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Dev Gurera, Bharat Bhushan, Navin Kumar
Arthropods are the largest group of the living organisms. They attack other organisms by biting, stinging, or piercing and sucking. Among various medically important arthropods, which feed on living hosts, mosquitoes' piercing spread viruses which have been reported to cause the highest number of deaths annually. The primary cause of the deaths is malaria, which is spread by infected mosquitoes' piercing. This study aims at elucidating lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing. Mosquitoes pierce using their fascicle, which is a bundle of coherently functioning six stylets...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Jinhua Zuo, Yunxiang Wang, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Qing Wang, Lipu Gao
Cowpea is an important horticultural crop in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, as well as parts of southern Europe and Central and South America. Chilling injury is a common physiological hazard of cowpea in cold chain logistics which reduce the cowpea pod's nutritional quality and product value. However, the molecular mechanism involved in chilling injury remains unclear in cowpea pods. RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq technologies were employed to decipher the miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles and their regulatory networks in cowpea pods involved in chilling stress...
May 21, 2018: Gene
Martin Hetzl, Jakob Wierzbowski, Theresa Hoffmann, Max Kraut, Verena Zuerbig, Christoph E Nebel, Kai Müller, Jonathan J Finley, Martin Stutzmann
Solid state quantum emitters embedded in a semiconductor crystal environment are potentially scalable platforms for quantum optical networks operated at room temperature. Prominent representatives are nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond showing coherent entanglement and interference with each other. However, these emitters suffer from inefficient optical outcoupling from the diamond and from fluctuations of their charge state. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of regular n-type gallium nitride nanowire arrays on diamond as photonic waveguides to tailor the emission direction of surface-near NV centers and to electrically control their charge state in a p-i-n nano-diode...
May 24, 2018: Nano Letters
Lauren L Mitchell, Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla, Alex A Ajayi, Jillian Fish, Sarah C Nelson, Lovey H M Peissig, Moin Syed
OBJECTIVES: Ethnic identity development is considered a central task of adolescence and emerging adulthood for ethnic minority individuals. Although the process of developing a coherent ethnic identity has received attention from researchers, there has been little work done to elucidate the content of ethnic identity. This study uses an inductive mixed-methods approach to address 1 aspect of ethnic identity content: typicality, or the degree of perceived similarity individuals feel to their ethnic-racial group...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Kristen S Pan, Edmond J FitzGibbon, Janice S Lee, Michael T Collins, Alison M Boyce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: World Neurosurgery
Rui-Sheng Wang, Joseph Loscalzo
Understanding the genetic basis of complex diseases is challenging. Prior work shows that disease-related proteins do not typically function in isolation. Rather, they often interact with each other to form a network module that underlies dysfunctional mechanistic pathways. Identifying such disease modules will provide insights into a systems-level understanding of molecular mechanisms of diseases. Owing to the incompleteness of our knowledge of disease proteins and limited information on the biological mediators of pathobiological processes, the key proteins (seed proteins) for many diseases appear scattered over the human protein-protein interactome and form a few small branches, rather than coherent network modules...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Adam J Wolpaw, Chi V Dang
The MYC oncogene is commonly altered across human cancers. Distinct from the normal MYC proto-oncogene, which is under tight transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control, deregulated oncogenic MYC drives imbalanced, non-linear amplification of transcription that results in oncogenic 'stress.' The term 'stress' had been a euphemism for our lack of mechanistic understanding, but synthesis of many studies over the past decade provides a more coherent picture of oncogenic MYC driving metastable cellular states, particularly altered metabolism, that activate and depend on cellular stress response pathways to allow for continued growth and survival...
May 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ying Zhu, Richard B Dewell, Hongxia Wang, Fabrizio Gabbiani
Visual neurons that track objects on a collision course are often finely tuned to their target stimuli because this is critical for survival. The presynaptic neural networks converging on these neurons and their role in tuning them remain poorly understood. We took advantage of well-known characteristics of one such neuron in the grasshopper visual system to investigate the properties of its presynaptic input network. We find the structure more complex than hitherto realized. In addition to dynamic lateral inhibition used to filter out background motion, presynaptic circuits include normalizing inhibition and excitatory interactions mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
Thomas Merckx, Aurélien Kaiser, Hans Van Dyck
Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
Michael R Roddewig, James H Churnside, F Richard Hauer, Jacob Williams, Patricia E Bigelow, Todd M Koel, Joseph A Shaw
The use of airborne lidar to survey fisheries has not yet been extensively applied in freshwater environments. In this study, we investigated the applicability of this technology to identify invasive lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, USA. Results of experimental trials conducted in 2004 and in 2015-16 provided lidar data that identified groups of fish coherent with current knowledge and models of lake trout spawning sites, and one identified site was later confirmed to have lake trout...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Makoto Okui, Koki Wakunami, Ryutaro Oi, Yasuyuki Ichihashi, Boaz Jessie Jackin, Kenji Yamamoto
To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Noah R Van Zandt, Mark F Spencer, Michael J Steinbock, Brian M Anderson, Milo W Hyde, Steven T Fiorino
Polychromatic laser light can reduce speckle noise in many wavefront-sensing and imaging applications. To help quantify the achievable reduction in speckle noise, this study investigates the accuracy of three polychromatic wave-optics models under the specific conditions of an unresolved object. Because existing theory assumes a well-resolved object, laboratory experiments are used to evaluate model accuracy. The three models use Monte-Carlo averaging, depth slicing, and spectral slicing, respectively, to simulate the laser-object interaction...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Zhilong Jiang, Xingchen Pan, Yan Kong, Weiying Qian, Shouyu Wang, Cheng Liu
Because of the limited dynamic range of common detectors, high-frequency components weaker than the threshold of the detector used are lost in digital holography (DH) even with the aid of coherent diffraction imaging (CDI)-based iterative computation, and this makes DH less preferable for many interesting applications. To overcome this problem, the partially saturated diffraction pattern was adopted to enhance the resolution of DH iteratively. Since more high-frequency components were retrieved in comparison with our former CDI-based digital holographic method, the resolution of DH was improved further...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Geol Moon, Heung-Ryoul Noh
We present an empirical formula for linewidth in saturated absorption spectroscopy for two-level atoms with cycling transition lines, taking the coherence term in the Doppler-broadened limit into account. The full width at half-maximum is obtained as (1+(1+as0 )b )γt , where s0 is the on-resonance saturation parameter, γt is the transverse decay rate, and a and b are the parameters that depend on γt . We find that as γt increases, a and b approach 1 and 1/2, respectively. These are the typical values in the case without the coherence term...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Yang Liu, Shoufeng Tong, Shuai Chang, Yansong Song, Yan Dong, Xin Zhao, Zhe An, Fuwan Yu
Optical phase-locked loops are an effective detection method in high-speed and long-distance laser communication. Although this method can detect weak signal light and maintain a small bit error rate, it is difficult to perform because identifying the phase difference between the signal light and the local oscillator accurately has always been a technical challenge. Thus, a series of studies is conducted to address this issue. First, a delayed exclusive or gate (XOR) phase detector with multi-level loop compound control is proposed...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Quang Ho Dinh, Jacek Pniewski, Hieu Le Van, Aleksandr Ramaniuk, Van Cao Long, Krzysztof Borzycki, Khoa Dinh Xuan, Mariusz Klimczak, Ryszard Buczyński
A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) made of fused silica glass, infiltrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ), is proposed as a new source of supercontinuum (SC) light. Guiding properties in terms of effective refractive index, attenuation, and dispersion of the fundamental mode are studied numerically. As a result, two optimized structures are selected and verified against SC generation in detail. The dispersion characteristic of the first structure has the zero-dispersion wavelength at 1.252 μm, while the dispersion characteristic of the second structure is all-normal and equals -4...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Mikael Sjodahl, Eynas Amer
The two techniques of lateral shear interferometry and speckle deflectometry are analyzed in a common optical system for their ability to measure phase gradient fields of a thin phase object. The optical system is designed to introduce a shear in the frequency domain of a telecentric imaging system that gives a sensitivity of both techniques in proportion to the defocus introduced. In this implementation, both techniques successfully measure the horizontal component of the phase gradient field. The response of both techniques scales linearly with the defocus distance, and the precision is comparative, with a random error in the order of a few rad/mm...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Mohamed Rouis, Abdelkrim Ouafi, Salim Sbaa
The recorded phonocardiogram (PCG) signal is often contaminated by different types of noises that can be seen in the frequency band of the PCG signal, which may change the characteristics of this signal. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has become one of the most important and powerful tools of signal representation, but its effectiveness is influenced by the issue of the selected mother wavelet and decomposition level (DL). The selection of the DL and the mother wavelet are the main challenges. This work proposes a new approach for finding an optimal DL and optimal mother wavelet for PCG signal denoising...
May 23, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Lorenz Räber, Gary S Mintz, Konstantinos C Koskinas, Thomas W Johnson, Niels R Holm, Yoshinubo Onuma, Maria D Radu, Michael Joner, Bo Yu, Haibo Jia, Nicolas Menevau, Jose M de la Torre Hernandez, Javier Escaned, Jonathan Hill, Francesco Prati, Antonio Colombo, Carlo di Mario, Evelyn Regar, Davide Capodanno, William Wijns, Robert A Byrne, Giulio Guagliumi
This Consensus Document is the first of two reports summarizing the views of an expert panel organized by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on the clinical use of intracoronary imaging including intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The first document appraises the role of intracoronary imaging to guide percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in clinical practice. Current evidence regarding the impact of intracoronary imaging guidance on cardiovascular outcomes is summarized, and patients or lesions most likely to derive clinical benefit from an imaging-guided intervention are identified...
May 22, 2018: European Heart Journal
Wei-Lun Weng, Chin-Yu Hsu, Jheng-Syun Lee, Hsin-Hsin Fan, Chien-Neng Liao
Lattice-mismatch is an important factor for the heteroepitaxial growth of core-shell nanostructures. A large lattice-mismatch usually leads to a non-coherent interface or a polycrystalline shell layer. In this study, a conformal Ag layer is coated on Cu nanowires with dense nanoscale twin boundaries through a galvanic replacement reaction. Despite a large lattice mismatch between Ag and Cu (∼12.6%), the Ag shell replicates the twinning structure in Cu nanowires and grows epitaxially on the nanotwinned Cu nanowire...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
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