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Brain tumor related epilepsy

Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Edward K Avila, Marc Chamberlain, David Schiff, Jaap C Reijneveld, Terri S Armstrong, Roberta Ruda, Patrick Y Wen, Michael Weller, Johan A F Koekkoek, Sandeep Mittal, Yoshiki Arakawa, Ali Choucair, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, David R MacDonald, Ryo Nishikawa, Aashit Shah, Charles J Vecht, Paula Warren, Martin J van den Bent, Lisa M DeAngelis
Patients with low-grade glioma frequently have brain tumor-related epilepsy, which is more common than in patients with high-grade glioma. Treatment for tumor-associated epilepsy usually comprises a combination of surgery, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Response to tumor-directed treatment is measured primarily by overall survival and progression-free survival. However, seizure frequency has been observed to respond to tumor-directed treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy...
September 20, 2016: Neuro-oncology
Yang Yuan, Wang Xiang, Liu Yanhui, Liang Ruofei, Luo Jiewen, Jiang Shu, Mao Qing
Epileptic seizures, the most common symptom accompanying glioma, are closely associated with tumor growth and patient quality of life. However, the association between glioma and glioma-related epilepsy is poorly understood. In fact, findings related to the location of epileptogenicity have been inconsistent in previous studies. We investigated seizure foci in patients with glioma and the corresponding association between glioma-related epilepsy and the tumoral and peritumoral microenvironment. Clinical characteristics, extracellular electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and western blots were conducted on 12 patients with glioma; nine patients had histories of preoperative seizures while three did not...
September 19, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Tomor Harnod, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the effects of nonapnea sleep disorders (NSDs) on the development of epilepsy. METHODS: We identified 63,865 patients aged ≥20years, diagnosed with NSDs (ICD-9-CM: 307.4 or 780.5), and without coding for apnea-related sleep disorders (ICD-9-CM: 780.51, 780.53, or 780.57) during 2000-2003 as the NSD cohort. In addition, we enrolled a comparison cohort of 127,728 patients. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing epilepsy (ICD-9-CM: 345) after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, and drug use...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
E Steve Roach
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominantly inherited disorder that variably affects the brain, skin, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Its neurological manifestations include epilepsy, autism, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and giant cell tumors. A mutation of either TSC1 or TSC2 can cause tuberous sclerosis complex. Their two gene products, hamartin and tuberin, form a physical complex which normally inhibits protein synthesis mediated through the mechanistic target of rapamycin, so a TSC1 or TSC2 mutation results in overactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin cascade...
October 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Johan A F Koekkoek, Linda Dirven, Martin J B Taphoorn
INTRODUCTION: The withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in World Health Organization (WHO) grade II-III glioma patients with epilepsy is controversial, as the presence of a symptomatic lesion is often related to an increased risk of seizure relapse. However, some glioma patients may achieve long-term seizure freedom after antitumor treatment, raising questions about the necessity to continue AEDs, particularly when patients experience serious drug side effects. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we show the evidence in the literature from 1990-2016 for AED withdrawal in glioma patients...
August 2, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Andrea O Rossetti, Serge Vulliémoz
Epileptic seizures represent a relatively frequent issue in patients with intracranial neoplasms, and very frequently imply the start of an antiepileptic treatment as secondary prophylaxis. Even if the current level of evidence is relatively low, compounds with a limited risk of pharmacokinetic interactions are clearly preferred. Levetiracetam is probably the most prescribed agent in this setting, while pregabalin, valproate, lacosamide and lamotrigine are valuable alternatives. The treatment choice has to consider the different profiles of side effects and should be tailored to each patient...
April 27, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Rachel Pruitt, Alexander Gamble, Karen Black, Michael Schulder, Ashesh D Mehta
OBJECTIVE Complications of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) are underreported. The authors discuss how they have modified their technique in the context of technical and treatment-related adverse events. METHODS The Medtronic Visualase system was used in 49 procedures in 46 patients. Between 1 and 3 cooling catheters/laser fiber assemblies were placed, for a total of 62 implanted devices. Devices were placed using frameless stereotaxy (n = 3), frameless stereotaxy with intraoperative MRI (iMRI) (n = 9), iMRI under direct vision (n = 2), MRI alone (n = 1), or frame-based (n = 47) techniques...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Huiyuan Huang, Zhongxiang Ding, Dewang Mao, Jianhua Yuan, Fangmei Zhu, Shuda Chen, Yan Xu, Lin Lou, Xiaoyan Feng, Le Qi, Wusi Qiu, Han Zhang, Yu-Feng Zang
The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp...
October 2016: Neuroinformatics
Ramón Cacabelos, Clara Torrellas, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Francisco López-Muñoz
Neuroimmune dysregulation is a common phenomenon in different forms of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Cross-links between central and peripheral immune mechanisms appear to be disrupted as reflected by a series of immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD7, HLA-DR, CD25, CD28, and CD56) which show variability in brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, migraine, epilepsy, vascular dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, cranial nerve neuropathies, mental retardation, and posttraumatic brain injury...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Barbara K Robens, Eva Gembé, Jana Fassunke, Albert J Becker, Susanne Schoch, Alexander Grote
AIMS: Chronic epilepsy associated gangliogliomas (GGs) represent tumors composed of irregularly distributed, often dysmorphic, neurons and neoplastic astroglia. The pathogenesis of GGs is largely unknown. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 12 (LRP12) is critical for brain development and involved in tumorigenesis of non-cerebral neoplasms. MAIN METHODS: Here, we have examined a potential role of LRP12 in the pathogenesis of GGs by a combination of mRNA quantification and molecular-biological in vitro assays...
June 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Ekta Khambhla, Viral Shah, Kalpesh Baviskar
The current epoch has witnessed a lifestyle impregnated with stress, which is a major cause of several neurological disorders. High morbidity and mortality rate due to neurological diseases and disorders have generated a huge social impact. Despite voluminous research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating CNS diseases such as brain tumors, HIV, encephalopathy, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinson's, migraine and multiple sclerosis outnumbered those suffering from systemic cancer or heart diseases. The brain being a highly sensitive neuronal organ, has evolved with vasculature barriers, which regulates the efflux and influx of substances to CNS...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Carlos R Plata-Salaman
Cytokines (e.g. various interleukins and subfamily members, tumor necrosis factors, interferons, chemokines and growth factors) act in the brain as immunoregulators and neuromodulators. Over a decade ago, the integrative article 'Immunoregulators in the Nervous System' (Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1991; 15: 185-215) provided a comprehensive framework of pivotal issues on cytokines and the nervous system that recently have been extensively studied. Cytokine profiles in the brain, including cytokine generation and action, have been studied in multiple models associated with neuropathophysiological conditions...
December 2002: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Phetsamone Vannasing, Isotta Cornaggia, Catherine Vanasse, Julie Tremblay, Paola Diadori, Sébastien Perreault, Maryse Lassonde, Anne Gallagher
As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This case study illustrates the potential for NIRS to contribute favorably to the localization of language functions in children with epilepsy and cognitive or behavioral problems and its potential advantages over fMRI in presurgical assessment...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
V Nancy Jeniffer, S Udayakumar, K Pushpalatha
CONTEXT: Epilepsy is one of the common neurological disorders worldwide. Fundamentally, there are two types of epilepsy-primary generalized epilepsy and localization-related epilepsy. Partial seizures account for about 40% of childhood seizures in some series and can be classified as simple or complex.[1] Partial seizures, more so the complex partial seizures (CPSs), are presumed to have a structural etiology. AIMS: (1) To study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain findings in CPSs in children aged 1-18 years...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Dorota Kaczmarska-Turek, Paweł Bartnik, Joanna Kacperczyk, Jan Orlewski, Małgorzata Olszewska, Małgorzata Krasnodębska-Kiljańska
UNLABELLED: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe, life-threatening mucocutaneus adverse reaction, most commonly triggered by medication. Treatment in some aspects is still controversial. CASE REPORT: Patient with malignant astrocytoma, treated with palliative radiotherapy, developed massive erythema with bullae. Patient suffered from tumor-related epilepsy, treated pharmacologically with carbamazepine. After dermatological consultation TEN was diagnosed...
January 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sean M Lew
The term hemispherectomy refers to the complete removal or functional disconnection of a cerebral hemisphere. The technique was initially developed over 85 years ago to treat infiltrating brain tumors but is now used exclusively for medically refractory epilepsy. Hemispherectomy surgery has progressed from an extremely morbid procedure fraught with complications to a fairly routine one performed at most pediatric epilepsy centers with relatively low risk and great efficacy. The author reviews the history and evolution of hemispherectomy surgery, the relevant pathological conditions, as well as outcomes and complications...
July 2014: Translational pediatrics
Ronald B Willemse, Arjan Hillebrand, Hanneke E Ronner, W Peter Vandertop, Cornelis J Stam
OBJECTIVES: The presence of intracranial lesions or epilepsy may lead to functional reorganization and hemispheric lateralization. We applied a clinical magnetoencephalography (MEG) protocol for the localization of the contralateral and ipsilateral S1 and M1 of the foot and hand in patients with non-lesional epilepsy, stroke, developmental brain injury, traumatic brain injury and brain tumors. We investigated whether differences in activation patterns could be related to underlying pathology...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Dario J Englot, Stephen T Magill, Seunggu J Han, Edward F Chang, Mitchel S Berger, Michael W McDermott
OBJECT Meningioma is the most common benign intracranial tumor, and patients with supratentorial meningioma frequently suffer from seizures. The rates and predictors of seizures in patients with meningioma have been significantly under-studied, even in comparison with other brain tumor types. Improved strategies for the prediction, treatment, and prevention of seizures in patients with meningioma is an important goal, because tumor-related epilepsy significantly impacts patient quality of life. METHODS The authors performed a systematic review of PubMed for manuscripts published between January 1980 and September 2014, examining rates of pre- and postoperative seizures in supratentorial meningioma, and evaluating potential predictors of seizures with separate meta-analyses...
June 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Liu Yang, Zenghui Liu, Ronghua Wu, Qi Yao, Zhikai Gu, Mei Liu
C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, is an interleukin-8 receptor and results in the activation of neutrophils. To date, CXCR2 has been identified with many cell events, including inflammation, neovascularization, metastasis, and cell carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate alterations in the expression of CXCR2 in patients with brain gliomas and relationships with pathological grades and clinicopathological characteristics. Brain tissue specimens from 60 patients with glioma and 15 patients undergoing surgery for epilepsy (controls) were detected using streptavidin-perosidase immunohistochemistry...
2015: OncoTargets and Therapy
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