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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471387/heavy-cannabis-use-associated-with-reduction-in-activated-and-inflammatory-immune-cell-frequencies-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#1
Jennifer A Manuzak, Toni M Gott, Jay S Kirkwood, Ernesto Coronado, Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Charlene Miller, Ryan K Cheu, Ann C Collier, Nicholas T Funderburg, Jeffery N Martin, Michael C Wu, Nina Isoherranen, Peter W Hunt, Nichole R Klatt
Background: Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined. Methods: The impact of cannabis use on peripheral immune cell frequency, activation, and function was assessed in 198 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-treated individuals by flow cytometry...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470985/cytoplasmic-p53-contributes-to-the-removal-of-uracils-misincorporated-by-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase
#2
Yossi Saragani, Amnon Hizi, Galia Rahav, Sara Zauch, Mary Bakhanashvili
HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells efficiently inserts the non-canonical dUTP into the proviral DNA, and extends the dU-terminated DNA. The misincorporation of dUTP leads to mutagenesis, and uracils can down-regulate viral gene expression. However, uracilation might also protect HIV DNA from auto-integration in the cytoplasm. Tumor suppressor p53 protein, exhibiting inherent 3'→5' exonuclease activity, provides a potential host-derived repair mechanism during HIV reverse transcription for the misincorporation of various wrong nucleotides, leading to both base-base mismatches and incorporated non-canonical ribonucleotides...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470831/expression-and-function-of-immune-ligand-receptor-pairs-in-nk-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-therapeutic-implications
#3
REVIEW
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
BACKGROUND: The interplay between the immune system and cancer cells has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics, with novel immune blockade inhibitors being approved for the treatment of an increasing list of cancers. However, the majority of cancer patients still display or develop resistance to these promising drugs. It is possible that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are contributing to this therapeutic resistance. Although CSCs usually represent a small percentage of the total number of cancer cells, they are endowed with the ability of self-renewal and to produce differentiated progeny...
February 22, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470778/guselkumab-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#4
REVIEW
Álvaro Machado, Tiago Torres
Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory skin disease with systemic involvement and significant impact on patients' quality of life. Several biologic treatments have been developed in recent decades, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors, a non-selective interleukin (IL)-23 inhibitor (ustekinumab, which also inhibits IL-12), and-most recently-IL-17 inhibitors. Guselkumab is a novel biological therapy that selectively targets IL-23 and is the first-in-class selective IL-23 inhibitor approved to treat moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis...
February 22, 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467911/downregulation-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-taurine-upregulated-gene-1-inhibits-glioma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-and-promotes-apoptosis
#5
Zhijun Zhao, Bin Wang, Junhai Hao, Weitao Man, Yongkai Chang, Shunchang Ma, Yeshuai Hu, Fusheng Liu, Jun Yang
Expression of the long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is associated with various aggressive tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the biological function of TUG1 in regulating apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and cell cycle distribution in human glioma U251 cells. Lentivirus-mediated TUG1-specific microRNA was transfected into U251 cells to abrogate the expression of TUG1. Flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of U251 cells. Cellular proliferation was examined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and invasion was examined by Transwell assays...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467900/overexpression-of-rheb-is-associated-with-metastasis-and-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Fuchen Liu, Zeya Pan, Jinmin Zhang, Junsheng Ni, Chao Wang, Zhenguang Wang, Fangming Gu, Wei Dong, Weiping Zhou, Hui Liu
Aberrant expression of Ras homolog enriched in brain (RHEB) has been observed in a variety of cancer tissues and is closely associated with clinicopathological features. However, the expression profile of RHEB in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its clinical signature with underlying mechanisms have not been explored thus far. To analyze the association between RHEB expression and clinicopathological features, the RHEB expression levels were determined in the present study using gene microarrays, immunohistochemistry and western blotting in 60 liver cancer tissues and 35 normal liver tissues...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467895/clinicopathological-and-functional-implications-of-the-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-proteins-survivin-and-xiap-in-esophageal-cancer
#7
Levent Dizdar, Lisa M Jünemann, Thomas A Werner, Pablo E Verde, Stephan E Baldus, Nikolas H Stoecklein, Wolfram T Knoefel, Andreas Krieg
Based on their overexpression and important roles in progression and therapy-resistance in malignant diseases, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family (IAP) members, survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), represent attractive candidates for targeted therapy. The present study investigated the prognostic and biological relevance of survivin and XIAP in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Survivin and XIAP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays containing 120 ESCC and 90 EAC samples as well as the corresponding non-neoplastic esophageal mucosa samples...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467879/loss-of-cdx2-gene-expression-is-associated-with-dna-repair-proteins-and-is-a-crucial-member-of-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-liver-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer
#8
Csaba Tóth, Farkas Sükösd, Erzsébet Valicsek, Esther Herpel, Peter Schirmacher, László Tiszlavicz
Caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) has been well-established as a diagnostic marker for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, less is known about its regulation, particularly its potential interactions with the DNA repair proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and β-catenin, in a non-transcriptional manner. In the present study, the protein expression of CDX2 was analyzed, depending on the expression of the DNA repair proteins, mismatch repair (MMR), O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), and its importance in Wnt signaling was also determined...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467870/hif-1%C3%AE-promotes-zeb1-expression-and-emt-in-a-human-bladder-cancer-lung-metastasis-animal-model
#9
Jianning Zhu, Zhixin Huang, Mengzhao Zhang, Weiyi Wang, Hua Liang, Jin Zeng, Kaijie Wu, Xinyang Wang, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Peng Guo, Jinhai Fan
Lung is one of the most common sites for bladder cancer to metastasize. Although the involvement of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in bladder cancer progression has been established, the mechanism of EMT induction remains unclear. In order to investigate this, T24-parental (P) and T24-lung (L) bladder cancer cells were obtained from primary tumors and lung metastatic sites of an animal model with orthotopic spontaneous metastatic bladder cancer, according to a protocol previously described. Compared with T24-P cells, mesenchymal-like T24-L cells exhibited an increased ability in tumor invasion and metastasis, as well as an increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), vimentin and N-cadherin and lower level of cytokeratin 18 were observed...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467768/cytokine-networks-between-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-myeloid-cells
#10
REVIEW
Arthur Mortha, Kyle Burrows
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an essential component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are developmentally rooted in the lymphoid lineage and can diverge into at least three transcriptionally distinct lineages. ILCs seed both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and are locally self-maintained in tissue-resident pools. Tissue-resident ILCs execute important effector functions making them key regulator in tissue homeostasis, repair, remodeling, microbial defense, and anti-tumor immunity. Similar to T lymphocytes, ILCs possess only few sensory elements for the recognition of non-self and thus depend on extrinsic cellular sensory elements residing within the tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467712/structured-reporting-in-neuroradiology-intracranial-tumors
#11
Andrea Bink, Jan Benner, Julia Reinhardt, Anthony De Vere-Tyndall, Bram Stieltjes, Nicolin Hainc, Christoph Stippich
Purpose: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the clinical feasibility, diagnostic yield, advantages, and disadvantages of structured reporting for routine MRI-reading in patients with primary diagnosis of intracranial tumors as compared to traditional neuroradiological free text reporting. Methods: A structured MRI reporting template was developed covering pathological, anatomical, and functional aspects in an itemized fashion. Retrospectively, 60 consecutive patients with first diagnosis of an intracranial tumor were selected from the radiology information system/PACS system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467239/frequency-and-consequence-of-the-recurrent-yy1-p-t372r-mutation-in-sporadic-insulinomas
#12
Vaishali I Parekh, Sita D Modali, James Welch, William Simonds, Lee Scott Weinstein, Electron Kebebew, Sunita K Agarwal
Extract: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs/pNETs/p-NETs/PanNETs) are rare endocrine neoplasms that can be either functioning tumors that secrete hormones characteristic of their endocrine cell of origin, or nonfunctioning tumors. The most common functioning PNETs are the insulin-secreting b-cell tumors (insulinomas) that are mainly sporadic, but may also occur in 10% of patients with the hereditary tumor syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) (OMIM ID: 131100). Patients with the MEN1 syndrome carry a heterozygous germline inactivating mutation in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene and specific somatic loss of the normal MEN1 allele, leading to endocrine tumors mainly of the parathyroids, pituitary and pancreas (PNETs)...
February 21, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467226/e4bp4-nfil3-modulates-the-epigenetically-repressed-ras-effector-rassf8-function-through-histone-methyl-transferases
#13
Isai Pratha Karthik, Pavitra Desai, Sudarkodi Sukumar, Aleksandra Dimitrijevic, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Sundarasamy Mahalingam
Ras proteins are major human oncogenes and most of the studies are focussed on enzymatic RAS effectors. Recently, non-enzymatic Ras effectors (RASSF-Ras association domain family) have garnered special attention because of their tumor suppressive properties in contrast to the oncogenic potential of the classical enzymatic Ras effectors. While most members of RASSF family are deregulated by promoter hypermethylation, RASSF8 promoter remains unmethylated in many cancers but the mechanism(s) of its downregulation remains unknown...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466962/the-long-non-coding-rna-mycnos-01-regulates-mycn-protein-levels-and-affects-growth-of-mycn-amplified-rhabdomyosarcoma-and-neuroblastoma-cells
#14
Eleanor M O'Brien, Joanna L Selfe, Ana Sofia Martins, Zoë S Walters, Janet M Shipley
BACKGROUND: MYCN is amplified in small cell lung cancers and several pediatric tumors, including alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas. MYCN protein is known to play a key oncogenic role in both alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas. MYCN opposite strand (MYCNOS) is a gene located on the antisense strand to MYCN that encodes alternatively spliced transcripts, two of which (MYCNOS-01 and MYCNOS-02) are known to be expressed in neuroblastoma and small cell lung cancer with reciprocal regulation between MYCNOS-02 and MYCN reported for neuroblastomas...
February 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466759/developmental-analysis-of-bone-marrow-neutrophils-reveals-populations-specialized-in-expansion-trafficking-and-effector-functions
#15
Maximilien Evrard, Immanuel W H Kwok, Shu Zhen Chong, Karen W W Teng, Etienne Becht, Jinmiao Chen, Je Lin Sieow, Hweixian Leong Penny, Goh Chi Ching, Sapna Devi, José Maria Adrover, Jackson L Y Li, Ka Hang Liong, Leonard Tan, Zhiyong Poon, Shihui Foo, Jia Wang Chua, I-Hsin Su, Karl Balabanian, Françoise Bachelerie, Subhra K Biswas, Anis Larbi, William Y K Hwang, Vikas Madan, H Phillip Koeffler, Siew Cheng Wong, Evan W Newell, Andrés Hidalgo, Florent Ginhoux, Lai Guan Ng
Neutrophils are specialized innate cells that require constant replenishment from proliferative bone marrow (BM) precursors as a result of their short half-life. Although it is established that neutrophils are derived from the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), the differentiation pathways from GMP to functional mature neutrophils are poorly defined. Using mass cytometry (CyTOF) and cell-cycle-based analysis, we identified three neutrophil subsets within the BM: a committed proliferative neutrophil precursor (preNeu) which differentiates into non-proliferating immature neutrophils and mature neutrophils...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464067/gene-aberration-profile-of-tumors-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-females
#16
Yasuyuki Kanke, Akihiko Shimomura, Motonobu Saito, Takayuki Honda, Kouya Shiraishi, Yoko Shimada, Reiko Watanabe, Hiroshi Yoshida, Masayuki Yoshida, Chikako Shimizu, Kazuaki Takahashi, Hirohiko Totsuka, Hideaki Ogiwara, Sou Hirose, Koji Kono, Kenji Tamura, Aikou Okamoto, Takayuki Kinoshita, Tomoyasu Kato, Takashi Kohno
There has been little improvement in the prognosis for adolescent and young adult (AYA) tumor patients. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand the etiology of tumor development and identify actionable gene aberrations to improve prevention and therapy. Here, 76 sporadic tumors (48 breast, 22 ovarian, and six uterine) from 76 AYA females (age range, 25-39 years) were subjected to whole exome and RNA sequencing to determine their mutational signatures and actionable gene profiles. Two individuals with breast cancer (4...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463786/grk5-functions-as-an-oncogenic-factor-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Li-Ping Jiang, Song-Qing Fan, Qiu-Xia Xiong, Yong-Chun Zhou, Zuo-Zhang Yang, Gao-Feng Li, Yun-Chao Huang, Meng-Ge Wu, Qiu-Shuo Shen, Kun Liu, Cui-Ping Yang, Yong-Bin Chen
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 80% of all cases, which is the major subgroup of lung cancer. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) has been demonstrated to play pivotal roles in both development and progression of several pathological conditions including cancer. Here, we found that GRK5 expression was significantly increased in 539 NSCLC cancerous tissues than that in 99 normal non-cancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry analysis; we also showed intensive higher positive staining percentage in female and adenocarcinoma (ADC) NSCLC patients than that in male and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients, respectively...
February 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462967/overexpression-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ephb4-triggers-tumor-growth-and-hypoxia-in-a375-melanoma-xenografts-insights-from-multitracer-small-animal-imaging-experiments
#18
Christin Neuber, Birgit Belter, Sebastian Meister, Frank Hofheinz, Ralf Bergmann, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch, And Jens Pietzsch
Experimental evidence has associated receptor tyrosine kinase EphB4 with tumor angiogenesis also in malignant melanoma. Considering the limited in vivo data available, we have conducted a systematic multitracer and multimodal imaging investigation in EphB4-overexpressing and mock-transfected A375 melanoma xenografts. Tumor growth, perfusion, and hypoxia were investigated by positron emission tomography. Vascularization was investigated by fluorescence imaging in vivo and ex vivo. The approach was completed by magnetic resonance imaging, radioluminography ex vivo, and immunohistochemical staining for blood and lymph vessel markers...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462755/the-human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-p30-ii-protein-activates-p53-and-induces-the-tigar-and-suppresses-oncogene-induced-oxidative-stress-during-viral-carcinogenesis
#19
Megan Romeo, Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Averi White, Janice Kim, Rachel Gardner, Katie Smith, Katherine Nelson, Rachel Bergeson, Ryan McKee, Carolyn Harrod, Lee Ratner, Bernhard Lüscher, Ernest Martinez, Robert Harrod
In normal cells, aberrant oncogene expression leads to the accumulation of cytotoxic metabolites, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative DNA-damage and apoptosis as an intrinsic barrier against neoplastic disease. The c-Myc oncoprotein is overexpressed in many lymphoid cancers due to c-myc gene amplification and/or 8q24 chromosomal translocations. Intriguingly, p53 is a downstream target of c-Myc and hematological malignancies, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), frequently contain wildtype p53 and c-Myc overexpression...
February 17, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461591/reduced-spock1-expression-inhibits-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#20
T Wang, X Liu, Q Tian, T Liang, P Chang
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that SPARC/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazal-like domain proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1) contributes to the initiation and progression of human cancers. However, little is known about the function mechanisms of SPOCK1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of SPOCK1 in NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression levels of SPOCK1 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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