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symptom validity neuropsychology

Laszlo A Erdodi, Sanya Sagar, Kristian Seke, Brandon G Zuccato, Eben S Schwartz, Robert M Roth
This study was designed to develop performance validity indicators embedded within the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems (D-KEFS) version of the Stroop task. Archival data from a mixed clinical sample of 132 patients (50% male; MAge = 43.4; MEducation = 14.1) clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment were analyzed. Criterion measures included the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words and 2 composites based on several independent validity indicators. An age-corrected scaled score ≤6 on any of the 4 trials reliably differentiated psychometrically defined credible and noncredible response sets with high specificity (...
February 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Lisa M Koehl, Brittany D Walls, Stacey L Brothers, Sarah N Morris, Amanda C Glueck, Frederick A Schmitt, David T R Berry, Dong Y Han
Sports concussions are recognized as significant injuries among young athletes. Research demonstrates that return-to-play prior to becoming asymptomatic has significant repercussions including sustained cognitive deficits. Many programs have begun to use computerized testing rather than traditional neuropsychological tests to (a) determine baseline performance, (b) track symptoms, and (c) measure symptoms following concussion. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is one such tool...
February 21, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Mary M Machulda, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Matthew L Senjem, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Melissa E Murray, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenomenon of tau-negative amnestic dementia mimicking Alzheimer disease (AD) clinically and radiologically and to highlight the importance of biomarkers in AD research. METHODS: Eight participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia were evaluated by a behavioral neurologist and had a standardized neuropsychological battery performed. All participants completed structural (MRI) and molecular (amyloid and tau PET) imaging...
February 7, 2018: Neurology
Naama Hamo, Amitai Abramovitch, Ada Zohar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ample research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals a moderate degree of underperformance on various neuropsychological tasks. Less is known about neuropsychological function in subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) samples. Most analogue OCD studies did not use a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and none utilized a fully computerized battery. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a subclinical OC sample using a validated computerized neuropsychological battery...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
D Lenoir, R De Pauw, K Ickmans, C Schumacher, I Timmers, J Kregel, I Coppieters
Until now, only reliability and validity of the English version of the modified perceived deficits questionnaire (mPDQ) have been investigated. The aim of this study was to translate the mPDQ into Dutch and evaluate its validity and reliability as an assessment tool for self-perceived cognitive problems in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (CWAD), chronic idiopathic neck pain (CINP) and fibromyalgia (FM). A case-control study was performed with a volunteer sample of 13 women with CWAD, 18 with CINP, 33 FM women and 33 healthy pain-free women...
January 30, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Cathy J Price
This paper provides a historical and future perspective on how neuropsychology and neuroimaging can be used to develop cognitive models of human brain functions. Section 1 focuses on the emergence of cognitive modelling from neuropsychology, why lesion location was considered to be unimportant and the challenges faced when mapping symptoms to impaired cognitive processes. Section 2 describes how established cognitive models based on behavioural data alone cannot explain the complex patterns of distributed brain activity that are observed in functional neuroimaging studies...
January 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Mary V Radomski, Leslie F Davidson, Laurel Smith, Marsha Finkelstein, Amy Cecchini, Kristin J Heaton, Karen McCulloch, Matthew Scherer, Margaret M Weightman
Introduction: Determining duty-readiness after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains a priority of the United States Department of Defense as warfighters in both deployed and non-deployed settings continue to sustain these injuries in relatively large numbers. Warfighters with mTBI may experience unresolved sensorimotor, emotional, cognitive sequelae including problems with executive functions, a category of higher order cognitive processes that enable people to regulate goal-directed behavior...
January 22, 2018: Military Medicine
Riho Nakajima, Yordanka N Yordanova, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
Recent evidence from axonal stimulation mapping studies suggests that at least two white matter connectivities in the right hemisphere may be involved in face-based mentalizing, i.e. the ability to infer complex cognitive and affective states from human faces: the inferior fronto-occipital (IFOF) and the superior longitudinal/arcuate (SLF/AF) fasciculi. However, to date, only a handful of neuropsychological studies have focused on the white matter tracts subserving mentalizing in general, and face-based mentalizing in particular...
January 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Massimiliano Grassi, Giampaolo Perna, Daniela Caldirola, Koen Schruers, Ranjan Duara, David A Loewenstein
BACKGROUND: Available therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can only alleviate and delay the advance of symptoms, with the greatest impact eventually achieved when provided at an early stage. Thus, early identification of which subjects at high risk, e.g., with MCI, will later develop AD is of key importance. Currently available machine learning algorithms achieve only limited predictive accuracy or they are based on expensive and hard-to-collect information. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to develop an algorithm for a 3-year prediction of conversion to AD in MCI and PreMCI subjects based only on non-invasively and effectively collectable predictors...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Laura Casas-Hernanz, Maite Garolera, Dolors Badenes, Salvador Quintana, Susana Millán, Noemi Calzado, Jorge de Francisco, Josep Royo, Miquel Aguilar
Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the clinical profile of patients considered cognitive 'responders' to surgery in order to establish clinical variables associated with a favorable cognitive performance. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 patients were included in the study. A well-validated, comprehensive standardized neurocognitive battery of tests of about 2 hours was administered. Patients were examined twice, 1-week before surgery and 1-year postoperatively...
December 2017: Vascular Specialist International
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Courtney McCaul, Kyle B Boone, Annette Ermshar, Maria Cottingham, Tara L Victor, Elizabeth Ziegler, Michelle A Zeller, Matthew Wright
OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. METHOD: Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. RESULTS: Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Mohammad H Afzali, Maeve Oleary-Barrett, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive understanding of the association between depression and neuropsychological functioning over the course of adolescence requires developmentally sensitive assessment through longitudinal data. The aim of current study is to examine the concurrent and subsequent effects of depressive symptoms on the initial level and evolution of four neuropsychological functioning domains (i.e., spatial working memory, delayed recall memory, perceptual reasoning, and inhibitory control)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Grant L Iverson, Douglas P Terry, Justin E Karr, William Panenka, Noah D Silverberg
Perceived injustice is a belief that one has been treated unfairly, disrespectfully, and is suffering unnecessarily as a result of another person's actions. Perceived injustice predicts chronic disability after musculoskeletal injury, but to our knowledge, has not been empirically studied in people with mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBIs). We examined perceived injustice and its correlates in patients who were slow to recover from MTBI. Patients (N=102) were recruited from four concussion clinics. The sample was on average 41...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Maryanne Edmundson, David T R Berry, Hannah L Combs, Stacey L Brothers, Jordan P Harp, Ande Williams, Stephanie L Rojas, Ahmed K Saleh, April B Scott
College students without ADHD may feign symptoms of ADHD to gain access to stimulant medications and academic accommodations. Unfortunately, research has shown that it can be difficult to discriminate malingered from genuine ADHD symptomatology, especially when evaluations are based only on self-report questionnaires. The present study investigated whether nonclinical college students given no additional information could feign ADHD as successfully as those who were coached on symptoms of the disorder. Similar to Jasinski et al...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
Anthony O Ahmed, Gregory P Strauss, Robert W Buchanan, Brian Kirkpatrick, William T Carpenter
Traditional efforts to delineate the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia have been unsuccessful because of the absence of a valid, stable, and meaningful subtyping scheme. A clinically-informed nosology supported by multivariate statistical classification methods may provide a better approach for classifying schizophrenia. The goals of the current study were to 1) use multivariate classification methods to validate a clinical subtyping scheme based on the profile of negative symptoms; and 2) following validation to contrast the statistically-derived subgroups to ascertain distinguishing demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Everard G B Vijverberg, Flora Gossink, Welmoed Krudop, Sietske Sikkes, Cora Kerssens, Niels Prins, Max Stek, Philip Scheltens, Yolande Pijnenburg, Annemiek Dols
OBJECTIVE: Primary psychiatric disorders (PsD) can present with symptomatology identical to that of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). To date, clinical guidelines do not provide a solution for this diagnostic challenge. The aim of our study was to prospectively determine which demographic, clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are important in distinguishing PsD from bvFTD. METHODS: Patients with late-onset behavioral disturbances (aged 45-75 years, 73% male) were included based on their scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and the Stereotypy Rating Inventory and followed for 2 years from April 2011 to June 2015...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kevin J Bianchini, Luis E Aguerrevere, Kelly L Curtis, Tresa M Roebuck-Spencer, F Charles Frey, Kevin W Greve, Matthew Calamia
The symptom reports of individuals with chronic pain are multidimensional (e.g., emotional, cognitive, and somatic) and significantly contribute to increased morbidity and lost work productivity. When pain occurs in the context of a legally compensable event, reliable assessment of a patient's multifactorial symptom experience during psychological or neuropsychological evaluations is a necessity. The Validity Scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) have been shown useful in identifying symptom overreporting and feigning within chronic pain samples and a number of studies have emerged supporting the use of the MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in the detection of simulated or feigned impairment in a variety of populations...
October 26, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Sara M Lippa, Rael T Lange, Louis M French, Grant L Iverson
Objective: To examine the influence of different performance validity test (PVT) cutoffs on neuropsychological performance, post-concussion symptoms, and rates of neurocognitive disorder and postconcussional syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in active duty service members. Method: Participants were 164 service members (Age: M = 28.1 years [SD = 7.3]) evaluated on average 4.1 months (SD = 5.0) following injury. Participants were divided into three mutually exclusive groups using original and alternative cutoff scores on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Effort Index (EI) from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): (a) PVT-Pass, n = 85; (b) Alternative PVT-Fail, n = 53; and (c) Original PVT-Fail, n = 26...
October 21, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Laura Maclachlan, Stuart Watson, Peter Gallagher, Andreas Finkelmeyer, Leonard A Jason, Madison Sunnquist, Julia L Newton
IMPORTANCE: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by a constellation of symptoms diagnosed with a number of different polythetic criteria. Heterogeneity across these diagnostic criteria is likely to be confounding research into the as-yet-unknown pathophysiology underlying this stigmatised and debilitating condition and may diagnose a disease spectrum with significant implications for clinical management. No studies to date have objectively investigated this possibility using a validated measure of CFS symptoms-the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ)...
2017: PloS One
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