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symptom validity neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740384/heading-frequency-is-more-strongly-related-to-cognitive-performance-than-unintentional-head-impacts-in-amateur-soccer-players
#1
Walter F Stewart, Namhee Kim, Chloe Ifrah, Martin Sliwinski, Molly E Zimmerman, Mimi Kim, Richard B Lipton, Michael L Lipton
Objective: Compared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost) in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP) test performance. Method: Active adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735513/a-unifying-theory-for-cognitive-abnormalities-in-functional-neurological-disorders-fibromyalgia-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Tiago Teodoro, Mark J Edwards, Jeremy D Isaacs
BACKGROUND: Functional cognitive disorder (FCD) describes cognitive dysfunction in the absence of an organic cause. It is increasingly prevalent in healthcare settings yet its key neuropsychological features have not been reported in large patient cohorts. We hypothesised that cognitive profiles in fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and functional neurological disorders (FNDs) would provide a template for characterising FCD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies with cognition-related outcomes in FM, CFS and FND...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705926/executive-functioning-heterogeneity-in-pediatric-adhd
#3
Michael J Kofler, Lauren N Irwin, Elia F Soto, Nicole B Groves, Sherelle L Harmon, Dustin E Sarver
Neurocognitive heterogeneity is increasingly recognized as a valid phenomenon in ADHD, with most estimates suggesting that executive dysfunction is present in only about 33%-50% of these children. However, recent critiques question the veracity of these estimates because our understanding of executive functioning in ADHD is based, in large part, on data from single tasks developed to detect gross neurological impairment rather than the specific executive processes hypothesized to underlie the ADHD phenotype...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704907/illness-perceptions-predict-cognitive-performance-validity
#4
George K Henry, Robert L Heilbronner, Julie Suhr, Jeffrey Gornbein, Eveleigh Wagner, Daniel L Drane
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of psychological variables to cognitive performance validity test (PVT) results in mixed forensic and nonforensic clinical samples. METHODS: Participants included 183 adults who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Criterion groups were formed, that is, Credible Group or Noncredible Group, based upon their performance on the Word Memory Test and other stand-alone and embedded PVT measures...
April 29, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#5
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690816/is-motor-activity-during-cognitive-assessment-an-indicator-for-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adults
#6
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Tabea S Send, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVES: Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604986/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#7
Ruaridh Cameron Smail, Bruce James Brew
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects roughly half the HIV-positive population. The symptoms of cognitive slowing, poor concentration, and memory problems can impact on everyday life. Its diagnosis is validated where possible by identifying deficits in two cognitive domains on neuropsychologic testing in patients either with or without symptoms. Corroborating evidence may be found on imaging, blood tests, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, though sensitive and specific biomarkers are currently lacking...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590406/medical-evaluation-board-involvement-non-credible-cognitive-testing-and-emotional-response-bias-in-concussed-service-members
#8
Scott R Mooney, Jane Stafford, Elizabeth Seats
Introduction: Military Service Members (SMs) with post-concussive symptoms are commonly referred for further evaluation and possible treatment to Department of Defense Traumatic Brain Injury Clinics where neuropsychological screening/evaluations are being conducted. Understudied to date, the base rates of noncredible task engagement/performance validity testing (PVT) during cognitive screening/evaluations in military settings appears to be high. The current study objectives are to: (1) examine the base rates of noncredible PVTs of SMs undergoing routine clinical or Medical Evaluation Board (MEB) related workups using multiple objective performance-based indicators; (2) determine whether involvement in MEB is associated with PVT or symptom exaggeration/symptom validity testing (SVT) results; (3) elucidate which psychiatric symptoms are associated with noncredible PVT performances; and (4) determine whether MEB participation moderates the relationship between psychological symptom exaggeration and whether or not SM goes on to demonstrate PVTs failures - or vice versa...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470092/the-stroop-test-as-a-measure-of-performance-validity-in-adults-clinically-referred-for-neuropsychological-assessment
#9
Laszlo A Erdodi, Sanya Sagar, Kristian Seke, Brandon G Zuccato, Eben S Schwartz, Robert M Roth
This study was designed to develop performance validity indicators embedded within the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems (D-KEFS) version of the Stroop task. Archival data from a mixed clinical sample of 132 patients (50% male; MAge = 43.4; MEducation = 14.1) clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment were analyzed. Criterion measures included the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words and 2 composites based on several independent validity indicators. An age-corrected scaled score ≤6 on any of the 4 trials reliably differentiated psychometrically defined credible and noncredible response sets with high specificity (...
February 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465268/convergent-and-discriminant-validity-of-the-immediate-postconcussion-assessment-and-cognitive-testing-battery-impact-in-young-athletes
#10
Lisa M Koehl, Brittany D Walls, Stacey L Brothers, Sarah N Morris, Amanda C Glueck, Frederick A Schmitt, David T R Berry, Dong Y Han
Sports concussions are recognized as significant injuries among young athletes. Research demonstrates that return-to-play prior to becoming asymptomatic has significant repercussions including sustained cognitive deficits. Many programs have begun to use computerized testing rather than traditional neuropsychological tests to (a) determine baseline performance, (b) track symptoms, and (c) measure symptoms following concussion. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is one such tool...
February 21, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438037/tau-negative-amnestic-dementia-masquerading-as-alzheimer-disease-dementia
#11
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Mary M Machulda, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Matthew L Senjem, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Melissa E Murray, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenomenon of tau-negative amnestic dementia mimicking Alzheimer disease (AD) clinically and radiologically and to highlight the importance of biomarkers in AD research. METHODS: Eight participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia were evaluated by a behavioral neurologist and had a standardized neuropsychological battery performed. All participants completed structural (MRI) and molecular (amyloid and tau PET) imaging...
March 13, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408052/a-computerized-neuropsychological-evaluation-of-cognitive-functions-in-a-subclinical-obsessive-compulsive-sample
#12
Naama Hamo, Amitai Abramovitch, Ada Zohar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ample research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals a moderate degree of underperformance on various neuropsychological tasks. Less is known about neuropsychological function in subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) samples. Most analogue OCD studies did not use a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and none utilized a fully computerized battery. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a subclinical OC sample using a validated computerized neuropsychological battery...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383819/validity-and-test-retest-reliability-of-the-dutch-modified-perceived-deficits-questionnaire-to-examine-cognitive-symptoms-in-women-with-chronic-whiplash-chronic-idiopathic-neck-pain-and-fibromyalgia
#13
D Lenoir, R De Pauw, K Ickmans, C Schumacher, I Timmers, J Kregel, I Coppieters
INTRODUCTION: Until now, only reliability and validity of the English version of the modified Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (mPDQ) have been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate the mPDQ into Dutch and evaluate its validity and reliability as an assessment tool for self-perceived cognitive problems in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD), chronic idiopathic neck pain (CINP), and fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: A case-control study was performed with a volunteer sample of 13 women with CWAD, 18 with CINP, and 33 with FM, and 33 women who were healthy and free of pain...
January 30, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373117/the-evolution-of-cognitive-models-from-neuropsychology-to-neuroimaging-and-back
#14
Cathy J Price
This paper provides a historical and future perspective on how neuropsychology and neuroimaging can be used to develop cognitive models of human brain functions. Section 1 focuses on the emergence of cognitive modelling from neuropsychology, why lesion location was considered to be unimportant and the challenges faced when mapping symptoms to impaired cognitive processes. Section 2 describes how established cognitive models based on behavioural data alone cannot explain the complex patterns of distributed brain activity that are observed in functional neuroimaging studies...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365166/toward-return-to-duty-decision-making-after-military-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-validation-of-the-charge-of-quarters-duty-test
#15
Mary V Radomski, Leslie F Davidson, Laurel Smith, Marsha Finkelstein, Amy Cecchini, Kristin J Heaton, Karen McCulloch, Matthew Scherer, Margaret M Weightman
Introduction: Determining duty-readiness after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains a priority of the United States Department of Defense as warfighters in both deployed and non-deployed settings continue to sustain these injuries in relatively large numbers. Warfighters with mTBI may experience unresolved sensorimotor, emotional, cognitive sequelae including problems with executive functions, a category of higher order cognitive processes that enable people to regulate goal-directed behavior...
January 22, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360518/neuropsychological-evidence-for-the-crucial-role-of-the-right-arcuate-fasciculus-in-the-face-based-mentalizing-network-a-disconnection-analysis
#16
Riho Nakajima, Yordanka N Yordanova, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
Recent evidence from axonal stimulation mapping studies suggests that at least two white matter connectivities in the right hemisphere may be involved in face-based mentalizing, i.e. the ability to infer complex cognitive and affective states from human faces: the inferior fronto-occipital (IFOF) and the superior longitudinal/arcuate (SLF/AF) fasciculi. However, to date, only a handful of neuropsychological studies have focused on the white matter tracts subserving mentalizing in general, and face-based mentalizing in particular...
January 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355115/a-clinically-translatable-machine-learning-algorithm-for-the-prediction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-conversion-in-individuals-with-mild-and-premild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Massimiliano Grassi, Giampaolo Perna, Daniela Caldirola, Koen Schruers, Ranjan Duara, David A Loewenstein
BACKGROUND: Available therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can only alleviate and delay the advance of symptoms, with the greatest impact eventually achieved when provided at an early stage. Thus, early identification of which subjects at high risk, e.g., with MCI, will later develop AD is of key importance. Currently available machine learning algorithms achieve only limited predictive accuracy or they are based on expensive and hard-to-collect information. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to develop an algorithm for a 3-year prediction of conversion to AD in MCI and PreMCI subjects based only on non-invasively and effectively collectable predictors...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354625/neuropsychological-outcome-one-year-after-carotid-revascularization-a-before-and-after-study
#18
Laura Casas-Hernanz, Maite Garolera, Dolors Badenes, Salvador Quintana, Susana Millán, Noemi Calzado, Jorge de Francisco, Josep Royo, Miquel Aguilar
Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the clinical profile of patients considered cognitive 'responders' to surgery in order to establish clinical variables associated with a favorable cognitive performance. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 patients were included in the study. A well-validated, comprehensive standardized neurocognitive battery of tests of about 2 hours was administered. Patients were examined twice, 1-week before surgery and 1-year postoperatively...
December 2017: Vascular Specialist International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352034/translational-new-approaches-for-investigating-mood-disorders-in-rodents-and-what-they-may-reveal-about-the-underlying-neurobiology-of-major-depressive-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345192/cross-validation-of-the-dot-counting-test-in-a-large-sample-of-credible-and-non-credible-patients-referred-for-neuropsychological-testing
#20
Courtney McCaul, Kyle B Boone, Annette Ermshar, Maria Cottingham, Tara L Victor, Elizabeth Ziegler, Michelle A Zeller, Matthew Wright
OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. METHOD: Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. RESULTS: Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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