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Shauni Keller, Serena P Teora, Guo Xun Hu, Marlies Nijemeisland, Daniela Apreutesei Wilson
Micro- and nanomotors and their use for biomedical applications have received recently increased attention. However, most designs use top-down methods to construct inorganic motors, which are labour-intensive and not suitable for biomedical use. Herein, we report a high throughput design of asymmetric hydrogel microparticle with autonomous movement using a microfluidic chip generating asymmetric aqueous two-phase separating droplets consisting of PEGDA and dextran with the biocatalyst placed in the PEGDA phase...
June 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
April M Randle, Rachel B Spigler, Susan Kalisz
Coexisting plant congeners often experience strong competition for resources. Competition for pollinators can result in direct fitness costs via reduced seed set or indirect costs via heterospecific pollen transfer (HPT), causing subsequent gamete loss and unfit hybrid offspring production. Autonomous selfing may alleviate these costs, but to preempt HPT, selfing should occur early, before opportunities for HPT occur (i.e. "preemptive selfing hypothesis"). We evaluated conditions for this hypothesis in Collinsia sister species, C...
June 19, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Polly Fu, Carolyn J Gibson, Wendy Berry Mendes, Michael Schembri, Alison J Huang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine whether anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with an adverse cardiac autonomic profile among midlife women with hot flashes. METHODS: Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by validated self-administered questionnaires among peri- and postmenopausal women in a randomized trial of slow-paced respiration for hot flashes. Pre-ejection period (PEP), a marker of sympathetic activation, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a marker of parasympathetic activation, were measured at baseline and 12 weeks using impedance cardiography and electocardiography...
June 18, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Kerstin Schmidt, Qinyu Zhang, Alpaslan Tasdogan, Andreas Petzold, Andreas Dahl, Borros M Arneth, Robert Slany, Hans Jörg Fehling, Andrea Kranz, Adrian Francis Stewart, Konstantinos Anastassiadis
Hematopoietic stem cells require MLL1, which is one of six Set1/Trithorax-type histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases in mammals and clinically the most important leukemia gene. Here we add to emerging evidence that all six H3K4 methyltransferases play essential roles in the hematopoietic system by showing that conditional mutagenesis of Setd1b in adult mice provoked aberrant homeostasis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Using both ubiquitous and hematopoietic-specific deletion strategies the loss of Setd1b resulted in peripheral thrombo- and lymphocytopenia, multilineage dysplasia, myeloid-biased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen, and lethality...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Kevin A Henry, C Roger MacKenzie
Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), the autonomous variable domains of heavy chain-only antibodies produced naturally by camelid ungulates and cartilaginous fishes, have evolved to bind antigen using only three complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops rather than the six present in conventional VH :VL antibodies. It has been suggested, based on limited evidence, that sdAbs may adopt paratope structures that predispose them to preferential recognition of recessed protein epitopes, but poor or non-recognition of protuberant epitopes and small molecules...
June 19, 2018: MAbs
Benedetta Cappellini, Vicki Harman, Elizabeth Parsons
This study investigates how mothers respond to school surveillance of their children's packed lunches. In a context where increasing attention is focused on healthy eating, we adopt a biopedagogical approach to illustrate different positions and strategies which mothers occupy in relation to feeding their children in the school setting. We use photo-elicitation interviews and focus groups to trace both the discursive and practical significance of these biopedagogies. We find that the subjective experiences of feeding children at school are infused with classed notions of mothering in public...
June 19, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Yu Hsuan Carol Yang, Koichi Kawakami, Didier Yr Stainier
Pancreatic islets are innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves that influence their function. Analyzing the innervation process should provide insight into the nerve-endocrine interactions and their roles in development and disease. Here, using in vivo time-lapse imaging and genetic analyses in zebrafish, we determined the events leading to islet innervation. Comparable neural density in the absence of vasculature indicates that it is dispensable for early pancreatic innervation. Neural crest cells are in close contact with endocrine cells early in development...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Isabelle Martins, Syed Qasim Raza, Laurent Voisin, Haithem Dakhli, Awatef Allouch, Frédéric Law, Dora Sabino, Dorine De Jong, Maxime Thoreau, Elodie Mintet, Delphine Dugué, Mauro Piacentini, Marie-Lise Gougeon, Fanny Jaulin, Pascale Bertrand, Catherine Brenner, David M Ojcius, Guido Kroemer, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
Even though cell death modalities elicited by anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been extensively studied, the ability of anticancer treatments to induce non-cell-autonomous death has never been investigated. By means of multispectral imaging flow-cytometry-based technology, we analyzed the lethal fate of cancer cells that were treated with conventional anticancer agents and co-cultured with untreated cells, observing that anticancer agents can simultaneously trigger cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous death in treated and untreated cells...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Boya Zhang, Yangzhige He, Yanpeng Xu, Fan Mo, Tingwei Mi, Qing Sunny Shen, Chunfeng Li, Yali Li, Jing Liu, Yihui Wu, Guilai Chen, Wenliang Zhu, Chengfeng Qin, Baoyang Hu, Guomin Zhou
Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) poses a serious threat to the world's public health yet without a cure. Certain JEV-infected neural cells express a subset of previously identified intrinsic antiviral interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), indicating brain cells retain autonomous antiviral immunity. However, whether this happens in composited brain remains unclear. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived organoids can model disorders caused by human endemic pathogens such as Zika virus, which may potentially address this question and facilitate the discovery of a cure for JE...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lynette Lim, Janelle M P Pakan, Martijn M Selten, André Marques-Smith, Alfredo Llorca, Sung Eun Bae, Nathalie L Rochefort, Oscar Marín
Neural circuit assembly relies on the precise synchronization of developmental processes, such as cell migration and axon targeting, but the cell-autonomous mechanisms coordinating these events remain largely unknown. Here we found that different classes of interneurons use distinct routes of migration to reach the embryonic cerebral cortex. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons that migrate through the marginal zone develop into Martinotti cells, one of the most distinctive classes of cortical interneurons...
June 18, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Carla Mulas, Gloryn Chia, Kenneth Alan Jones, Andrew Christopher Hodgson, Giuliano Giuseppe Stirparo, Jennifer Nichols
Lineage segregation in the mouse embryo is a finely controlled process dependent upon coordination of signalling pathways and transcriptional responses. Here we employ a conditional deletion system to investigate embryonic patterning and lineage specification in response to loss of Oct4. We first observe ectopic expression of Nanog in Oct4-negative postimplantation epiblast cells. The expression domains of lineage markers are subsequently disrupted. Definitive endoderm expands at the expense of mesoderm; the anterior-posterior axis is positioned more distally and an ectopic posterior-like domain appears anteriorly, suggesting a role for Oct4 in maintaining the embryonic axis...
June 18, 2018: Development
Benjamin Treml, Andrew Gillman, Philip Buskohl, Richard Vaia
Robots autonomously interact with their environment through a continual sense-decide-respond control loop. Most commonly, the decide step occurs in a central processing unit; however, the stiffness mismatch between rigid electronics and the compliant bodies of soft robots can impede integration of these systems. We develop a framework for programmable mechanical computation embedded into the structure of soft robots that can augment conventional digital electronic control schemes. Using an origami waterbomb as an experimental platform, we demonstrate a 1-bit mechanical storage device that writes, erases, and rewrites itself in response to a time-varying environmental signal...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maral Hariri-Akbari, Behjat Shokrvash, Firooz Mahmoodi, Fatemeh Jahanjoo-Aminabad, Behzad Yousefi, Fariba Azabdaftari
BACKGROUND: Because computers are used in many aspects of today's life, it seems necessary to include them in teaching and assessment processes. METHOD: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to construct a multidimensional valid scale, to identify the factors that influenced the nature of student motivation on Computer Based Testing (CBT), to recognize how students self-regulated their activities around CBT, and to describe the efficiency of autonomous versus controlled situations on motivation...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Ángel Serrano-Aroca, César David Vera-Donoso, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
Current clinical strategies for bladder reconstruction or substitution are associated to serious problems. Therefore, new alternative approaches are becoming more and more necessary. The purpose of this work is to review the state of the art of the current bioengineering advances and obstacles reported in bladder regeneration. Tissue bladder engineering requires an ideal engineered bladder scaffold composed of a biocompatible material suitable to sustain the mechanical forces necessary for bladder filling and emptying...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sangkil Kim, Apostolos Georgiadis, Manos M Tentzeris
The detailed design considerations for the printed RFID-based sensor system is presented in this paper. Starting from material selection and metallization method, this paper discusses types of RFID-based sensors (single- & dual-tag sensor topologies), design procedures, and performance evaluation methods for the wireless sensor system. The electrical properties of the paper substrates (cellulose-based and synthetic papers) and the silver nano-particle-based conductive film are thoroughly characterized for RF applications up to 8 GHz...
June 17, 2018: Sensors
Judith Ortiz, Richard Hofler, Angeline Bushy, Yi-Ling Lin, Ahmad Khanijahani, Andrea Bitney
Background: For decades, U.S. rural areas have experienced shortages of primary care providers. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are helping to reduce that shortage. However, NP scope of practice regulations vary from state-to-state ranging from autonomous practice to direct physician oversight. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical outcomes of older rural adult patients vary by the level of practice autonomy that states grant to NPs. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a sample of Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) (n = 503) located in eight Southeastern states...
June 15, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Johan Hambræus, Hans Westergren
Introduction Patients exposed to whiplash trauma are at risk of developing pain and dysfunction of the neck and shoulder. Although rarely discussed in the literature, some patients also develop autonomic dysfunction. Case presentation A previously healthy 41-year-old woman was involved in a "head-on" car crash. During the following 3 years she developed severe and complex post-traumatic pain syndrome, which consisted of neck pain, lumbar pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and myoclonic muscular contractions...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Harald Breivik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Christina Brock, Carina Graversen, Jens B Frøkjær, Eirik Søfteland, Massimiliano Valeriani, Asbjørn M Drewes
Background/aims Abnormal visceral sensory function in diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to neuronal changes in the enteric, peripheral and/or central nervous system (CNS). To explore the role of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) in patients with long-standing DM, we investigated psychophysical responses and neuronal activity recorded as evoked brain potentials (EPs) and dipolar source modelling. Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and 14 type-1 DM patients with DAN were assessed with a symptom score index characterizing upper GI abnormalities...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jan Brun, Christina Brock, Jens B Frøkjær, Eirik Söfteland, Magnus Simrén, Hans Gregersen, Asbjørn M Drewes
Background Abnormal visceral sensory function has been demonstrated in patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic autonomic neuropathy seems to be involved in the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in, e.g. the esophagus has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favours investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia and hyperalgesia...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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