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Perinatal prevent HIV transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005487/perinatal-hiv-exposure-surveillance-and-reporting-in-the-united-states-2014
#1
Kathleen A Brady, Deborah S Storm, Azita Naghdi, Toni Frederick, Jessica Fridge, Mary Jo Hoyt
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the current status of perinatal HIV exposure surveillance (PHES) activities and regulations in the United States and to make recommendations to strengthen PHES. METHODS: In 2014, we sent an online survey to health departments in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and 6 cities and counties (Chicago, Illinois; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Francisco, California)...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984423/evaluation-of-medication-mediated-effects-in-pharmacoepidemiology
#2
Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Kelesitse Phiri
Medical conditions such as epilepsy or infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to be associated with a spectrum of adverse health outcomes if not appropriately managed by efficacious treatment and care. Medications for such conditions can be potent, and their use might sometimes have unintended health consequences. Prominent examples have emerged in HIV perinatal research in which use of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy to treat maternal HIV infection and prevent transmission of the virus to the fetus have been shown to be associated with adverse birth outcomes...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936863/missed-opportunities-for-repeat-hiv-testing-in-pregnancy-implications-for-elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-in-the-united-states
#3
Caiyun Liao, William Christopher Golden, Jean R Anderson, Jenell S Coleman
HIV testing is an effective intervention that is used for reducing perinatal HIV transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a second HIV test during the third trimester of pregnancy for women in settings with an elevated HIV incidence (≥17 cases per 100,000 person-years). We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a single hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, to determine whether a second HIV test was done and to compare HIV retesting with mandated syphilis retesting. Of women who delivered at this hospital, 98...
December 12, 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864000/timing-of-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Olalekan A Uthman, Jean B Nachega, Jean Anderson, Steve Kanters, Edward J Mills, Françoise Renaud, Shaffiq Essajee, Meg C Doherty, Lynne M Mofenson
BACKGROUND: Although lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all individuals with HIV, few data exist for pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiation before conception. We assessed adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiated before conception compared with that of ART started after conception. METHODS: We did a systematic review of studies from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, LILACS, MEDLINE, Toxline, Web of Knowledge, and WHO Global Index Medicus and trials in progress (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) for randomised trials, quasi-randomised trials, and prospective cohort studies done between Jan 1, 1980, and June 1, 2016, in which timing of ART initiation in pregnant women living with HIV was reported...
January 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806243/benefits-and-risks-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-perinatal-hiv-prevention
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mary G Fowler, Min Qin, Susan A Fiscus, Judith S Currier, Patricia M Flynn, Tsungai Chipato, James McIntyre, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, George K Siberry, Anne S Coletti, Taha E Taha, Karin L Klingman, Francis E Martinson, Maxensia Owor, Avy Violari, Dhayendre Moodley, Gerhard B Theron, Ramesh Bhosale, Raziya Bobat, Benjamin H Chi, Renate Strehlau, Pendo Mlay, Amy J Loftis, Renee Browning, Terence Fenton, Lynette Purdue, Michael Basar, David E Shapiro, Lynne M Mofenson
Background Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. Methods We randomly assigned HIV-infected women at 14 or more weeks of gestation with CD4 counts of at least 350 cells per cubic millimeter to zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine plus a 1-to-2-week postpartum "tail" of tenofovir and emtricitabine (zidovudine alone); zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (zidovudine-based ART); or tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (tenofovir-based ART)...
November 3, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801374/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-seroconversion-among-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-prospective-study
#6
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Florence M Mirembe
INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795784/-seroprevalence-of-hbsag-in-pregnant-women-in-central-morocco
#7
Mohammed Sbiti, Hanane Khalki, Imane Benbella, Lhoussaine Louzi
Maternal-fetal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global public health problem leading to the implementation of strengthened prevention measures. Viral replication in HIV-positive mother, assessed based on HBeAg positivity and the rate of viral load, determines the contamination risk which is very important during perinatal period. Mothers with chronic HBV are a real reservoir of vertical transmission of this infection. This is a prospective investigation of 1120 pregnant Moroccan women aiming to study the seroprevalence of HBsAg which was 2...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749662/perinatal-antiretroviral-exposure-and-prevented-mother-to-child-hiv-infections-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-prophylaxis-in-the-united-states-1994-2010
#8
Kristen M Little, Allan W Taylor, Craig B Borkowf, Maria C B Mendoza, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Steven R Nesheim
OBJECTIVES: Using published, nationally-representative estimates, we calculated the total number of perinatally HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infants born during 1978-2010, the number of perinatal HIV cases prevented by interventions designed for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and the number of infants exposed to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs during the prenatal and intrapartum periods. DESIGN: We calculated the number of infants exposed to ARV drugs since 1994, and the number of cases of mother-to-child HIV transmission prevented from 1994 to 2010 using published data...
January 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630001/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-risk-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
E Keane, A L Funk, Y Shimakawa
BACKGROUND: The risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been quoted as 70-90% among women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg), and 5-30% among HBsAg-positive HBeAg-negative women. These risks are derived from Asia; little is known about sub-Saharan Africa. AIM: To determine the risk of mother-to-child transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, according to maternal HBeAg and type of prophylaxis. METHODS: We searched Medline, Global Health, Embase, African Journals Online and African Index Medicus...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595131/sexual-behavior-and-knowledge-among-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-compared-to-hiv-uninfected-adolescents-at-an-urban-tertiary-center-in-new-jersey
#10
Ashlesha Kaushik, Carol Pineda, Helen Kest
Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period...
2016: International Journal of Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573084/contraception-for-hiv-infected-adolescents
#11
Athena P Kourtis, Ayesha Mirza
Access to high-quality reproductive health care is important for adolescents and young adults with HIV infection to prevent unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and secondary transmission of HIV to partners and children. As perinatally HIV-infected children mature into adolescence and adulthood and new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults continue to occur in the United States, medical providers taking care of such individuals often face issues related to sexual and reproductive health...
September 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562873/drug-drug-interactions-effectiveness-and-safety-of-hormonal-contraceptives-in-women-living-with-hiv
#12
REVIEW
Kimberly K Scarsi, Kristin M Darin, Catherine A Chappell, Stephanie M Nitz, Mohammed Lamorde
Family planning options, including hormonal contraceptives, are essential for improving reproductive health among the more than 17 million women living with HIV worldwide. For these women, prevention of unintended pregnancy decreases maternal and child mortality, as well as reduces the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. Similarly, treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV-positive individuals, as well as preventing HIV transmission between sexual partners or from mother to child...
November 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504071/management-of-hiv-infection-during-pregnancy-in-the-united-states-updated-evidence-based-recommendations-and-future-potential-practices
#13
REVIEW
Bassam H Rimawi, Lisa Haddad, Martina L Badell, Rana Chakraborty
All HIV-infected women contemplating pregnancy should initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with a goal to achieve a maternal serum HIV RNA viral load beneath the laboratory level of detection prior to conceiving, as well as throughout their pregnancy. Successfully identifying HIV infection during pregnancy through screening tests is essential in order to prevent in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. Perinatal HIV transmission can be less than 1% when effective cART, associated with virologic suppression of HIV, is given during the ante-, intra-, and postpartum periods...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448959/use-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-during-the-preconception-antepartum-and-postpartum-periods-at%C3%A2-two%C3%A2-united-states-medical-centers
#14
Dominika L Seidman, Shannon Weber, Maria Teresa Timoney, Karishma K Oza, Elizabeth Mullins, Deborah L Cohan, Rodney L Wright
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy may increase a woman's susceptibility to HIV. Maternal HIV acquisition during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased perinatal and lactational HIV transmission. There are no published reports of preexposure prophylaxis use after the first trimester of pregnancy or during lactation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the use of preexposure prophylaxis and to identify gaps in HIV prevention services for women who were at substantial risk of HIV preconception and during pregnancy and lactation at 2 United States medical centers...
July 19, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393336/hiv-knowledge-among-pregnant-latinas-in-rural-south-carolina
#15
Myriam E Torres, Ashley Murray, Edena G Meetze, Zaneta Gaul, Madeline Y Sutton
To inform and strengthen culturally-tailored HIV perinatal prevention, we assessed HIV knowledge among pregnant Latinas receiving prenatal care in rural South Carolina. We administered an 11 item HIV knowledge scale (n = 171). Women who answered 8 of 11 (73 %) items correctly were categorized as having "high" knowledge; <8 items correct was categorized as "low" knowledge. Seventy-six percent of participants had low HIV knowledge; only 37 % knew that there is medicine to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343750/safety-of-intrauterine-devices-among-women-with-hiv-a-systematic-review
#16
Naomi K Tepper, Kathryn M Curtis, Kavita Nanda, Denise J Jamieson
BACKGROUND: Use of highly effective contraception among women living with HIV is critical to prevent unintended pregnancy and subsequent risk of maternal complications and perinatal HIV transmission. However, it is not known whether use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) among women with advanced HIV disease poses an increased risk of pelvic infection or HIV progression and transmission. OBJECTIVES: To identify evidence regarding the risk of pelvic infection, HIV disease progression or HIV transmission among women with HIV using IUDs and whether this risk differs by severity of HIV disease...
June 22, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144177/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-pregnancy-the-global-challenge-of-preventing-adverse-pregnancy-and-infant-outcomes-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-asia
#17
REVIEW
Kristina Adachi, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jeffrey D Klausner
Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127401/maternal-lopinavir-ritonavir-is-associated-with-fewer-adverse-events-in-infants-than-nelfinavir-or-atazanavir
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christiana Smith, Adriana Weinberg, Jeri E Forster, Myron J Levin, Jill Davies, Jennifer Pappas, Kay Kinzie, Emily Barr, Suzanne Paul, Elizabeth J McFarland
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is successfully used for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. To investigate safety, we compared adverse events (AE) among infants exposed to different maternal cART regimens. We reviewed 158 HIV-uninfected infants born between 1997 and 2009, using logistic regression to model grade ≥1 AE and grade ≥3 AE as a function of maternal cART and confounding variables (preterm, C-section, illicit drug use, race, ethnicity, infant antiretrovirals, and maternal viremia)...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075475/hepatitis-b-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-resource-limited-high-endemic-setting-addis-ababa-ethiopia-implications-for-prevention-and-control-measures
#19
Zelalem Desalegn, Liya Wassie, Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Adane Mihret, Yehenew A Ebstie
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis, a highly contagious viral infection, is one of the leading killer diseases globally caused by hepatitis virus. Among the existing viral causes for hepatic failure, hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a significant role with devastating implications, especially when combined with other viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Co-infection with hepatitis B virus and HIV leads to increased morbidity and mortality as compared to independent HIV and HBV infections...
April 14, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001986/prevention-of-perinatal-transmission-of-zidovudine-and-nevirapine-resistant-hiv
#20
Agnes Cha, Pansy Elsamadisi, Christy Peggy Su, Emmet Phipps, Jeffrey M Birnbaum
PURPOSE: The use of a three-drug regimen for the prevention of perinatal transmission of zidovudine- and nevirapine-resistant HIV is described. SUMMARY: A 17-year-old Hispanic woman infected with HIV arrived at our clinic for the management of her first pregnancy. The patient was in her second trimester of her pregnancy, had not previously been treated with antiretroviral therapy, and was only taking daily prenatal vitamins at the time of her first clinic visit...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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