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symptom validity neuropsychology

Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Kenneth Perrine, James C Gibaldi
This is a retrospective study of concussion patient data conducted to analyze the prevalence of somatization in patients presenting with post-concussion symptoms. Patient records from June 2010 to December 2015 were examined for concussion history, psychosocial history, neuropsychological test results, validity scores, and a symptom severity scale. Records meeting inclusion criteria from 33 males and 27 females were located. The sample had an age range of 11-78 years with a mean age of 33.40 (SD +/- 7.5 years)...
August 19, 2016: Curēus
Shannon B Juengst, Galen Switzer, Byung Mo Oh, Patricia M Arenth, Amy K Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral changes often occur after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can lead to poor health, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Challenges in evaluating these behaviors often result from the complexity and variability in the way they are conceptualized and defined. We propose and test a conceptual model that is specific to behavioral symptoms after TBI, to serve as a basis for better assessment and treatment. We hypothesized that clusters of individuals, with unique emotional, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics, would emerge that would illustrate this conceptual model...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Simone Reppermund, Rachael C Birch, John D Crawford, Jacqueline Wesson, Brian Draper, Nicole A Kochan, Julian N Trollor, Katharina Luttenberger, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
OBJECTIVES: The distinction between dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relies upon the evaluation of independence in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Self- and informant reports are prone to bias. Clinician-based performance tests are limited by long administration times, restricted access, or inadequate validation. To close this gap, we developed and validated a performance-based measure of IADL, the Sydney Test of Activities of Daily Living in Memory Disorders (STAM)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jens Egeland, Marianne Løvstad, Anne Norup, Taina Nybo, Bengt A Persson, Diego Fernando Rivera, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
OBJECTIVE: Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses whether these traditions still influence attitudes toward test use and choice of tests. METHOD: The study is based on survey data from 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. RESULTS: The average participant used 9 tests in a standard assessment, and 25 tests overall in their practice...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Jessica Y Liu, Neil D Saunders, Aaron Chen, Collin J Weber, Jyotirmay Sharma
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are often subtle and effects of parathyroidectomy (PTX) on symptoms remains poorly characterized. Our aim was to evaluate effects of PTX on NPS in patients with PHPT. A prospective questionnaire was distributed to all patients undergoing PTX and to a thyroidectomy (TX) control group. The questionnaire included the validated scales Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) to assess for depression and anxiety respectively, as well as questions modified from Pasieka's Parathyroid Assessment of Symptoms (M-PAS)...
September 2016: American Surgeon
E S J Robinson, J P Roiser
Depression is one of the most common but poorly understood psychiatric conditions. Although drug treatments and psychological therapies are effective in some patients, many do not achieve full remission and some patients receive no apparent benefit. Developing new improved treatments requires a better understanding of the aetiology of symptoms and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets in pre-clinical studies. Recent developments in our understanding of the basic cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of depression and its treatment offer new opportunities for both clinical and pre-clinical research...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Andreas Johnen, Lisa Brandstetter, Christian Kärgel, Heinz Wiendl, Hubertus Lohmann, Thomas Duning
Limb apraxia denotes a cognitive impairment of gesture production. Lesion studies in patients with stroke point towards distinct neural processing streams for limb imitation and object-pantomime within left parietal and temporal cortex, respectively. Despite its frequent occurrence as an early symptom in both, Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), neural correlates of limb apraxia within these patient groups remain unexplored. Using voxel-based morphometry and multiple regression models, associations between limb apraxia and gray matter (GM) volume were investigated in 36 dementia patients (18 AD, 18 bvFTD) in early disease stages...
August 26, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
E J Pedrero-Perez, J M Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, G Rojo-Mota, S Morales-Alonso, J Pedrero-Aguilar, I Lorenzo, A Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) is a self-reported questionnaire, created in Spain, which asks about cognitive, emotional and behavioural alterations in activities of daily living and which can be applied in both the general population and in multiple clinical populations. There is a shorter 20-item version (PSI-20) with excellent psychomotor properties for screening. AIM: To study the convergent and divergent validity of the PSI and PSI-20, by analysing how their scales reflect the day-to-day consequences of real deficits found in neurological assessment performed by means of performance tests...
September 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
C W Wallesch
In the context of neurological assessment, neuropsychological deficits, in particular of attention and memory functions, usually require additional neuropsychological evaluation. Clinical neuropsychology also has at its disposal an inventory of validated and standardized tests for assessing symptom validity. Procedure, test selection, quality criteria and limitations of neuropsychological expert medical evaluations are presented. Independent expert evaluations should be conducted by a qualified clinical neuropsychologist...
July 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Christopher L Hansen
OBJECTIVE: The current investigation sought to define the relationship between established performance validity tests and measures of memory via a factor analytic strategy first published by Heyanka, Thaler, Linck, Pastorek, Miller, Romesser, & Sim (2015). A Factor analytic approach to the validation of the Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering as measures of effort and not memory. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 30, 369-376. METHOD: The full range of Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) and Non-Verbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) subtests were factor analyzed with the memory scales of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in a sample of 346 service members with a history of concussion...
August 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Paul Green
Over the last 20-25 years, considerable research has been devoted to the development of the science involved with detecting invalid symptom presentations and performances in psychological and neuropsychological examinations. Early work on these concepts drove the construction and validation of several measures of symptom and performance validity leading to the eventual utilization of these measures to establish base rates across various populations. More recent works have sought to demonstrate correlations between select domains and researchers have further labored to investigate the real world costs of invalid response styles...
November 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Carolyn M Cook, Elizabeth Bolinger, Julie Suhr
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be easily presented in a non-credible manner, through non-credible report of ADHD symptoms and/or by non-credible performance on neuropsychological tests. While most studies have focused on detection of non-credible performance using performance validity tests, there are few studies examining the ability to detect non-credible report of ADHD symptoms. We provide further validation data for a recently developed measure of non-credible ADHD symptom report, the Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) Infrequency Index (CII)...
June 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Anne Sophie Champod, Rachel C Frank, Kristina Taylor, Gail A Eskes
Studies that have investigated prism adaptation (PA) effects on symptoms of visuospatial neglect have primarily used neuropsychological tests as outcome measures. An important question that remains to be answered is whether PA effects translate into improvements in patients' daily life activities. In the present review, we examined systematically the evidence for the effect of PA treatment on daily life activities in patients with neglect. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality of 25 intervention and 1 follow-up studies using validated scales...
May 16, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Isabelle E Bauer, Mon-Ju Wu, T W Frazier, Benson Mwangi, Danielle Spiker, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits have been consistently reported in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). The cognitive profile of siblings of individuals with BD is, however, less clearly established possibly due to the heterogeneity of neuropsychological measures used in previous studies. The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the cognitive function of siblings of individuals with BD and compare it with that of their first-degree relatives suffering with BD, and healthy controls (HC) using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) - a comprehensive and validated computerized cognitive battery...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gregory P Strauss, James M Gold
In 2005, the National Institute of Mental Health held a consensus development conference on negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Among the important conclusions of this meeting were that there are at least 5 commonly accepted domains of negative symptoms (blunted affect, alogia, avolition, anhedonia, asociality) and that new rating scales were needed to adequately assess these constructs. Two next-generation negative symptom scales resulted from this meeting: the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS)...
May 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Yasuyuki Mamiya, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Kayoko Yokoi, Makoto Uchiyama, Toru Baba, Osamu Iizuka, Shigenori Kanno, Naoto Kamimura, Hiroaki Kazui, Mamoru Hashimoto, Manabu Ikeda, Chieko Takeshita, Tatsuo Shimomura, Etsuro Mori
BACKGROUND: Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test...
2016: PloS One
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Victoria Merritt, Peter A Arnett
BACKGROUND: Baseline neuropsychological testing is commonly used in the management of sports-related concussion. However, underperformance due to poor effort could lead to invalid conclusions regarding postconcussion cognitive decline. We designed the Motivation Behaviors Checklist (MBC) as an observational rating scale to assess effort towards baseline neuropsychological testing. Here we present preliminary data in support of its reliability and validity. METHOD: MBC items were generated based on the consensus of a panel of graduate students, undergraduates, and a clinical neuropsychologist who conduct neuropsychological evaluations for a sports concussion management program...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Sara M Lippa, Bradley N Axelrod, Rael T Lange
INTRODUCTION: The Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms (mBIAS) scale was developed as a symptom validity test (SVT) for use with patients following mild traumatic brain injury. This study was the first to examine the clinical utility of the mBIAS in a mixed clinical sample presenting to a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) neuropsychology clinic. METHOD: Participants were 117 patients with mixed etiologies (85.5% male; age: M = 39.2 years, SD = 11.6) from a VA neuropsychology clinic...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The Impact of Failing to Identify Suspect Effort in Patients Undergoing Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Assessment" by Paul S. Marshall, James B. Hoelzle, Danielle Heyerdahl and Nathaniel W. Nelson (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Jan 11, 2016, np). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-00618-001.) This retrospective study examines how many adult patients would plausibly receive a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) if performance and symptom validity measures were not administered during neuropsychological evaluations...
May 9, 2016: Psychological Assessment
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