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Abou El-Hamd H Mohamed, Naglaa S Mohamed, Ahmed R Hamed, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy
In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Achillea, chromatographic investigation of the methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the air-dried aerial part of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (family Asteraceae) afforded a new natural monoterpene (2), in addition to two known sesquiterpenes (3 and 4). Compound 1 was isolated as light needle crystals. Structures were established on the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopic (1H, 13C, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation) data and in case of compound 1 were confirmed by X-ray analysis...
October 24, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
María Benlloch-González, José Manuel Quintero, María Paz Suárez, Rosa Sánchez-Lucas, Ricardo Fernández-Escobar, Manuel Benlloch
There is little information about the prolonged effect of a moderately high temperature on the growth of olive (Olea europaea L.). It has been suggested that when the temperature of the air rises above 35°C the shoot growth of olive is inhibited while there is any reference on how growth is affected when the soil is warmed. In order to examine these effects, mist-cuttings and young plants generated from seeds were grown under moderate high temperature (37°C) for 64 and 42days respectively. In our study, plant dry matter accumulation was reduced when the temperature of both the air and the root medium was moderately high...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yu-Chen Liu, Jia Su, Xing-De Wu, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Min Fan, Qin-Feng Zhu, Juan He, Xiao-Nian Li, Li-Yan Peng, Xiao Cheng, Qin-Shi Zhao
A series of new Lycopodium alkaloids, namely 1-epi-malycorin A (1), 1-epi-17S-hydroxymalycorin A (2), 6α-hydroxyphlegmariurine A (3), 2S,4R-dihydroxyfawcettimine (4), and 16-hydroxylycodine (5), together with 24 known ones, have been isolated from the club moss Phlegmariurus henryi. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis. Among them, the absolute configurations of 1, 2, and 4 and the structure of 3 were confirmed on the basis of the single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis...
October 18, 2016: Fitoterapia
Michael P Atkinson, Moshe Kress, Roberto Szechtman
BACKGROUND: The US invests considerable effort in searching and interdicting drug-trafficking vessels in the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific regions. While some vessels are indeed interdicted, resulting in confiscation of substantial quantities of drugs, many such vessels manage to avoid detection and arrive safely at their destinations in Central America and Mexico with their drug load intact. The agency in charge of interdicting this traffic, Joint Interagency Task Force South-JIATF-S, sends out both aerial and surface assets for search and interdiction missions...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Mohaddese Mahboubi, Elaheh Mahdizadeh, Rezvan Heidary Tabar
The purpose of our study was to compare the chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Pycnocycla spinosa and Pycnocycla flabellifolia essential oils. cis-Asarone (62.5%) and widdra-2,4(14)-diene (9%) were the main components of P. spinosa aerial part essential oil, while elemicin (60.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.8%) were the main components of P. spinosa seed essential oil. α-Phellandrene (25.5%), p-cymene (15.3%), and limonene (13.3%) were found in P. flabellifolia essential oil...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in running mechanics during a six hours running race. METHODS: Twelve ultra-runners (age: 41.9±5.8 years; body mass: 68.3±12.6 kg; stature: 1.72±0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874 m flat loops as possible in six hours. Running speed, contact (tc) and aerial (ta) times were measured in the first lap and every 30±2 minutes during the race. Peak vertical ground reaction force (Fmax), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the centre of mass (Δz), leg length change (ΔL), vertical (kvert) and leg (kleg) stiffness were then estimated...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Yan-Ming Wang, Jian-Qiang Zhao, Jun-Li Yang, Yan-Duo Tao, Li-Juan Mei, Yan-Ping Shi
A new flavonoid, along with 16 known ones, was separated from the aerial parts of Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and HRESIMS. To confirm the structure of the new compound, computational prediction of its (13)C chemical shifts was performed. All of the 17 flavonoids were reported from A. centrali-asiaticus for the first time. In addition, all flavonoids were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities...
October 21, 2016: Natural Product Research
Jeffrey N Zeyl, Carol E Johnston
Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Montse Rigat, Airy Gras, Ugo D'Ambrosio, Teresa Garnatje, Montse Parada, Joan Vallès
BACKGROUND: Wild food plants (WFP) have always been consumed by humans, first as the main basis of their food and, since the origins of agriculture, as ingredients of normal diets or as an alternative during situations of scarcity. In contemporary industrialized societies their use is for the most part being abandoned, but they may still play an important role. With the purpose of advancing in the ethnobotanical knowledge of one region of the Catalan Pyrenees, the present study reports the findings of a research project conducted in the Ripollès district (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula), concerning ethnobotanical knowledge and use of wild and semi-wild vascular plants as foods, along with minor crops...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Djordje Mirkovic, Phillip M Stepanian, Jeffrey F Kelly, Phillip B Chilson
The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Santram Lodhi, Avijeet Jain, Alok Pal Jain, Rajesh Singh Pawar, Abhay Kumar Singhai
OBJECTIVE: Martynia annua L. (M. annua), (Martyniaccae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea), (Fabaceae) has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Iraj Salimikia, Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Ahmad Reza Gohari, Mehrnoosh Salek
BACKGROUND: Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Feng-Li Wu, Guang Zhang, Ang Ren, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ming-Wen Zhao
Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal macrofungus that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, the scarcity of basic biological studies of this organism has hindered the further development of its commercial value. The pH-responsive transcription factor PacC/Rim101 governs the adaptation to environmental pH, the development and the secondary metabolism of many fungi. In this study, a homologue of PacC/Rim101 that encodes GlPacC was identified in the higher basidiomycete G. lucidum GlPacC is composed of 807 amino acids and contains three typical C2H2 zinc-finger domains, two potential PEST domains, a putative PKA phosphorylation site, and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Eriko Seo, Toshiyuki Sazi, Morio Togawa, Osamu Nagata, Masataka Murakami, Shigeaki Kojima, Yoshiteru Seo
Infrared photoplethysmogram (IR-PPG) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the Mytilus galloprovincialis heart were obtained simultaneously. Heart rate was varied by changing temperature, aerial exposure and hypoxia. Higher heart rates (35-20 beat min(-1)) were usually observed at 20°C under the aerobic condition, typical IR-PPG represented a single peak (peak v). The upward and downward slopes of the peak v corresponded to the filling and contraction of the ventricle, respectively. A double-peak IR-PPG was observed in a wide range of heart rates (35 to 5 beats min(-1)) under various conditions...
October 19, 2016: Biology Open
Bishnu Joshi, Sarah Hendrickx, Lila Bahadur Magar, Niranjan Parajuli, Pierre Dorny, Louis Maes
BACKGROUND: Nepal is very rich in biodiversity, and no extensive effort has yet been carried out to screen plants that are used by traditional healers against parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial and antimalarial activity of crude methanolic or ethanolic extracts of 29 plant species that are currently used by local people of Nepal for treating different ailments. METHODS: Crude extracts of leaves, twigs, aerial parts, and/or roots of the selected plants were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Bachir Benarba
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants' use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. METHODS: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
William S Currie, Sarah Kiger, Joan I Nassauer, Meghan Hutchins, Lauren L Marshall, Daniel G Brown, Rick L Riolo, Derek T Robinson, Stephanie K Hart
Exurban residential land (one housing unit per 0.2-16.2 ha) is growing in importance as a human-dominated land use. Carbon storage in the soils and vegetation of exurban land is poorly known, as are the effects on C storage of choices made by developers and residents. We studied C storage in exurban yards in southeastern Michigan, USA, across a range of parcel sizes and different types of neighborhoods. We divided each residential parcel into ecological zones (EZ) characterized by vegetation, soil, and human behavior such as mowing, irrigation, and raking...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Amy J Davis, Mevin B Hooten, Ryan S Miller, Matthew L Farnsworth, Jesse Lewis, Michael Moxcey, Kim M Pepin
Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
Accurate counts of animals are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. Past research, however, suggests that observers on aerial surveys may fail to detect all individuals of the target species present in the survey area. Such errors could bias population estimates low and confound trend estimation. We used two approaches to assess the accuracy of aerial surveys for African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in northern Botswana. First, we used double-observer sampling, in which two observers make observations on the same herds, to estimate detectability of elephants and determine what variables affect it...
2016: PloS One
Boyang Li, Yifan Jiang, Jingxuan Sun, Lingfeng Cai, Chih-Yung Wen
In the development of beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems, communication between the UAVs and the ground control station (GCS) is of critical importance. The commonly used economical wireless modules are restricted by the short communication range and are easily blocked by obstacles. The use of a communication relay system provides a practical way to solve these problems, improving the performance of UAV communication in BLOS and cross-obstacle operations. In this study, a communication relay system, in which a quadrotor was used to relay radio communication for another quadrotor was developed and tested...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
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