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Zia Uddin, Yeong Hun Song, Mahboob Ullah, Zuopeng Li, Jeong Yoon Kim, Ki Hun Park
Diabetes mellitus is one of a major worldwide concerns, regulated by either defects in secretion or action of insulin, or both. Insulin signaling down-regulation has been related with over activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, which has been a promising target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Herein, activity guided separation of methanol extract (95%) of Dodonaea viscosa aerial parts afforded nine ( 1 - 9 ) polyphenolic compounds, all of them were identified through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR and HREIMS...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Edgar Isaac Rojas-Bedolla, Jorge Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Mario Iván Arenas-López, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Claudia Leticia Mendoza-Macías, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Juan José Maldonado-Miranda, Martha Alicia Deveze-Álvarez, Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this work was to assess the chemical composition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, locomotor, and sedative effects of an ethanolic extract obtained from Celtis pallida aerial parts (CPE)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hathairat Rachniyom, Atsuko Matsumoto, Yuki Inahashi, Akira Take, Yoko Takahashi, Arinthip Thamchaipenet
A novel actinomycete strain, designated GKU 128T , isolated from the roots of an Indian oak tree [Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn.] at Khao Khitchakut district, Chantaburi province, Thailand, was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The strain formed a branched substrate and aerial mycelia which differentiated into straight to flexuous chains of smooth-ornamented spores. Analysis of the cell wall revealed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid in the peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars were glucose, madurose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ali Bin Nadeem, Ysa Chandna
The majority of the Pakistani public has known little of the unmanned aerial vehicles, also known for their onomatopoeically inspired name "drones," except the fact that it regularly rains Hellfire missiles in Pakistan, claiming the lives of many innocent Pakistanis settled in the western provinces. In actuality, in addition to their destructive capacities, these remotely piloted vehicles have been used since the turn of the century in a variety of live-saving and risk-reducing roles. This research article primarily addresses the third stage of Emergency management-response, with Pakistan being the primary region of research...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Yuan-Lin Cao, Meng-Han Zhang, Yun-Fang Lu, Chen-Yang Li, Jin-Shan Tang, Miao-Miao Jiang
Six new cardenolides (1-6), including three 14-hydroxylated cardenolides and three 14-carbonylated cardenolides were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Nerium oleander Linn in addition to twenty-seven known compounds (7-33). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidences and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1, 4, 7-10 and 13 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against four colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT29, SW620, RKO), one gastric cancer cell line (GT) and one cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) in vitro...
March 11, 2018: Fitoterapia
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola's elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975-2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis...
2018: PloS One
Manuel Minteguiaga, H Andrés González, Eduardo Cassel, Noelia Umpierrez, Laura Fariña, Eduardo Dellacassa
Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Dorota Woźniak, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Krzysztof Domaradzki, Andrzej Dryś, Adam Matkowski
European Pharmacopoeia accepts two equivalent species Solidago canadensis L. and S. gigantea Ait. as Goldenrod (Solidaginis herba). We compared phytochemical profile of both species from invasive populations in Poland. Further, we compared in vitro antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from aerial (AP) and underground parts (UP). In S. gigantea, flavonoid profile was dominated by quercetin glycosides, with quercitrin as the major compound. In S. canadensis, quercetin and kaempferol rutinosides were two major constituents...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Chitti Thawai
A novel actinomycete, designated strain DH51B-4-3T , which formed long chains of spherical spores borne on the tip of sporophores arising from the aerial mycelium, was isolated from rice rhizosphere soil. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars of strain DH51B-4-3T were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and ribose. The phospholipids in the cell membrane were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl methylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Katarzyna Szewczyk, Esther Marie Heise, Jakub P Piwowarski
Preliminary characterization and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from four Impatiens species- I. glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., I. balsamina L., and I. noli-tangere L.-were investigated. The yields of polysaccharides range widely from 1.97% for I. parviflora roots to 18.63% for I. balsamina aerial parts. SEC (Size exclusion chromatography) chromatograms show that all samples contained a low molecular weight part that consisted of components of similar molecular weight. The aerial parts and roots of I...
March 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Federico Sucunza, Daniel Danilewicz, Marta Cremer, Artur Andriolo, Alexandre N Zerbini
Estimation of visibility bias is critical to accurately compute abundance of wild populations. The franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, is considered the most threatened small cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Aerial surveys are considered the most effective method to estimate abundance of this species, but many existing estimates have been considered unreliable because they lack proper estimation of correction factors for visibility bias. In this study, helicopter surveys were conducted to determine surfacing-diving intervals of franciscanas and to estimate availability for aerial platforms...
2018: PloS One
A Wollenberg, R Fölster-Holst, M Saint Aroman, F Sampogna, C Vestergaard
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, highly pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease. Dysfunction of the epidermal barrier is witnessed by an increased transepidermal water loss in lesional and non-lesional AD skin. The inflammation in lesional AD skin is well characterized. Non-lesional skin of AD patients shows histological signs of a subclinical inflammation and a pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. This microinflammation is present even in seemingly healed skin and must be taken into account regarding treatment of AD...
April 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Min Tseng, Wan-Ping Chiang, Hsuen-Chun Liao, Sung-Yuan Hsieh, Gao-Fung Yuan
Strain 06168H-1T was isolated from a fishpond sediment sample collected from the southern area of Taiwan, and a polyphasic approach was used to determine its taxonomic position. The isolate grew between 20-40 °C and 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl. It produced branched and unfragmented substrate mycelia. Short spore chains (3-10 spores per chain) formed on branched aerial mycelia. The spore chains contained non-motile, smooth-surfaced, oval spores. Galactose, arabinose and ribose were the whole-cell sugars and meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in its peptidoglycan...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Furkhan Ahmed Mohammed, Ayman I Elkady, Fareeduddin Quadri Syed, Muqtadir Baig Mirza, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Saleh Alkarim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal herb, Anethum graveolens L. (dill) is one of the potent culinary herbs used as an alternative form of medicine worldwide. The unguent topical Oil from the aerial parts of A. graveolens was found to be effective in the management of uterus cancer in ethnomedicine has been reported. BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rates of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are steadily rising worldwide, especially, in underdeveloped and developing countries...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Celia M Rodriguez-Dominguez, Madeline R Carins Murphy, Christopher Lucani, Timothy J Brodribb
The capacity of plant species to resist xylem cavitation is an important determinant of resistance to drought, mortality thresholds, geographic distribution and productivity. Unravelling the role of xylem cavitation vulnerability in plant evolution and adaptation requires a clear understanding of how this key trait varies between the tissues of individuals and between individuals of species. Here, we examine questions of variation within individuals by measuring how cavitation moves between organs of individual plants...
March 12, 2018: New Phytologist
Imane Laraba, Abdelaziz Keddad, Houda Boureghda, Nora Abdallah, Martha M Vaughan, Robert H Proctor, Mark Busman, Kerry O'Donnell
A novel crown rot pathogen of wheat discovered during pathogen surveys in Algeria in 2014 and 2015 is formally described as Fusarium algeriense. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic data resolved the eight isolates of this pathogen as a genealogically exclusive species lineage in the F. burgessii species complex. The previously described species of this complex, F. burgessii and F. beomiforme, produce abundant chlamydospores in culture, and their optimal temperature for growth is 30 C. In comparison, F. algeriense did not produce chlamydospores under the conditions tested and its optimal temperature for growth is 25 C...
February 13, 2018: Mycologia
Lynsey Shaw Cobden
This is not an article about 'shell-shock'. It explores the military medical response to nervous disorders in the Royal Flying Corps. The First World War exposed the propensity of pilots to the nervous and psychological rigours of aerial warfare, but their unique experiences have been overlooked in favour of 'trauma' in infantrymen. This represents a critical lacuna in the historiography of military medicine, for flying personnel were studied apart from 'shell-shocked' soldiers. This article will show that flyers were believed to be medically different, and what set them apart from men in the trenches was their unique employment...
February 2, 2018: Br J Mil Hist
Hasan Kırmızıbekmez, Yiğit İnan, Rengin Reis, Hande Sipahi, Ahmet C Gören, Erdem Yeşilada
Phytochemical investigations on the EtOH extract of Clematis viticella led to the isolation of six flavonoid glycosides, isoorientin (1), isoorientin 3'-O-methyl ether (2), quercetin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), quercetin 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), manghaslin (5) and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), one phenylethanol derivative, hydroxytyrosol (7), along with three phenolic acids, caffeic acid (8), (E)-p-coumaric acid (9) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (10). The structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HR-MS data...
March 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
Andréa Silva Garcia de Figueiredo-Rinhel, Micássio Fernandes de Andrade, Ana Paula Landi-Librandi, Ana Elisa Caleiro Seixas Azzolini, Luciana Mariko Kabeya, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Yara Maria Lucisano-Valim
The aerial parts of Baccharis dracunculifolia (BdE) is used in the Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory conditions. Here we examined the ability of free and liposomal BdE to modulate reactive oxygen species generation in human neutrophils in vitro and zymosan-induced acute joint inflammation in Wistar rats. We prepared biocompatible liposomes of soya phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol with low diameter, homogeneous size distribution, and neutral surface charge. Free BdE decreased joint swelling, total leucocyte and neutrophil infiltration, and the synovial levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukins 6 and 1β...
March 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
J P T Lambert, H L Hicks, D Z Childs, R P Freckleton
Mapping weed densities within crops has conventionally been achieved either by detailed ecological monitoring or by field walking, both of which are time-consuming and expensive. Recent advances have resulted in increased interest in using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to map fields, aiming to reduce labour costs and increase the spatial extent of coverage. However, adoption of this technology ideally requires that mapping can be undertaken automatically and without the need for extensive ground-truthing. This approach has not been validated at large scale using UAS-derived imagery in combination with extensive ground-truth data...
February 2018: Weed Research
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