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Asimina Koutsoukou-Argyraki, Alina Bertolino, Volker Kreß, Frank-Hagen Hofmann, Michael Sperth, Rainer Matthias Holm-Hadulla
"Sense of coherence" (SOC) plays an essential role in the maintenance or recovery of health, according to the salutogenetic approach of Aaron Antonovsky. Empirical studies provide evidence of significant links between sense of coherence and different indicators of mental health. In the present study, the effectivity of an integrative counselling concept for the promotion of sense of coherence, reduction of mental distress and improvement of satisfaction with life was tested in a sample of 153 clients and patients...
November 23, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Florian Joly, Gilles Soulez, Damien Garcia, Simon Lessard, Claude Kauffmann
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are localized, commonly-occurring dilations of the aorta. When equilibrium between blood pressure (loading) and wall mechanical resistance is lost, rupture ensues, and patient death follows, if not treated immediately. Experimental and numerical analyses of flow patterns in arteries show direct correlations between wall shear stress and wall mechano-adaptation with the development of zones prone to thrombus formation. For further insights into AAA flow topology/growth interaction, a workout of patient-specific computational flow dynamics (CFD) is proposed to compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents and extract Lagrangian-coherent structures (LCS)...
November 6, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Şefik Evren Erdener, Jianbo Tang, Amir Sajjadi, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Sreekanth Kura, Chris B Schaffer, David A Boas
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows label-free imaging of red blood cell (RBC) flux within capillaries with high spatio-temporal resolution. In this study, we utilized time-series OCT-angiography to demonstrate interruptions in capillary RBC flux in mouse brain in vivo. We noticed ∼7.5% of ∼200 capillaries had at least one stall in awake mice with chronic windows during a 9-min recording. At any instant, ∼0.45% of capillaries were stalled. Average stall duration was ∼15 s but could last over 1 min...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Ban Xuan Dong, Joseph Strzalka, Zhang Jiang, Huanghe Li, Gila E Stein, Peter F Green
While spin-casting and chemical surface reactions are the most common methods used for fabricating functional polymer films onto substrates, they are limited with regard to producing films of certain morphological characteristics on different wetting and non-wetting substrates. The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique offers advantages with regard to producing films of different morphologies on different types of substrates. Here we provide a quantitative characterization, using X-ray diffraction and optical methods, to elucidate the additive growth mechanism of MAPLE-deposited poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films on substrates that have undergone different surface treatments, enabling them to possess different wettabilities...
November 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ana González-Suárez, David Herranz, Enrique Berjano, Jose L Rubio-Guivernau, Eduardo Margallo-Balbás
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to thermally destroy the focus of cardiac arrhythmias. Novel optical techniques are now being integrated into RF catheters in order to detect the changes in tissue properties. Loss of birefringence due to fiber denaturation at around 70°C is related to changes in accumulated phase retardation and can be measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence reflectometry (PS-OCR)...
November 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Hannah L Stern, Alexandre Cheminal, Shane R Yost, Katharina Broch, Sam L Bayliss, Kai Chen, Maxim Tabachnyk, Karl Thorley, Neil Greenham, Justin M Hodgkiss, John Anthony, Martin Head-Gordon, Andrew J Musser, Akshay Rao, Richard H Friend
Singlet exciton fission (SF), the conversion of one spin-singlet exciton (S1) into two spin-triplet excitons (T1), could provide a means to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaics. SF as measured by the decay of S1 has been shown to occur efficiently and independently of temperature, even when the energy of S1 is as much as 200 meV less than that of 2T1. Here we study films of triisopropylsilyltetracene using transient optical spectroscopy and show that the triplet pair state (TT), which has been proposed to mediate singlet fission, forms on ultrafast timescales (in 300 fs) and that its formation is mediated by the strong coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom...
December 2017: Nature Chemistry
Chris van Weel, Faisal Alnasir, Taghreed Farahat, Jinan Usta, Mona Osman, Mariam Abdulmalik, Nagwa Nashat, Wadeia Mohamed Alsharief, Salwa Sanousi, Hassan Saleh, Mohammed Tarawneh, Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Amanda Howe, Ryuki Kassai
BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare (PHC) is essential for equitable access and cost-effective healthcare. This makes PHC a key factor in the global strategy for universal health coverage (UHC). Implementing PHC requires an understanding of the health system under prevailing circumstances, but for most countries, no data are available. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes and analyses the health systems of Bahrain, Egypt, Lebanon, Qatar, Sudan and the United Arab Emirates, in relation to PHC...
November 23, 2017: European Journal of General Practice
Bright S Ashimatey, Brett J King, William H Swanson
PURPOSE: Gliosis-like retinal alterations, presumed to be activated retinal astrocytes and Müller cells (ARAM), have been reported to occur frequently in patients with glaucoma but rarely in controls. We investigated the association between glaucomatous abnormality and the presence, the extent of retinal region, and the spatial distribution, of hyperreflective retinal alterations on optical coherence tomography (OCT) en-face images, presumed to be ARAM. METHODS: Findings of hyperreflective structures, presumed to be ARAM, in the central retinal ±24 degrees of OCT en-face images (acquired with the SPECTRALIS(®) OCT) were compared between 35 younger controls, 42 older controls and 38 patients with glaucoma...
November 23, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Sara Sommariva, Alberto Sorrentino, Michele Piana, Vittorio Pizzella, Laura Marzetti
In this work we use numerical simulation to investigate how the temporal length of the data affects the reliability of the estimates of brain connectivity from EEG time-series. We assume that the neural sources follow a stable MultiVariate AutoRegressive model, and consider three connectivity metrics: imaginary part of coherency (IC), generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC) and frequency-domain granger causality (fGC). In order to assess the statistical significance of the estimated values, we use the surrogate data test by generating phase-randomized and autoregressive surrogate data...
November 22, 2017: Brain Topography
Lexie Wille, Francis J McMahon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Seung Sae Hong, Jung Ho Yu, Di Lu, Ann F Marshall, Yasuyuki Hikita, Yi Cui, Harold Y Hwang
Long-range order and phase transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems-such as magnetism, superconductivity, and crystallinity-have been important research topics for decades. The issue of 2D crystalline order has reemerged recently, with the development of exfoliated atomic crystals. Understanding the dimensional limit of crystalline phases, with different types of bonding and synthetic techniques, is at the foundation of low-dimensional materials design. We study ultrathin membranes of SrTiO3, an archetypal perovskite oxide with isotropic (3D) bonding...
November 2017: Science Advances
Marshall A Dalton, Eleanor A Maguire
Internal representations of the world in the form of spatially coherent scenes have been linked with cognitive functions including episodic memory, navigation and imagining the future. In human neuroimaging studies, a specific hippocampal subregion, the pre/parasubiculum, is consistently engaged during scene-based cognition. Here we review recent evidence to consider why this might be the case. We note that the pre/parasubiculum is a primary target of the parieto-medial temporal processing pathway, it receives integrated information from foveal and peripheral visual inputs and it is contiguous with the retrosplenial cortex...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Yi-Ching Chen, Linda L Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Chia-Ling Hu, Ing-Shiou Hwang
Error amplification (EA) feedback is a promising approach to advance visuomotor skill. As error detection and visuomotor processing at short time scales decline with age, this study examined whether older adults could benefit from EA feedback that included higher-frequency information to guide a force-tracking task. Fourteen young and 14 older adults performed low-level static isometric force-tracking with visual guidance of typical visual feedback and EA feedback containing augmented high-frequency errors...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tetiana V Slusar, Jin-Cheol Cho, Hyang-Rok Lee, Ji-Wan Kim, Seung Jo Yoo, Jean-Yves Bigot, Ki-Ju Yee, Hyun-Tak Kim
The characteristic of strongly correlated materials is the Mott transition between metal and insulator (MIT or IMT) in the same crystalline structure, indicating the presence of a gap formed by the Coulomb interaction between carriers. The physics of the transition needs to be revealed. Using VO2, as a model material, we observe the emergence of a metallic chain in the intermediate insulating monoclinic structure (M2 phase) of epitaxial strained films, proving the Mott transition involving the breakdown of the critical Coulomb interaction...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ro-Ya Liu, Yu Ogawa, Peng Chen, Kenichi Ozawa, Takeshi Suzuki, Masaru Okada, Takashi Someya, Yukiaki Ishida, Kozo Okazaki, Shik Shin, Tai-Chang Chiang, Iwao Matsuda
Time-dependent responses of materials to an ultrashort optical pulse carry valuable information about the electronic and lattice dynamics; this research area has been widely studied on novel two-dimensional materials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and topological insulators (TIs). We report herein a time-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TRARPES) study of WSe2, a layered semiconductor of interest for valley electronics. The results for below-gap optical pumping reveal energy-gain and -loss Floquet replica valence bands that appear instantaneously in concert with the pump pulse...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaoqin Yan, Rong Zhang, Thomas R Knutson
Observed Atlantic major hurricane frequency has exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability since the 1940s. However, the cause of this variability is debated. Using observations and a coupled earth system model (GFDL-ESM2G), here we show that the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is associated with a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) inferred from ocean observations. Directly observed North Atlantic sulfate aerosol optical depth has not increased (but shows a modest decline) over this period, suggesting the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is not likely due to recent changes in anthropogenic sulfate aerosols...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Hermann Edlbauer, Shintaro Takada, Grégoire Roussely, Michihisa Yamamoto, Seigo Tarucha, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D Wieck, Tristan Meunier, Christopher Bäuerle
The electron wave function experiences a phase modification at coherent transmission through a quantum dot. This transmission phase undergoes a characteristic shift of π when scanning through a Coulomb blockade resonance. Between successive resonances either a transmission phase lapse of π or a phase plateau is theoretically expected to occur depending on the parity of quantum dot states. Despite considerable experimental effort, this transmission phase behaviour has remained elusive for a large quantum dot...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Toby B Cumming, Gillian Mead
OBJECTIVE: Post-stroke fatigue is common and has debilitating effects on independence and quality of life. The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) is a valid screening tool for fatigue after stroke, but there is no established cut-off. We sought to identify the optimal cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. METHODS: In retrospective analysis of two independent datasets (the '2015' and '2007' studies), we evaluated the predictive validity of FAS score against a case definition of fatigue (the criterion standard)...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Valeria Kheir, Ali Dirani, Matthieu Halfon, Jean-Pierre Venetz, Georges Halabi, Yan Guex-Crosier
BACKGROUND: To describe the optical coherence tomography angiograhy (OCTA) of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) in a woman affected by Complement 3 (C3) glomerulopathy, which represents a spectrum of glomerular diseases characterized on fluorescent microscopy by C3 accumulation with absent, or scanty, immunoglobulin deposits. It is due to acquired or genetically defective alternative pathway control and is generally associated with drusen-like deposits in Bruch's membrane, as well as choriocapillaris...
November 22, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Magda Gharbiya, Rosalia Giustolisi, Jessica Marchiori, Alice Bruscolini, Fabiana Mallone, Valeria Fameli, Marcella Nebbioso, Solmaz Abdolrahimzadeh
PURPOSE: To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal morphological changes in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) following ranibizumab or aflibercept intravitreal treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, comparative study where 76 eyes of 76 consecutive patients with treatment-naive nAMD were consecutively enrolled and randomized to ranibizumab 0.5 mg or aflibercept 2 mg injections. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of the choroid were obtained by enhanced depth imaging modality...
November 22, 2017: Current Eye Research
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