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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#1
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
December 8, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932873/coherence-between-self-reported-and-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Mimi Thyregod, Uffe Bodtger
The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) in patients with COPD, as well as the methods of their assessment, are well known and described. As objective measures of PA, such as the use of motion sensors, video recordings, exercise capacity testing, and indirect calorimetry, are not easily obtained in the daily clinical life, the reliability of the more accessible self-reported measurements of PA is important. In this review, we systematically identified original studies involving COPD patients and at least one parameter of self-reported and objective exercise testing, and analyzed every article for coherence between the objectively and self-reported measured PA...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932860/rebound-macular-edema-following-oral-acetazolamide-therapy-for-juvenile-x-linked-retinoschisis-in-an-italian-family
#3
Maria Silvana Galantuomo, Maurizio Fossarello, Alberto Cuccu, Roberta Farci, Markus N Preising, Birgit Lorenz, Pietro Emanuele Napoli
BACKGROUND: Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis (RS1, OMIM: 312700) is a hereditary vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by bilateral foveal schisis and, in half of the patients, splitting through the nerve fiber layer in the peripheral retina. In the first decade of life, patients usually develop a decrease in visual acuity. Long-term visual outcomes can be poor due to the limited number of known successful treatments. PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to present, for the first time, a p...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932221/what-are-the-most-important-variables-for-poaceae-airborne-pollen-forecasting
#4
Ricardo Navares, José Luis Aznarte
In this paper, the problem of predicting future concentrations of airborne pollen is solved through a computational intelligence data-driven approach. The proposed method is able to identify the most important variables among those considered by other authors (mainly recent pollen concentrations and weather parameters), without any prior assumptions about the phenological relevance of the variables. Furthermore, an inferential procedure based on non-parametric hypothesis testing is presented to provide statistical evidence of the results, which are coherent to the literature and outperform previous proposals in terms of accuracy...
December 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931974/mathematical-modeling-of-atopic-dermatitis-reveals-double-switch-mechanisms-underlying-four-common-disease-phenotypes
#5
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Panayiotis Christodoulides, Kosuke Miyauchi, Alan D Irvine, Mariko Okada-Hatakeyama, Masato Kubo, Reiko J Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The skin barrier acts as the first line of defense against constant exposure to biological, microbial, physical and chemical environmental stressors. Dynamic interplay between defects in the skin barrier, dysfunctional immune responses, and environmental stressors are major factors in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). A systems-biology modeling approach can yield significant insights into these complex and dynamic processes through integration of prior biological data...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931655/lactate-levels-and-hemodynamic-coherence-in-acute-circulatory-failure
#6
REVIEW
Jan Bakker
In this review, the relationship between changes in macrohemodynamics during the development and treatment of acute circulatory failure is discussed in the context of coherence with microcirculation and changes in lactate. In models of circulatory failure, coherence between changes in macrocirculatory and microcirculatory perfusion and coherence with subsequent changes in lactate levels are more or less preserved. However, in patients, particularly those with septic shock, these relationships are much less clear...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931654/the-response-of-the-microcirculation-to-mechanical-support-of-the-heart-in-critical-illness
#7
REVIEW
Sakir Akin, Atila Kara, Corstiaan A den Uil, Can Ince
Critical illness associated with cardiac pump failure results in reduced tissue perfusion in all organs and occurs in various conditions such as sepsis, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices can be used to maintain organ perfusion in patients with cardiogenic shock and decompensated chronic heart failure. However, correction of global hemodynamic parameters by MCS does not always cause a parallel improvement in microcirculatory perfusion and oxygenation of the organ systems, a condition referred to as a loss of hemodynamic coherence between macro- and microcirculation (MC)...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931653/hemodynamic-coherence-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#8
REVIEW
Ö Erdem, J W Kuiper, D Tibboel
Differences in physiology and pathophysiology make the treatment of developing, critically ill children particularly challenging as compared to that of adults. Significant differences in the cardiovascular system of neonates and children in size, weight, body proportions, and metabolism should be considered. Hemodynamic monitoring is crucial for early warning of pending deterioration and to guide therapy. Current monitoring is limited to the macrocirculation, but an adequately functioning macrocirculation does not guarantee a well-functioning microcirculation...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931651/effects-of-vasodilators-on-haemodynamic-coherence
#9
REVIEW
Christian Fuchs, Christian Ertmer, Sebastian Rehberg
Vasodilators are a potential therapeutic option for patients with persisting microcirculatory disorders despite adequate cardiac output and mean arterial pressure due to conventional haemodynamic stabilization. Venous vasodilation may decrease post-capillary venular pressure and thus increase capillary flow resulting in reduced extravasation and oedema formation. Arteriolar vasodilation may increase microvascular flow by 'opening' the microcirculation. In particular, inodilators that combine vasodilation with positive inotropy may be promising...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931650/effect-of-non-adrenergic-vasopressors-on-macro-and-microvascular-coupling-in-distributive-shock
#10
REVIEW
M Hessler, T G Kampmeier, S Rehberg
The present review initially describes the rationale for the use of non-adrenergic vasopressors in the treatment of distributive shock and then provides an overview of the individual vasopressin-receptor agonists, namely arginine vasopressin, terlipressin, and selepressin. Following a brief summary of their current use in clinical practice, the present review focuses on the influence of vasopressin-receptor agonists on macro- and microvascular coupling, also referred to as hemodynamic coherence. On the basis of the current evidence from experimental and clinical studies, vasopressin-receptor agonists do not negatively influence macro- and microvascular coupling as compared to the standard therapy with norepinephrine, when used in established treatment regimes...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931649/hemodynamic-coherence-in-sepsis
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Morelli, Maurizio Passariello
Microvascular alterations are a hallmark of sepsis and play a crucial role in its pathophysiology. Such alterations are the result of overwhelming inflammation, which negatively affects all the components of the microcirculation. As the severity of microvascular alterations is associated with organ dysfunction and mortality, several strategies have been tested for improving microcirculation. Nevertheless, they are mainly based on the conventional manipulation of systemic hemodynamics to increase the total flow to the organs and tissues...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931648/haemodynamic-coherence-in-perioperative-setting
#12
REVIEW
Andrea Carsetti, Ximena Watson, Maurizio Cecconi
Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in the use of goal-directed therapy (GDT) in patients undergoing high-risk surgery, and various haemodynamic monitoring tools have been developed to guide perioperative care. Both the complexity of the patient and surgical procedure need to be considered when deciding whether GDT will be beneficial. Ensuring optimum tissue perfusion is paramount in the perioperative period and relies on the coherence between both macrovascular and microvascular circulations...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931647/hemodynamic-coherence-in-patients-with-burns
#13
REVIEW
Sabri Soussi, Matthieu Legrand
Burn shock is characterized by profound hemodynamic alterations mainly associated with rapid loss of intravascular volume related to severe capillary leak. Thus, fluid resuscitation conventionally based on macrocirculatory targets is considered as a corner stone of initial management of patients with burns. Nonetheless, traditional markers such as blood pressure, urinary output, and cardiac output are helpful but do not sufficiently reflect the adequacy of perfusion and oxygenation at the microcirculatory level...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931646/haemodynamic-coherence-in-haemorrhagic-shock
#14
REVIEW
Nicolas Libert, Anatole Harrois, Jacques Duranteau
In case of haemorrhage, a combination of low volume fluid resuscitation and permissive hypotension is used to avoid the adverse effects of early aggressive fluid resuscitation. During this phase, occult microvascular hypoperfusion can possibly develop over time. After controlling the bleeding, it is expected that optimization of macrocirculation will result in an improvement in microcirculation. However, this is the case only without alterations in microcirculation regulation. Haemodynamic coherence must be maintained to expect the restoration of microcirculation through systemic haemodynamic-driven resuscitation...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931645/haemodynamic-coherence%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-relevance-of-fluid-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Philip Arnemann, Laura Seidel, Christian Ertmer
The ultimate goal of fluid therapy is to improve the oxygenation of cells by improving the cardiac output, thus improving microcirculation by optimizing macrocirculation. This haemodynamic coherence is often altered in patients with haemorrhagic shock and sepsis. The loss of haemodynamic coherence is associated with adverse outcomes. It may be influenced by the mechanisms of the underlying disease and properties of different fluids used for resuscitation in these critically ill patients. Monitoring microcirculation and haemodynamic coherence may be an additional tool to predict the response to fluid administration...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931642/hemodynamic-coherence-its-meaning-in-perioperative-and-intensive-care-medicine
#16
EDITORIAL
Can Ince, Christian Ertmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931147/neural-communication-through-theta-gamma-cross-frequency-coupling-in-a-bistable-motion-perception-task
#17
Abolfazl Alipour, Azadeh Mojdehfarahbakhsh, Ashkan Tavakolian, Taha Morshedzadeh, Maedeh Asadi, Alireza Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Nami
Functional significance of the neural oscillations has been debated since long. In particular, oscillations have been suggested to play a major role in formation of communication channels between brain regions. It has been previously suggested that gamma coherence increases during communication between hemispheres when subjects perceive a horizontal motion in Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus. In addition, disruption of this coherence may change the horizontal perception of SAM. In this study, we investigated the changes of Cross-Frequency Coupling (CFC) in EEG signals from parietal and occipital cortices during horizontal and vertical perception of SAM...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930833/moving-beyond-the-concept-of-primary-forest-as-a-metric-of-forest-environment-quality
#18
P Y Bernier, D Paré, G Stinson, S R J Bridge, B E Kishchuk, T C Lemprière, E Thiffault, B D Titus, W Vasbinder
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been reporting country-level area in primary forests in its Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) since 2005. The FAO definition of a primary forest (naturally regenerated forest of native species where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed) is generally accepted as authoritative and is being used in policy making. However, problems with this definition undermine our capacity to obtain globally-coherent estimates...
December 8, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930797/unusual-severe-interface-inflammation-after-uneventful-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile
#19
Damien Guindolet, Abdellatif Badaoui, Maud Elluard, Sophie Stephan, Serge Doan, Isabelle Cochereau, Eric E Gabison
PURPOSE: To describe a 40-year-old woman who complained of visual loss in her left eye 3 days after an uneventful bilateral myopic refractive surgery by small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 4 × 5 mm anterior central stromal infiltration was observed with moderate pain associated with decreased corneal sensitivity and neither discharge nor fluorescein staining. Bacterial and fungal smears and cultures from the SMILE interface were negative and local antibiotic ineffective...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930794/using-donor-lenticules-obtained-through-smile-for-an-epikeratophakia-technique-combined-with-phototherapeutic-keratectomy
#20
Jing Zhao, Ling Sun, Yang Shen, Mi Tian, Peijun Yao, Xingtao Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of using a donor lenticule created during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in an epikeratophakia technique combined with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). METHODS: Six patients with decreased visual acuity due to a recurrence of corneal dystrophy were included in this prospective pilot study. PTK was performed using the MEL 80 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) followed by the transplantation of donor lenticules onto the recipient eyes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
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