, we reported a germline nonsense mutation (C283T; R95*), introducing an early stop-codon, in two Norwegian patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer. Both patients were resistant to anthracycline therapy, resembling what has been observed for TP53 mutations. METHODS: In the present study, we screened a large population based sample, including 3748 non-cancer individuals and 7081 incident cancer cases (breast cancer, n = 1717; prostate cancer n = 2501, lung cancer n = 1331 and colorectal cancer n = 1532), for the distribution of CHEK2 R95*...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Vidyadhar V Upasani, Oliver Birke, Kevin E Klingele, Michael B Millis
BACKGROUND: The modified Dunn procedure facilitates femoral capital realignment for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) through a surgical hip dislocation approach. Iatrogenic postoperative hip instability after this procedure has not been studied previously; however, we were concerned when we observed several instances of this serious complication, and we wished to study it further. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, timing, and clinical presentation (including complications) associated with iatrogenic instability after the modified Dunn procedure for SCFE...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Atin Sharma, Rajnikant Sharma, Tapas Bhattacharyya, Timsy Bhando, Ranjana Pathania
OBJECTIVES: To decipher the function of A1S_1331, named AbaF (Acinetobacter baumannii Fosfomycin efflux), one of the primary targets of AbsR25, a small RNA of A. baumannii. METHODS: abaF was cloned in a multicopy plasmid and expressed from its native promoter in an efflux-deficient strain-Escherichia coli KAM32. Drug susceptibility, accumulation and efflux of ethidium bromide (EtBr) were determined in this strain. abaF was disrupted in A. baumannii using homologous recombination and its effect on drug susceptibility, biofilm formation and virulence was studied...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Giuseppe Liotta, Rónán O'Caoimh, Francesco Gilardi, Maria Grazia Proietti, Gennaro Rocco, Rosaria Alvaro, Paola Scarcella, D William Molloy, Stefano Orlando, Sandro Mancinelli, Leonardo Palombi, Alessandro Stievano, Maria Cristina Marazzi
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The prevalence of frailty is expected to increase worldwide in parallel with demographic ageing. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence in different populations particularly community-based samples. This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence of frailty in a community-dwelling older adult population and describes a methodology to plan community-based interventions. METHODOLOGY: A random sample of 1331 older adults, resident in the Lazio-Region of Italy, were screened by trained public health nurses (PHNs) by administering a validated questionnaire (the Functional Geriatric Evaluation questionnaire)...
August 12, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Mohammad Refaei, Bruna Fernandes, Joseph Brandwein, Marilyn Dawn Goodyear, Arun Pokhrel, Cynthia Wu
Central venous catheters are a leading cause of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis. Concomitant severe thrombocytopenia makes anticoagulation for catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) in patients with acute leukemia (AL) a challenge. Incidence of CRT has been reported to be increased in those with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) vs. those with centrally inserted ones (CICC). Our objective is to compare the incidence rate of CRT in leukemia inpatients who received either a PICC vs. CICC. We retrospectively reviewed adult inpatients admitted to hematology wards with a new diagnosis of AL and who received either a PICC or a CICC...
August 20, 2016: Annals of Hematology
László Kiss
Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333.
August 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Jayeeta Sarkar, Debraj Saha, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Bibhuti Saha, Deepika Kedia, D N Guha Mazumder, Runu Chakravarty, Subhasish Kamal Guha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. the present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. METHODS: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Dai Cheng, Jun Liu, Dong Han, Guobao Zhang, Wenqi Gao, Mindy H Hsieh, Nicholas Ng, Shailaja Kasibhatla, Celin Tompkins, Jie Li, Auzon Steffy, Fangxian Sun, Chun Li, H Martin Seidel, Jennifer L Harris, Shifeng Pan
Blockade of aberrant Wnt signaling is an attractive therapeutic approach in multiple cancers. We developed and performed a cellular high-throughput screen for inhibitors of Wnt secretion and pathway activation. A lead structure (GNF-1331) was identified from the screen. Further studies identified the molecular target of GNF-1331 as Porcupine, a membrane bound O-acyl transferase. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the discovery of a novel series of potent and selective Porcupine inhibitors. Compound 19, GNF-6231, demonstrated excellent pathway inhibition and induced robust antitumor efficacy in a mouse MMTV-WNT1 xenograft tumor model...
July 14, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jonathan Y Streifler, Anne G den Hartog, Samuel Pan, Hongchao Pan, Richard Bulbulia, Dafydd J Thomas, Martin M Brown, Alison Halliday
BACKGROUND: Silent brain infarcts are common in patients at increased risk of stroke and are associated with a poor prognosis. In patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, similar adverse associations were claimed, but the impact of previous infarction or symptoms on the beneficial effects of carotid endarterectomy is not clear. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of prior cerebral infarction in patients enrolled in the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial, a large trial with 10-year follow-up in which participants whose carotid stenosis had not caused symptoms for at least six months were randomly allocated either immediate or deferred carotid endarterectomy...
July 19, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Fakhri Kallabi, Bochra Ben Rhouma, Siwar Baklouti, Rania Ghorbel, Rahma Felhi, Leila Keskes, Hassen Kamoun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Allgrove syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrima. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the AAAS gene. A major splice site mutation c.1331+1G>A was found previously in North African families affected by Allgrove syndrome. In this study, we analyzed in vivo and in silico the effect of this mutation on the splicing process. METHODS: Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and bioinformatics tools, we analyzed all transcripts produced by the AAAS gene containing this splice site mutation...
July 15, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Terry Nicola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Masahiro Kitabata, Kazushi Fujimoto, Noriyuki Yoshii, Susumu Okazaki
To obtain the radial (normal) and lateral (transverse) components of the local pressure tensor, PN(R) and PT(R), respectively, and the interfacial tension of micelles, molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were performed for spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The local pressure tensor was calculated as a function of radial distance R using the Irving-Kirkwood formula. Similar MD calculations were also carried out for an n-dodecane droplet in water to compare the differences in the local pressure and interfacial tension values with those of the micelles...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nádia Alves Amade, Thebora Sultane, Orvalho Augusto, Sádia Ali, Ilesh V Jani, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome are highly underreported and neglected in most sub-Saharan countries and vaccination has not yet been incorporated into their national immunization schedules. In this study, we investigated the frequency of immunoglobulin M antibodies against rubella and examined correlations with fertility rates during the period from 2006 to 2014 in Mozambique. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected through the routine case-based surveillance system for measles in Mozambique...
October 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Li-Tao Ruan, Ren-Chao Zheng, Yu-Guo Zheng
A novel amidase gene (bami) was cloned from Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021 by combination of degenerate PCR and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). The deduced amino acid sequence showed low identity (≤55 %) with other reported amidases. The bami gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant inclusion bodies were refolded and purified to homogeneity with a recovery of 22.6 %. Bami exhibited a broad substrate spectrum towards aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic amides, and showed the highest acyl transfer activity towards butyramide with specific activity of 1331...
August 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Reesha R Patel, Cindy Barbosa, Tatiana Brustovetsky, Nickolay Brustovetsky, Theodore R Cummins
Mutations in brain isoforms of voltage-gated sodium channels have been identified in patients with distinct epileptic phenotypes. Clinically, these patients often do not respond well to classic anti-epileptics and many remain refractory to treatment. Exogenous as well as endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to target voltage-gated sodium channels and cannabidiol has recently received attention for its potential efficacy in the treatment of childhood epilepsies. In this study, we further investigated the ability of cannabinoids to modulate sodium currents from wild-type and epilepsy-associated mutant voltage-gated sodium channels...
August 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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